Why is the country "Poland" used after the three partitions of Poland and its disappearance from the map #poland

Marilyn Levinson

Dear researchers
This use of the word Poland after the third partition is confusing to me.  To give but one example, I read an article today that said Jews in Poland were required to take surnames in 1821.  There was no Poland in 1821.  I have separate dates for the Austria-Hungarian Empire, Prussia, and Russia, so I believe they are not speaking of former Polish lands.  Can anyone explain why the country Poland is named after its existence ended?  Does this have anything to do with Congress Poland?  Thank you for your help.
Marilyn Levinson
Spring Lake NC

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