I'd like to expand on Arnon Hershkotivz's observations about geographical divisions.
In the ex-USSR, Oblasts generally correspond to states and raions to counties.
"Krai" and "respublika" are also state-like units. "Krai" can be translated as
"territory", just as areas like Oklahoma and Arizona were territories before they
became states. However the "Krai" term sticks even after these areas are fully
"states" in a de-facto sense.
A "respublika" is usually the ancestral home of a minority: Udmurts, Tatars,
Bashkorts and so forth.
- David Mason, Los Angeles
Subject: RE: Kuzmin, Krasilov, Kamenets-Podolskiy
From: Arnon Hershkotivz <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Thu, 16 Nov 2006 10:16:56 +0200
Jeff's query is very important, since the issue of divisions and
subdivisions of Eastern European countries is really confusing.
Different countries have differente adminstrative divisions and
subdivisions with different names, and this is obvious. However, when
Yad Vashem tried to organize the huge amount of information they had,
they relied on some self logic, sometimes regardless of formal
definitions. This is important and reasonable enough for arranging the
data uniformly, but we should understand that this devision of Yad
Vashem is quite artificial.
In Ukraine, there is no such terms as District or Region. The country is
divided today to Oblasts (may be treated like states in the USA), and
each oblast is divided to Raions (something like counties in the USA).
Kuzmin (coordinates: 4942/2705; there is another Kuzmin, 4915/2631,
about 65km south-west to the one I'm relating) is today in Khmel'nitskiy
oblast, Krasyliv region, and this the only formal way to refer to it
In the past, when the country was divided into Gubernias, Kuzmin and
nearby Krasilov and Starokonstantinov were in Volhynia gubernia, while
Kamenetz-Podolski was in Podolia gubernia. Today, all those
villages/towns are in the same Oblast.