To respond to Peter Jaseem:
Your entire argument depends first on which historical period one is
discussing. Attitudes prevalent in the l9th century and those of the early
and mid-20th century were not the same. To a large degree, it also depends
on which country one is considering and even which socio-economic class of
Furthermore and as for Poland, although by post World War II everyone thought
that your argument held true, the post World War II purge in Poland of Jews
who considered themselves wholly Polish brought all that back into question,
just the way the Nazis brought German Jews up short. In the post-war
communist period, 30,000 Poles, who happened to be Jews, suddenly discovered
that they were still really Jews who happened to be Poles. They had to leave
Poland. Many of them went to Sweden, where I met some about 30 years ago or
so, and some came to the U.S., one of whom I know well, Her husband was a
post-War World II Polish diplomat whose abilities and patriotism made no
Lieberman is not as parallel an example as he may appear at first sight.
America, American attitudes and tradition, are still quite different >from
Poland and Polilsh attitudes.
German Jews between the World Wars, in general, did not feel more German than
Jewish. Even the most patriotic felt both. In any case, comparing them with
Jews in pre-World War I, or even pre-World War II, Poland is comparing kasha
The argument is a complex one and depends on many factors. Simple answers
and simplistic comparisons are naive.