I want to thank everyone who replied to my question, both on line and
privately. While, as expected, there is not universal agreement as to the
percentage of Spanish Jews who converted, there was agreement that
significant numbers converted and significant numbers left the country.
The reason that I had so few Converso matches is probably what my contact
suggested, a relatively small amount of non-Americans take DNA tests from
I wanted to correct one thing which I wrote in replies to a couple of
people. I do not have one 4th-great-grandmother who is known to be
Sephardic. That 4th-great-grandmother Barbara (Brendel) ASTRUK who was born
about 1735 in Worms and died on 20 February 1793 in Heidelberg-Rohrbach was
herself actually only quarter Sephardic through her paternal grandfather
Calmon ASTRUK (born about 1660 Mannheim, died 26 February 1721 Mannheim).
His parents were Moses Abraham ASTRUK (born about 1630 Avignon, died 1668
Mannheim) and Gentille CARCASSONE (born Avignon, died 16 January 1705 Wien).
Abraham's wife. Moses Abraham ASTRUK's father was Gad ASTROUQUE (ASTRUK)
(born about 1600 Avignon). His mother is unknown. Gentille CARCASSONE's
parents were Emanuel (Manoach) CARCASSONE (born Avignon, died 8 April 1667
Mannheim) and Rosa de MONTE (MONTEUX) (born Avignon, died Mannheim).
One 6th-great-grandparent would account for 1/256 on my DNA or about 0.4%
which would explain why autosomal DNA tests don't show it.
If anyone knows how the people whom I mentioned are connected to those
families in Avignon, I am certainly interested.
Ralph N. Baer Washington, DC RalphNBaer@aol.com