Re: Hebrew translation #galicia


Heder was (and still is, in some places) the first school the Jewish boy
went to, and the program of study was the sidur (prayerbook) and the Humash
(the Five Books of Moses = the Torah). Literally Heder means "room".
In Eastern Europe, as modernization began to set in (at the end of th 19th
and the beginning of the 20th centuries), the Jewish communities
"modernized" the Hadarim (pl. of Heder) by expanding the scope of study and
introduced such subjects as arithmetic, reading and writing the common
language, sometimes even a foreign language, for example German.
This Heder was called Heder Metukan, meaning An Improved Heder. The ultra
orthodox did not accept this change at the time, obviously.

Note: Heder Metukan does mean, literally, a fixed (in the sense of
"repaired") room, as Judy was told. But the historical context cannot be
neglected if we aim to understand and reconstruct the life of our ancestors.

Best wishes, Yocheved

Yocheved Klausner, Editor
Sharsheret Hadorot

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Can someone please tell me what the phrase "Chederim M'toknim" means? (Mem
tav vov koof nun yod mem). It is in connection with the running of a school
in Poland and the translation I was given was "fixed rooms" but that doesn't
make sense.

Many thanks,

Judy Wolkovitch
Los Angeles
Sender: Judy Wolkovitch <>

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