My maternal great grandmother was Rochel Frieda Trushinsky of Dotnuva Lithuania; her family surname was also written as Trisinski. Most of the birth records for her children are on Jewishgen, except that her original surname and those of her siblings are listed as Sturisky (or Shturisky). I've had a native Russian speaker look at several of these birth records, and he has confirmed the name is Sturisky.
However, my great grandmother, her sister Rose Trisinski Goldberg, and their nephew Bene Trisinski never used the name Sturisky here in the US, and it appears that they did not use this name back in Lithuania. For instance, on my great grandmother's 1908 ship passenger list, she said her nearest relative back home was her mother Leah Trushinsky.
I have found one US record of a Trushinsky/Trisinski acknowledging the second surname. A son of Bene Trisinski was born in Dotnuva in 1912, with his name recorded as Efroim Sturisky:
On this person's 1938 naturalization petition, he has both this birth name (now spelled Sturinsky) and the name he eventually used, Frank Trisin:
When he signed his name at the bottom of the petition, he did it three ways: Frank Trisin, Frank Trisinsky, and Efroim Sturinsky.
Has anyone come across this situation before, of a family in the Russian empire using one surname themselves, but having a different surname in their Russian/Hebrew records? This isn't the situation like in the Austro-Hungarian empire, of persons having to use their mother's original surname rather than their father's, due to not registering the marriage with the civil authorities. Could it be that my Trushinsky forebears simply didn't like Sturisky, and tried to change it, but weren't allowed to? There are a few other Sturisky families in Lithuania on Jewishgen, most in Seduva, though my Trushinsky/Sturisky clan does not appear to be related to them. There are a few instances of Trushinsky/Trisinski (and the like) on JRI-Poland, though I've also found that it is a Polish Catholic surname as well.
I'd appreciate any thoughts on this odd situation.
Lak/Lok/Liak/Lock and Kalon/Kolon in Zagare/Joniskis/Gruzdziai, Lithuania
Lak/Lok/Liak/Lock in Plunge/Telsiai in Lithuania
Trisinsky/Trushinsky/Sturisky and Leybman in Dotnuva, Lithuania
Olitsky in Alytus, Suwalki, Poland/Lithuania
Gutman/Goodman in Czestochowa, Poland
Lavine/Lev/Lew in Trenton, New Jersey and Lida/Vilna gub., Belarus