Re: Kibbutzei Aliya - post-War Poland Kibbutzim -- zionist etc #poland


seth@...
 

There were many kibbutz style centra in western Europe in the late 1930s and 1940s, probably most of them initially in Germany and Great Britain. The projects were typically named hachsharot (in plural, hachshara in single, meaning preparation). In most cases they were chalutsic, i.e. preparing its members for agricultural settlement joining or founding a Kibbutz in Erets Yisrael.

 

When Nazi Germany evolved before the Holocaust, at least some of these moved to Scandinavia. Following the violence of Kristallnacht (9-10 November, 1938), almost all German hachsharot (there were some exceptions) were closed and their members moved on to the parts of Europe still free.

 

The hachsharot were typically secular-socialistic, but some were orthodox-socialistic, like the hachshara in Bachad Farm, Thaxted, Essex, which you can study in two links (at least), sas-.space.sas.ac.uk/6667 and www.veritysteele.com. These links will surely lead you to other hachsharot, and should be a good start.

 

After the war some of these “kibbutzim” or hachsharot continued in Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Italy and liberated Europe; as you claim there may also have been some re-started in Poland. The common aim of all these was to prepare for Aliyah to Palestine/Israel, but some of its members never immigrated to Palestine and settled in Europe or elsewhere.

 

There should be extensive academic and other research on this subject.

Seth Jacobson
Jerusalem

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