Good afternoon, Carlos - Bielitz Bialy (now Bielsko Biala) is a small city on the border of German Silesia and Austrian Galicia. They are separated by the Biala River. Bielitz was in Germany, Bialy was in Galicia. According to Wikipedia, they were merged into one city in 1950, but my grandmother always referred to it as Bielitz Bialy, now in southeastern Poland.
I was given a book by Jacel Proszyk, the author, an archivist at the Castle Museum there. The book, published in 2012, was his thesis and titled "The History of Jews in Bielsko (Bielitz) and Biala between 17th century and 1939. It is written in Polish but there is also an English language DVD. ISBN 978-83-936155-0-6.
The index refers to two Fleissig men, Adolf and Herman,
After the election in 1931, the situation changed in favor of the Zionists, who obtained 10 seats in the Council and 4 in the Board. The Union of Democratic Jews came second in the election with 9 seats in the Council and 3 in the Board. Also the orthodox Jews and Hitachduth workmen managed to win one seat in the Board each (as
well as 4 and 3 seats in the Council, respectively). Besides, the candidates of Agudat Israel and Mizrachi (two from each association)also obtained seats in the Council. Official reports suggested that German Jews combined forces with the orthodox Jews in exchange for the license for the construction of the ritual bath in Bielsko, which gavethem a total of 15 seats. In this situation, the Zionists also joined forces
with Mizrachi and also won 15 seats. The new authorities were made up as follows: the Board: Zygmunt Arzt (president), Dr. Leon Manheimer (vice-president), members of the Board: Dr. Gustaw Baum, Professor Eduard Feuerstein, Dr. Zygmunt Robinsohn, Hirsch Horowitz, Maurycy Popiol, Max Rapaport, Maurycy Stein, Alfred Wachtl. Members of the Council: Dr. Michael Berkowicz, Dr. Herbert Better, Adolf Brandstätter, Dawid Fischer, Adolf Fleissig, Moses Goldwasser, Dr. Moritz Heilpern, Maurycy Huppert, Izydor Huppert, Maurycy Nacher, Jakub Pasternak, Jeremiasz Propper, Jozef Rabinowitz, Jozef Rotter, Berthold Simachowitz, Wilhelm Stern, Dr. Filip Türk. The fact that pro-German Jews lost some of the seats in the Board caused severe internal friction in the kehilla.
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p.193 on the DVD
Modern literature on
the subject suggests that the first Jewish sports association,
Gymnastieken Athletiekvereeniging Attila, was established in April
1898 in Groningen. The second one, Zionistischer Turnverein Makabi,
was set up in Philippopel (Bulgaria) in June 1898 and third one was
Israelitischer Turnverein created in Bielsko in December the same year.
Although the exact date is not certain, the indisputable Bielsko
pioneers of Jewish sport made the local maskilim proud. In the statute
the association formulated its objective as promoting gymnastic exercise and intense sports activity. After 1918 the association was
renamed as Bielitz-Bialaer Jüdischer Turnverein (Bielsko-Biala Jewish
Gymnastic Association). In 1925 the club was again renamed as the
Bielsko-Biala Jewish Gymnastic and Sports Association Makabi. The
seat of the club was located in Bielsko, in ul. Kolejowa 21 (today ul.
Although the name and address referred specifically to Bielsko, the association also attracted Jews from Biala. It was in Biala and in western Lesser Poland that the club organized campaigns in order to gain new members. Many people cooperated with Makabi; it would be impossible to list all of them, but the key members of the authorities and activists were: Adolf Deutsch, Oskar Deutsch, Leopold Feiler, Leo Fink, Irma Fischler, Herbert Fleissig, Dawid Gerstenfeld M.D., Henryk Goldfinger, Maks Hammer, Fritz Huppert, Wiktor Lechmann, Jan Machauf, Erwin Mechner, Ignatz Pasternak, Ernest Pollak, S. Raucher, Walter Reicher, Hans Richter, Otton Robinsohn, Kurt Obständer, Samuel Scharf, Lukasz Schrötter, Hanka Silber, Eng. Adolf Sonderling, Dr. Speiser, Franz Steiner, Henryk Sternlicht, Paula Wachsberger, Bernard Wiener, Z. Wiesmann, Dr. Josef Traubner, Ryszard Zeitinger, Walter Zeitinger.
Page 197 refers to the K.S. Hakoah Sports Club - The key activists of the club were: Oskar
Deutsch, Walter Deutsch, Erwin Robinsohn, Otton Robinsohn, Gustaw Mitzner, Leopold Feiler, Wiktor Lechmann, Fryderyk Kestel, Kurt Better, Karol Better, Ryszard Zeitinger, Walter Zeitinger, Jan Machauf, Bernard Wiener, Adolf Sonderling, Dr. Ezechiel Schneider, Egon Hahn.
Another Jewish sports organization was the Jewish Sports Club Hakoah, which separated from Bielitz-Bialaer Israelitischer Turnverein,also for ideological reasons.
Turnverein Turnverein represented pro-German assimilators, while Hakoah attracted Zionist members. Its beginnings are associated with the football section and a sports pitch, which the club maintained until the outbreak of World War II in the Tenement no. 281, on the grounds belonging to the local restaurant owner Baruch Schöngut. The main activists of the club were: Artur Rabinowitz, Erwin Korn, Dr. Wilhelm Wagner, Eng. Pawel Better, Rudolf Kohn, Emil Brückner, Jozef Brückner, Georg Frischler, Hugon Frischler, Erwin Kellermann, Albert Kellermann, Dr. Leon Aronsohn, Fritz Lerner, Herbert Fleissig, Bruno Brechner, Juliusz Deutsch, Erwin Deutsch, Ryszard Moschkowitz, Hugon Huppert, Otton Feuereisen, Maurycy Fanty, Walter Reicher, Henryk Grubner, Oskar Langer, Jakub Schanzer, Erwin Sonderling, Hugo Tyras, Wilhelm Eichner, Josef Steiner, Erwin Dawidowicz, Boleslaw Posner, Adolf Moses, Jozef Dittmann, Leon Kulka, Manfred Teteles, Jozef Fromowicz, Natan Brenner, Franciszek Edelman, Oskar Landau.
Jessica Skippon (London, England)
Researching SCHANZER, BORGER, BIRN, JACHZEL in Andrychau, Wadowice and Bielsko Biala