Schutzjuden Statistics Bohemia, 1793 - Part 2 #austria-czech

Celia Male <celiamale@...>
 

I ended Part 1 with this sentence: So, who were these non-Schutzjuden? I
fine-toothcombed through the 1793 census of Bohemia to find a pattern and
present my findings in Part II.

I have found the following:

1. Tobacco business: Many, but not all, the Tabaktrafikant or Tabakverleger
appear to be without Schutz - perhaps because they already paid a high duty to
have this honour? Sometimes, they and their families were the only Jewish
inhabitants of a Koniglische Juden-frei town. A note for Israel SCHUTZ of
Rausowitz, Budweiser Kreis, states that he had settled there, exempt, as he
was an ex? Tabaktrafikant; but this was not accepted and attempts were being
made to evict him. Israel SCHUTZ, we are told, is geschutzt [protected] by
the Tabakscomisariat. So this supports my first sentence.

2. Immigrants/visitors [temporary] or teachers >from Moravia, Poland/Galicia
and Germany: In the Prachiner Kreis, for example, Wolf BERNARD (a teacher in
Drhowl) is listed as having no Schutz and being there on temporary basis
[ie "on contract" perhaps?]. Similarly listed is Moises DAVID >from Poland -
a private teacher with Lobl FANTL in the Herrschaft Libeigitz. Seligmann RAPP,
another school master >from Frankfurt, has no Schutz whilst teaching in Strakonitz.

In the Konigliche Stadt Schuttenhofen [Susice] again we find the teacher
Juda SCHWARZKOPF without Schutz.

3. Rabbis: In the above town, rabbi Josef SLATIN is without Schutz. The
Bohemian rabbis of 1793 sometimes, but not always, did not have Schutz status -
perhaps they were *toleriert or privilegiert* and thus considered as part
of the essential structure of the Jewish community who paid for them with
their dues?

4. Occasionally, we find families or individuals without Schutz living in
a Gut [estate or village/ town]. Sometimes there is a footnote re their
status. If the Schutzherr has died, that could account for some instances.
A good example is in Lintz/Linz Herrschaft {Mlynce} in the Saatzer Kreis
where all the 11 families were without Schutz. A visit to the district
archives might explain. I assume it is a temporary status and the families
either had to move away or acquired a new landlord.

5. Jews who lived in Christian homes were sometimes deemed without Schutz.
In the Bunzlauer Kreis, this applied to Wolf SEEGER of Chrast and Salamon
REICH, originally >from Pilsen but settled in Bezdieczin. In both cases it
says they were living in the house of a Christian, without the previous
notification of the authorities, and were *thus without Schutz*.

However in the Leitmeritzer Kreis we find in Bohmische Leipa {Ceska Lipa},
Neuschloss Herrschaft, three families living in Christian houses which they
"besitzt und possessionirt" ie occupy and own, and they are under the Schutz
of Neuschloss: Ezechiel MAUTNER and sons Ariel and Raphael [House 168] as
well as Moises HENTSCHL with his five children and Isak PRIESTER who share
House 164.

So I suspect it was SEEGER and REICHs transgression of non-notification,
that branded them without Schutz, not the fact that they lived in a Christian
house.

Surprisingly the following poorer Jews often had Schutz status, which is
mostly associated with the *place of birth*:

A. Domestics - servants, maids and assistants in distilleries, potash
producers, leather tanneries etc. They are often listed with their Schutz
location as different >from their work place. Others may have been considered
as part of the employers' household.

There must have been reciprocal arrangements with the various Schutzherren.
How they transferred their money >from one location to another is a further
mystery. I can hardly conceive of a servant going home on holiday with
saved-up Schutzgeld in their apron pocket to pay the local Schutzherr.
Perhaps a sort of internal "Bohemian Schutzherr Express Service" was in
operation?

B. Surprisingly, many peddlers and itinerants did have Schutz status - the
influx of Pinkel/Binkel Juden >from Galicia in Gut Miskowitz come to mind in
[see footnote].

If we take all these facts into consideration, we can see how the overall
figure of non-Schutzjuden in Bohemia of 1793 [excluding Prague] was just
under 6%.


All in all, we see a picture in Bohemia of 1793 of a very controlled, highly
structured, organised and immobile society - nearly everyone knew their place
and where they belonged. It made for stability, but also for repression and
lack of freedom.

In Part 3, I will discuss other aspects of this complex social structure
including the term *Bestandjude* and the cost of buying a Schutz licence.

Celia Male [U.K.]

Footnote: see archives re my posting of 23 Feb 2005 The Pinkeltrager of Gut
Miskowitz - Tabor Kreis. They all had Schutz although they were very poor
itinerants.

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