H. Elliott Lipschultz <adoniram@...>
Geoffrey Hosking, Russia and the Russians: A History (Cambridge: Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press, 2001) - p. 12 - Discusses a 16th century
increase in the number of taverns was a concern of the Church - "promoted
licentious and immoral behavior sometimes associated with pagan
Yet the state did not have an interest in limiting intoxicating drink. Reason - Alexander I in the early 19th Century "No other major source of revenue enters the treasury so regularly, punctually, and easily as the revenue >from the liquor farm; indeed its regular receipt on a fixed date each month greatly eases the task of finding cash for other expenditures."
While in the 18th century, liquor tax was 50% of the treasury's indirect tax revenue, for most of the 19th century it was 1/3. A footnote indicates: R.E.F. Smith and David Christian, Bread and Salt: Social and Economic History of Food and Drink in Russia (Cambridge University Press, 1984). David Moon, The Russian Peasantry, 1600-1930; World the Peasants Made (Longman, 1999). Paul Robert MaGocsi, A History of Ukraine (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1997, chapters 10-12.
Norman Davies, God's Playground: History of Poland, Vol. 1 Columbia
University Press, 1982.
During the 16th Century Jews move into Poland-Lithuania protected by the
Poland-Lithuanian Crown, serving for the convenience of the szlachta who offered patronage, employment as tavenkeepers.
Geoffrey Hosking - p. 258 - notes that The Jewish Statute of 1804 confirmed their right of self-government in the local commune or kahal, though insisting it be separated >from the religious establishment, the rabbinate. Jews were allowed to attend Russian schools or to found their own, to open commercial and manufacturing establishments, and to buy and lease land in the Pale. On the other hand, they were barred >from the liquor trade, which had been a major source of income for them in Poland...." footnote: John Doyle Klier, Russia Gathers Her Jews: Origin of the Jewish Question in Russia 1772-1825 (Dekalb: Northern Illinois Univrsity Press, 1986).
H. Elliott Lipschultz