IN PART POSSIBLY ANSWERS THE ABOVE QUESTION BUT ALSO POSES AN ADDITIONAL QUESTION!
My great grandmother Molly Szklarkiewicz (her maiden name) was widowed when her husband died or was killed while serving in the army, around the time their son, my grandfather Samuel, was born; he was born in 1881, we believe in Krakow. We know nothing about this man other than that his last name was Steiglitz (my father's spelling) or similar. Molly was from Jedwabne, Poland. We have thus far been unsuccessful in locating any marriage, birth or military records in Poland. My father told me that Molly reverted to her maiden name Szklarkiewicz, anglicised to Clarke, and Samuel and our family thereafter were known - from her maiden name - as Clarke. This, on the face of it, answers part of Marilyn's question re a baby being given the mother's maiden name after the father died. However, the following complicates this issue! My father had also told me that Molly married a man she met on the ship over when emigrating with baby Samuel to the UK; he died before my father was born, and my father did not know his name. In my research, I discovered this man was Jacob Clarke. From his UK Naturalization Certificate, we know he was from Losice, Siedlce in Poland and it gives his parents' names but, as was the general case the anglicised family name, that is Clarke. Was it a coincidence that a Clarke married a Clarke (meeting on the ship over suggests this was not a relative) or MY QUESTION might Jacob have taken Molly's family name instead of his own, and if so for what reason? Their UK civil marriage record, which clearly consists of misspellings including Mille instead of Molly, does confirm Molly's maiden name was "Shklarkiewitz" and her widowed name was "Staglitz" ("Steglitz" on the Marriage Authorisation). Jacob is recorded only as Jacob Clarke.
Does anyone have any thoughts/suggestions on this?
CLARKE/SZKLARKIEWICZ from Jedwabne and possibly Warsaw, Siedlce, Krakow. Emigrated to Dublin, then Liverpool. Maybe a connection to ELLENBOGENS
STEIGLITZ/SZTYGLIC OR SIMILAR from Galicia possibly. Died in military around 1881.
BARNETT/BIENSTOCK OR SIMILAR from Poland (don't know where). Emigrated to S. Wales, UK
LEVINSON changed to BRAHAM from Kalisz, Poland
NEWMARK/NEUMARK from Posen/Poznan, Poland
MYERS from Manchester area, emigrated to S. Africa.
GOODMAN, JACOBS, MOSES Don't know from where but emigrated to UK, some to Cornwall, others to S. Wales