tom klein <jewishgen@...>
The use of "hakham" instead of rabbi in moslem countries (including izmir) was
because "rabbi" was considered too close to one of the supposed attributes of
Allah, and therefore the moslems prohibited its use.
The use of a word meaning "sage" as a title for both rabbis and physicians makes
perfect sense to me. And sometimes, as in the case of Maimonides, they were both.
Organized university training for physicians is a relatively new phenomenon,
starting late in the 19th century, I believe.
....... tom klein, toronto