When did patronymic names become surnames? #general

Jake Jacobs

I am struggling with family names. Found a record on JRI-Poland for my g'g'aunt,
born 1820 in Poland (perhaps Suwalki). According to her gravestone (in Chicago),
her father was Aharon. Birth record of her son, born in Suwalki 1861, lists her
maiden name as Jankielowska. We know Aharon is not the same as Jankiel, so is
Jankielowska a last name or a patronymic name? When would real surnames have
begun in Suwalki? Before that time, would patronymics have been used?

Many thanks for help-
Diane Jacobs
Austin, Texas

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