N.C. Gabriel <uy9p1@...>
I don't know to what degree I can answer your
questions. One of my great grandfathers operated a
horse driven mill in Samgorodok near Vinnitsa. He was
not well off but the family was comfortable. He
specialized in buckwheat (and possibly also barley).
The horse drove the mill by treading on a treadmill
that was elevated at an angle.
There were also water driven mills which might have
been more suitable for the other grains (mostly wheat
and rye) which were turned into flower (the buckwheat
just had to be dehusked).
Zvenigorodka was a larger town and there was probably
more competition there possibly accounting for your
mother's family's impoverished status. There also may
have been more profit in processing whole buckwheat
and barley as opposed to grinding the other grains
One thing I can tell you. Your mother and her sister
were very fortunate in leaving Ukraine as early as
they did. The Jews of Ukraine went throught absolute
hell in the years 1919 and 1920.
On March 25, 1920 my paternal grandfather's shtetel of
Tetiev (about 60 miles NW of Zvenigorodka) was burnt
to the ground and 4 to 5,000 of the 6-7,000 Jews who
lived there (including my grandfather's mother) were
Hope this helps. Best of luck in your research.
North Vancouver, BC