Schutzjuden Statistics Bohemia, 1793 - Part 1 #austria-czech
Celia Male <celiamale@...>
There have been a number of interesting replies to my
Schutzjuden postings and some fascinating family links
have been suspected and confirmed. I will come back to
those links later. Paul King [Israel] was surprised to
hear [I have his permission to quote] that there were
so many Schutzjuden in Pardubitz, Chrudimer Kreis. He
thought they were are much rarer species.
Schutzjuden predated the Familianten Law of 1726; they
were a continuation of the feudal system, which
impacted on Christian peasants in Western Europe in
the Middle Ages - the latter also had to pay tithes to
the feudal landlord.
The Familianten Laws were essentially enacted by the
Church and the Habsburgs to *restrict* the Jewish
population of Bohemia and Moravia [see Footnote 1].
The owners of the Estates [Schutzherren] were
frequently at loggerheads with the authorities about
the Jews on their estates. These owners were often
princes and dukes belonging to very well-known
families. One can read about these constant quarrels
over the centuries [see for example chapter on
Prossnitz in Hugo Gold's "The Jews and Jewish
Communities of Moravia"], where the Lord of the
Manorial Estate tried to *protect* the Jewish
population, presumably to maintain his income.
The Schutzjuden and Familianten systems operated
side-by-side till the Jews were finally emancipated.
I know that the Familianten system was abolished in
1848, and I assume, that this date also applied to the
I checked the number of families with Schutz status in
each of the 16 Kreis of Bohemia. This is analysed in
Footnote 2 below.
Unfortunately, there is no way I can do this
calculation for Moravia. It could be that there are
more non-Schutzjuden in Moravia, where the town-
dwellers may have had a different status. I just do
not know and have no way of finding out. There is a
clue about towns coming >from the entry of Moyses
OESTERREICHER of Herrschaft Reichstadt/Zakupy,
Bunzlauer Kreis, Bohemia: he is originally >from Lieben
and therefore under the Schutz of the *Magistrat* of
the Altstadt of Prague. Perhaps this *Magistrat*
system applied to Moravian towns too?
In Bohemia, a high percentage of the Jews lived on
estates in the countryside. Their Schutz appears to be
based on their place of birth, unless they had bought
a Schutz elsewhere [see previous postings on the
purchasing of Schutz and Familianten positions].
So, who were these non-Schutzjuden? I fine-toothcombed
through the 1793 census of Bohemia to find a pattern
and present my findings in Part II. I have no idea if
my approach is new or has been done in the past and is
lost in the mists of time. I am excited to have
discovered these things and am now beginning, at last,
to get a clearer understanding of the society the
Bohemian, and presumably the Moravian, Jews lived
under in the 18th century.
I hope that the 600 plus members of our Austria-Czech
SIG will also now have the fog lifted >from some of
these obscure areas.
Celia Male [U.K.]
1. Familianten Law: see
2. Number of Schutzjuden families/Kreis.
First figure - families with Schutz status; second
figure - families without Schutz status.
Prachiner 504-56; Berouner 509-7; Tabor 499-38;
Caslauer 559-35; Klattauer 408-27; Rakonitzer 461-22;
Chrudimer 257-38; Pilsner 617-13; Saatzer 382-24;
Koniggratzer 248-6; Leitmeritizer 366-1; Bidshover
273-26; Elbogener 394 - all with Schutz; Bunzlauer
347-46; Budweiser 131-1; Kourimer/Kaurzimer 686-101.
Total 1793: 6,137 Jewish families with Schutz and 385
families without Schutz status
Total number of families = 6,522
Average overall percentage without Schutz = 5.9%
Chrudimer, Kourimer and Bunzlauer Kreis have 14.7%,
14.7% and 13.2% without Schutz respectively - the
highest of all the 16 Kreis.
Prague data not yet available.