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Sally Bruckheimer <sallybru@...>
The fourth source of surnames must be the most important - patronymics.
However, there are other sources. There are 'made up' names for sure.
Rosen..., Gold..., etc. are 'nice names' >from flowers and gold. And
stones: Crystal, Garfunkel, Diamond, etc. for non-jewelers. My
favorite name is Lieberfarb, for somebody who (I imagine) wouldn't
pay the bribe for a 'nice name'.
But most of the surnames that were used as family names were just that
- surnames or additional names used in the family descriptively, but
not inherited by the kids - before the formal adoption of family
I don't think that Beider would have ever said that only these four
sources of names existed - but they are the only meaningful names to
the people taking them.