Re: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

Zeev Raphael <zeevra@...>

Dear Susan and Fritz,
Fritz Neubauer wrote:
"... it was NOT a protest, but one of the laws arising >from the Nuremberg
laws stated that starting on August 17, 1938 every German Jew was
*** forced *** to add "Israel" or "Sara" as middle names to their names to make
their Jewishness obvious. These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon them
by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war."

Having had this law applied to myself, I can confirm Fritz's comments.
My name (in those days) was "Heinz", and I thus became "Heinz Israel".
I can produce several documents illustrating this.

I have two comments:

1. True, the law was issued on August 17, 1938. However it came into force,
only "starting on January 1, 1939". See text of the decree, at the
website cited below or contact me for the text.

2. Jews with authorized and clearly Jewish names, did NOT have to adopt
the additional name. Thus my father Jacob did not have to add
"Israel" to his name. He did so nevertheless, and became "Jacob Israel"...
Best wishes, Zeev Raphael, Haifa e-mail:

Downloaded from:

Second decree on law concerning change of first and last names (Zweite
Verordnung zur Durchf?hrung des Gesetzes ?ber die Aenderung von Familiennamen und
Gist of the law: Forcing Jews to adopt the names "Israel" and "Sara".
Document Number: 2873-PS
Date: 17 Aug 1938
Reichsgesetzblatt-Page: I.1044
Signed by: Frick

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