Questions about Surnames - Galicia/Poland

Mitch Mermel

As an example: I've come across listings in the Jewish Records Indexing where the parents are Abraham Hersch LEIMSIDER and Chaje Jütte SIGAL, but the surname for the child may be listed as [ SIGAL V. LEIMSIDER ] or [SIGAL \ LEIMSIDER] or [LEIMSIEDER R SIGAL] or [LEIMSIEDER f SIGAL]. Sometimes the surname will simply be that of the father.

The primary question is, when both surnames are listed, do we assume the child takes on the surname of the father or does some other naming convention come into play?  How do we know which surname the child went by?
Secondary question: What are the meanings of the "V", "F", "R" or "\"

Thank you
Orlando, Florida, USA 

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