It is hard to know who the witnesses are without seeing the entire
Many of these documents begin something like "On 2 February 1880
Avram Itskov Shvarts appeared before me and declared that he is the
father of a son born..."
In that case, the father would not be a witness, because there is no
point in getting him to witness his own statement.
What the witnesses are witnessing is the fact that Avram told all
this to the recorder, so these are likely to be professional
witnesses who hang out with the recorder. They probably did not
witness the birth.
San Diego CA