George Arnstein <george304n@...>
To answer the question:
The socalled laws of emancipation, around 1800,
usually mandated use of last names, as described in:
Dreifuss, Erwin Emanuel. Die Familiennamen der
Juden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung… Baden.
[Family names of Jews with special emphasis on
Baden.] Based on his Heidelberg U. doctoral
dissertation. Frankfurt 1927.
My English translation and summary appeared in
Stammbaum Issue 16, Jan.2000 (Leo Baeck Inst. NY City).
Dreifuss also lists the dates for various other
jurisdictions, to which I can add that in
Wuerttemberg, for example, surrounded by earlier
mandates to adopt names, there was much voluntary
George Arnstein in Washington, DC <george304n@...>