In a message dated 12/4/00 11:31:34 AM Eastern Standard Time, jrw@Brown.edu
<< In Vienna it was (and is) called the Israelitische (not juedische)
==Yes, that's the correct term. "juedische" is the popular term.
The Kultusgemeinde was (is) financed by government taxes. Everyone had to
belong to one religion or another--("Gaubenlos = without Beliefs was
one." And the tax they were assessed went to the respective Kultus.
There was one Kultusgemeinde per city or district that took care of
religious and lay needs affecting the community. It helped finance
synagogues but had no religious authority itself. In the 19th century,
and perhaps later, the state determined the minimum qualifications for
rabbi (incl fluency in German, a PhD in a subject other than Judaism) and
the village teacher who was usually also cantor, shochet and mohel.
The Isr. Kultusgemeinde was essentially a lay and administrative body. I
believe it had some jurisdiction also over local Jewish schools,
hospitals, and of course welfare funds. It also had some arbitrational
power affecting the Jewish community.
My parents used to refer to our synagogue community as "die Gemeinde."
Don't make the mistake I've frequently done. When you say Gemeinde in
Germany, people will assume you're referring to the local municipal
I dout that a shammash would be considered a Kultusbeamter. He would be
someone hired independently by the synagogue and not an official appointee
nor a member of the Isr. KG.
Michael Bernet, New York
WOLFF (Pfungstadt, Frankfurt/M, Koenigsberg, Amsterdam, N.Carolina); BERNET,
BERNERT, JONDORF(Frensdorf, Bamberg, Nurnberg); FEUCHTWANGER
(Schwabach, Hagenbach & Fuerth); KONIGSHOFER (anywhere); BERG, WOLF(F),
(Demmelsdorf & Zeckendorf); Shim`on GUTENSTEIN (Bad Homburg ca 1760);
FRENSDORF/ER (anywhere); MAINZER (Lorsch); anyone in Ermreuth or Floss;
GOLDSCHMIDT (B. Homburg, Hessdorf). ALTMANN (Silesia); TIMMENDORFER