Michael McTeer <mcteer@...>
Apparently I owe everyone an apology as both my subject and content was
My comment, "going to 'bil'(?) in Philadelphia, PA" seems to have been the
most understood. The "(?)" was not a request for a definition of the
abbreviation of "brother-in-law." Rather it was referencing my
interpretation of the handwritting on the manifest. I believe it is "bil".
The overall topic was the possibility of US govenment records for people who
were just "visiting" as opposed to immigrating or seeking citizenship. My
desire was to identify this family in order to determine if it is my
ancestral family which I believe them to be. The answer to that question
seems to have been answered by Mark Jacobson who detailed response I include
below. In a word, the answer to my question was *no*.
According to the 1931 passenger listing of my great grandmother, Liba
(LENCZNER) LIEBERMAN KALKOPF FRYMORGEN, she had been in the US as
early as 1903 (to Philadelphia). I knew some of the family (including my
grandmother) came through St. Louis where there were relatives but the
Philadelphia connection was not known to me. It would be *years* later that I
would learn of "Uncle Sol" GLICKSMAN who arrived in Philadelphia in the
1890's. Until recently I have never really had "access" to the on line
Philadelphia listings (where I just found the Apr 1939 manifest for my
half great aunt) so I have not yet had time to check on all possible KALKOPF
enteries there. But of course a "KALKOPF" family going to Philadelphia is of
great interest to me. I do not know if the subject family was attempting
immigration or just visiting. My great grandfather, "Aaron", I was told was
a tailor as was the subject husband.
(Mark Jacobson ) "....The fact that they
are listed on an immigration manifest and were not US
citizens means (and there is no stamp "non-immigrant
passenger" which was used for people in transit) means
they were immigrants. There were no special
immigration markings on manifests, the manifests
themselves were immigration documentation. There were
no entry visas before World War I, no 'resident
aliens' before World War II, no other paperwork for
immigrants. There was no immigrant legal status in the
United States at this time nor for many years after.
People could come and go at will, as long as they
could purchase tickets, were not criminals or
indigents, and the passed the medical inspection.
These people were immigrants. They did not have to
ever apply for naturalization, they were still
immigrants. The only information ever added to
manifests is an application for a Certificate of
Arrival, one of the steps in the Petition process, and
since they arrived in January 1906 this was before the
Certificate of Arrival law existed, so if any one of
them ever applied for citizenship there would be no
Certificates of Arrival created for any of them. You
have all the immigration paperwork which exists if you
have the manifest."
Thanks to all who responded to me and sorry for the confusion.
29 Palms, CA