I had found that my great aunt's maiden name was usually listed
as Esther Levine. However, in the birth record of one of her children,
it was listed as Esther Michalowitz. I didn't understand why her father's
patronymic was used as her maiden name & no one could tell me why
(her grandfather was Michal). I accidentally came across the answer in
Jewishgen: In the earliest records ( before surnames were in general use,
in the mid-1820's), her father's patronymic (her paternal grandfather's
given name) might be used.