I had always been told and understood that the main splits relate to the Roman Empire in that the Ashkenazi were derived from Jews who had lived in the Western Roman Empire. The Romaniote Jews were from the Easter Roman Empire which continued for about 7 Centuries after the fall of Rome, until The Crusades. The Sephardi Jews derived from those who had lived outside, but not very far from the original Roman Empire before the fall of Rome and thus included those who arrived in Spain with the Moors and with that connection went North into The low countries and to South America, some of whom were Pirates (being outside the RC church law) but did not include those from India and further Est nor those from Sub-Saharan Africa.
Searching in Poland before 1900 for Herszkocwicz, Wreschinska (or similar)
From: main@... <main@...> on behalf of Adam Cherson <adam.cherson@...>
Sent: 10 August 2021 01:46
To: main@... <main@...>
Subject: Re: [JewishGen.org] New Look at the Question of Sephardic and Ashkenazic Genetics #dna #sephardic
I guess your definition of strict is the one that best explains my approach. However, keep in mind that many Sephardim migrated to North Africa and the Near East and may have lived in those regions for 500 years following their time in Sepharad. Be all of this as it may, the two Sfardim in my study have four Sephardic grandparents (in the strict sense).
To wrap this thread up, I would like to add thatI managed to locate 10 more Sephardic samples from the Eurogenes25 Database and have brought them into the chart:
it seems the categorical distinction is holding up: Sephardim show, on average, more of a coastal Near Eastern affinity and less of a Eurasian Steppe affinity.
This may be even clearer using a scatter diagram like this one:
In this chart the blue squares and the brown square are the ten samples from the EurogenesG25 Sephardic Database (if this image does not reproduce clearly enough here is the image file: https://1drv.ms/u/s!AuwT-4qnkJLBjkhgCdNravabf1JU?e=TrRfn8), The blue and red diamonds are the two Sephardic males from this study. The turquoise diamond is a person who is seeking to know whether he/she has Sephardic ancestry (the person most closely matches the brown square out of all the Sephardic samples, but I believe the brown square is mis-identified as being Sephardic in the G25 database and is likely to be Ashkenazic, or at least mostly Ashkenazic). The hollow circles and diamonds are the male and female Ashkenazim from this study (expect for the two diamonds in the lower left quadrant, who are Mizarahi (Syrian) Jews from this study). The triangles on the left are Early Iron Age Samples from sites in the Levant (Megiddo, Abel Maacah, and Ashkelon). This chart makes clear that the Sephardic samples are clustered closer to the Early Iron Age Samples and that the Ashkenazic samples are clustered to their right (which equates to being closer to the Eurasian Steppe samples from the previous chart)..
Using this system I believe the Sephardic ancestry of any person can be accurately evaluated, based on their placement relative to the two clusters. Persons of strong Sephardic ancestry will be to the left of the center vertical line. Persons of strong Ashkenazic ancestry will be in the midst of the Ashkenazic cluster on the right. Persons of mixed Sephardic-Ashkenazic ancestry will fall into the zone between the two clusters.