Schutzjuden of Pardubitzer Herrschaft , Bohemia, 1793 - Pt II #austria-czech


Celia Male <celiamale@...>
 

I ended Pt I with a brief reference to the special relationship between Isaak
HEILMAN and Low Jakob MAUTNER of the Pardubitzer Herrschaft, which is now
examined below in greater detail.

We know >from earlier disussions [see our message archives] that the Schutzjuden
had a special status in society in Bohemia and Moravia. They paid Schutzgeld
[protection money] to the local lord [Schutzherr] for the privilege of living
on his estates. Jews without *Schutz*, were very vulnerable and could expelled
at a moment's notice.

Jews in the town of Pardubitz {Pardubice], Chrudimer Kreis, had a difficult
history. There were very few Jewish families residing there in the 1600s and
all Jews were expelled >from the town in 1662.

In 1793 there were only two Jewish families in Pardubitz town, namely those
of Aaron KRAUS and Low Jacob MAUTNER. Both are mentioned a few times in the
lengthy article {in Czech} in Ref. 2, which I could not read, however it was
already clear to me >from the 1793 census that they were important personages.

Aaron KRAUS and wife Rosalia had six sons, in birth order: Simon, twins Moyses
and Joseph, Jacob, Bernard and Willhelm. Theresia was the only daughter. There
was a servant who doubled up as a tutor - Lazar HAAS.

Then comes an interesting statement: Aaron KRAUS was *without Schutz*, being
exempted as the lessee of the Herrschaftliches Lederhaus - ie he had the leather
concession >from the Schutzherr of Pardubitz.

Low Jacob MAUTNER sounds even more exalted - for he lives in the Schloss [castle]
itself! He has the distilling concession and owns "188 Metzen Ackern" of meadows
[discussed in part III]. He has a wife Esther, a friend, Maria PRAGER [could
this mean, a mistress?], sons Sigmund and Joseph and daughter, Dorothea.

But now here comes the interesting connection with Isaak HEILMANN of the
previous posting. Isaak HEILMANN of Brozan is stated as having sold his own
Schutz in 1790 to the above, wealthy Low Jacob MAUTNER.

What could this mean? It appears that these Familianten and Schutz positions
were tradeable commodities. Was HEILMANN thinking of leaving the area for
Moravia or Poland perhaps to join his sons Abraham or Marcus? Was he short
of money in his business or did he need money to buy a Familianten licence
for his second-born son, Marcus? All these are possibilites. Dave Bernard of
Boston recently wrote to us about the value of a Familianten licence [see
archives].

Also in one of the outlying villages in the Herrschaft we find Low HOSTOWSKY
[wife Barbara, sons Isaak, Samuel Abraham & Faltin, daughter Anna - his two
brothers Marcus HOSTOWSKY and David REICH [sic] live with him plus two servants].
Low HOSTOWSKY has the tobacco concession. He is also exempt >from the Schutzgeld
[in German: ohne Schutz weil er als Tabak Trafikant privilegiert ist - ie: he
is privileged because of this position in the tobacco business.

It seems strange that KRAUS and HOSTOWSKY did not require a Schutz for the
leather and tobacco concessions yet MAUTNER required one to live in the castle
and carry on his distilling.

In Prof Sakar's article [Ref 2] we read, thanks to Hanus Grab's translation:
The Pardubitzer Herrschaft Schutzherr residing in the Castle, received a total
of 262 gold pieces [Thaler?] plus 30 Kreutzer coins and 220 gold pieces plus
30 Kreutzer coins as Schutzgeld for 1793 and 1801 respectively. I can find 31
families with Schutz in the Pardubitzer Herrschaft in 1793 and 10 without Schutz,
so each Schutzjude must have contributed about 9 gold Thaler as Schutzgeld per
annum to subsidise the lifestyle of the Schutzherr [probably a Count Pernstein].
No wonder, the Schutzherren welcomed Jews to live on their estates.

There are also a few other older residents in the Pardubitzer Herrschaft who
gave up their Schutz to one of their sons, presumably because the younger
generation needed the protection and could afford to pay the money and hopefully
their parents lived safely and happily with them till they died.

Looking carefully at the small print of the Pardubitzer Herrschaft in 1793 has
certainly been an unexpected bonanza - all thanks to Jan Hellmann's original
question re his forebears!

Celia Male [U.K.]

References:

1. {not accessed} Rokycana, Jaroslav: Zur Geschichte der Juden in Pardubitz.
Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft fur Geschichte der Juden in der Cechoslovakischen
Republik 4 (1932) 485-495. {History of the Jews of Pardubitz]

2 Hugo Gold [Brunn 1934]: The History of the Jews in Pardubitz by Prof. J.
Sakar, Prague [in Czech and hence not accessible to me] >from "Die Juden und
Judengemeinde Bohmens".

3: General re Pardubitz in Czech, German and English:
http://www.vokno.cz/lexikon/okres.asp?id=3770

4: Familianten books of Chrudimer Kreis in Prague State archives: VII/volume
VI - Pardubice - Part 2.

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