In Polish, the word Starozakonny literally means 'old + Testament,'
'old + order,' or 'old religion,' but is used more like an adjective, so
it connotes Jew, or more precisely 'believer of the Old Testament.' It
can also be read as 'old + monastic' but this phrase doesn't make much
sense in English.
There are other Polish words that translate to Jew, such as zyd (which
can be derogatory) and israelita (also Israelite, not commonly used in
English today), that were not used as often in vital documents of Poland.
It's important to keep in mind the time period that documents were
New York, N.Y.