In the Jewishgen Holocaust database, the "German Towns Project" collection includes two Ludwig Lilienthals. It sounds as if the information you gave is a mashup of these two people.
One of them was born in Minden (but in 1858) and died in Unna (in 1935).
The other was born in Fürth in 1899, spent time in Dachau after Kristallnacht and was deported in 1941 from Nürnberg (Nuremberg).
(see https://www.mappingthelives.org or https://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch/directory.html.de?id=916079 )
It might be worthwhile double-checking the sources. Do you have the birth record from Minden? Does it show that adopted the middle name "Israel" in 1939?
I hope this helps