I think it is very dangerous to judge rules and laws without
knowledge of the exact wording, time and territory, or to
draw general conclusions from them.
The beginning of the 19th century in particular brought very
great upheavals in Germany - from the end of serfdom to the
entitlement to certain rights. Not to forget the changes
brought about by the French Revolution and the rule of
Napoleon. It should be noted that the individual countries
of Germany were autonomous and had their own legislation. A
completely different question is how the local authorities
applied the laws and whether it was possible to appeal
against them to a higher instance and perhaps obtain justice
there. Generalizations often lead to prejudices that are
then difficult to dispel.
The situation of the Jews in Germany has certainly improved
more slowly during this period than that of the rest of the
ordinary population. And as always: some worked for it,
others against it. In my place of residence, a Jewish woman
left money to poor Christians in her will. She said that she
had also received much good things from Christians.
Certainly an exception - but also a reality.
Ernst-Peter Winter, Münster, Hesse