The pieces of information, which Dottie J. Miller gives about the GUGENHEIM
or GUGENHEIMB or GUGGENHEIMER and about the GEISMAR families may be fit
together in the following way. However, since too often the localities are not
mentioned and the context in which these names are used is missing, only be an
attempt can be made by someone who regularly works with this sort of material.
Jacob Geismar in Ihringen had at least three daughters. First one of them
married Marx G. not long before 1739. He was allowed to move to Ihringen. In
1738, he was called Marx G. >from T in order to make clear >from where this new
person had come. ">from T" can be a hint that he was not yet a resident in
Ihringen. He might have been a servant of his future father-in-law. In later
entries, his new residence was added.
About the same time, a second daughter married Samuel >from a different
place. His father-in-law's second attempt to make him Schutzjude in Ihringen was
successful in 1740. Out of unknown reasons, Samuel's family did not move to
Ihringen. There are plausible rasons. Sometimes Jews rejected their Schutzbrief.
Samuel may have changed his mind and did no longer want to leave his
hometown. Or he had moved to another locality, or he had died. I have found all
these reasons. Or did he move later and is hidden behind the phrase "another
A third daughter married in or before 1744. Her husband was not allowed to
move to Ihringen.
I regard Marx or Mardechai and Samuel as two persons, first because of their
two different Jewish given names. I see no reason why one should mistrust
the document of 1739. On the contrary, why should a father-in-law apply for a
second Schutzbrief, if he had already recently received one for this
son-in-law? The fact that there are no entries in 18th century registers does
not prove that someone did not exist. This person might have been exempted
from paying taxes in his first year, he might have been exempted frompaying in later years because of poverty.
I remember a Jew near Wiesbaden who became Schutzjude in 1777; he paid
some of his duties in the first years and nearly nothing for more than
20 years. Widows often disappear >from the Schutzgeld records,
not because they had died, but because the obligation to pay had ended.
There is no general rule how many sons and daughters of one couple were
conceded a Schutzbrief. That was different >from state to state and >from time to
time. It depended e.g. on the influence a father had. The economic situation
in a locality could cause Gentiles and Jews to protest against new Jewish
families as a result of a newly granted Schutzbrief.
Gerhard Buck, Idstein, Germany (mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org)
MODERATOR NOTE: Gerhard Buck is the author of several books and numerous
articles on Jewish communities in Hesse Nassau. He is compiling a database
which, he hopes, will eventually include all Jewish residents of the towns
in that region. His two articles in the most recent issues of "Stammbaum,
the Journal of German Jewish Genealogy" describe the techniques that he uses
to comb archival records for information.