business directories newly searchable #scandinavia

Logan J. Kleinwaks

I recently added the following business directories with Scandinavia
SIG coverage to my search engine at,
mostly >from the series of global directories published by Leuchs:

1841-1846 series:
Denmark, Schleswig, Holstein Business Directory (Leuchs vol. 16) {d414}
Sweden and Norway Business Directory (Leuchs vol. 17) {d415}
Poland and Russia Business Directory (Leuchs vol. 18) {d416} *includes Finland*
North and South America Business Directory (Leuchs vol. 24) {d421}
*includes St. Thomas*
Hamburg, Bremen, Luebeck Business Directory (Leuchs vol. 6) {d404}
*includes Hamburg*

1833 Europe Business Directory (Leuchs) {d423} *includes Sweden,
Norway, Denmark, Hamburg*

1867 Hannover, Braunschweig, Oldenburg, Hamburg, Bremen, Luebeck
Business Directory (Leuchs vol. 6) {d387} *includes Hamburg*

1889 Russia, Poland, and Warsaw Industry Directory + Warsaw Homeowners
{d311} *includes Helsinki (as Helsingfors) and Turku (as Abo)*

These are all included if you search at
with the default options. You can limit a search to one or more of
these directories by appending the codes in {} after your search, like
this: cohen {d414, d423}. There is currently no way to search just
the Scandinavian sections of these directories, but search results
will typically indicate the sections where matches occur (e.g.,
results >from the 1833 all-Europe directory d423 might include
"Section: Denmark").

All search results link to scans of the matching directory pages. The
Leuchs directory scans are hosted by the Bavarian State Library, which
has impressive online holdings that I expect will yield many more
genealogically useful sources upon further exploration.

I made the directories searchable by using Optical Character
Recognition (OCR) to convert the scanned images to text, a process
that is not 100% accurate (but much faster than manual transcription).
For the Leuchs directories especially, the accuracy for surnames and
occupations is very good, but the accuracy for town names is not.
Therefore, if you are interested in all the Leuchs entries >from a
particular town, I suggest refering to the place index
("Orts-Register") at the end of each directory, rather than (or in
addition to) searching for the town's name.

These directories are certainly not comprehensive, so not finding
someone listed in a town's section definitely does not mean (s)he did
not have a business there at the time. For some towns, a relatively
high proportion of the entries are likely Jewish, judging >from their
names only, and, for some towns, Jewish merchants are identified as
such, but, in general, I do not know how well represented Jewish
merchants are. I am not an expert on Scandinavian Jewry, but I did
find likely Jewish entries in several Danish towns that I checked.

Should you wish to examine these directories without searching, you
can find links to their scans and their titles in the original
languages at

I frequently add directories and other sources to the search engine,
but I usually do not announce additions here. To receive
announcements, follow @gindexer on Twitter.

If you have any research successes with these directories, please let me know!

Best regards,

Logan Kleinwaks
near Washington, D.C.

Join to automatically receive all group messages.