Martha Lev-Zion <martha@...>
Lorraine Bertelsen asked:
Courland was definitely German rather than Slavic. It was settled as a
German "province" by German Crusaders and the culture was always German.
Proof of that would be that until WWI, all official notices were published
in both German and Russian, not because of the law, but because of
necessity. I know that all my ancestors >from Courland considered
themselves German, and German was their mother tongue. They went to German
language schools in all the areas in which they lived in Courland. I think
that this applies perhaps only to longtime legal Jewish Courlanders,
although it may apply to others as well.
PS. I hope that Lorraine's letter means that her email is back up and running!