--- On Sun, 30 Aug 1998 00:29:20 +0200 Stefano Groszy
Subject: Comments on the content of TE VAGY A TANU!
As I'm not expert about the details of how and why the Germanscould explain the rule that admiral Horthy had protecting or not the
In Italy the Mussolini's defeat by fascist government caused thegerman invasion, with the consequences for italian Jews you can imagine.
On the contrary, I know that in Bulgaria the local fascists resistedthe german plans against the Jews and probably it was the only country
under german domination to save most its jewish community
My best regards, Steven Grosz - Milano, Italy.
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Regarding your question on the role of Horthy in connection with
the Hungarian jews: Hungary in the years of 1920-1940, i.e between
the two world wars had a very strong and prosperous middle class.
(By the way, these were the richest years in the history of culture
of this country: Some of the greatest physicist, like Neumann,Wiegner,
Teller and Szilard were born and educated there, the greatest
poets like Ady, Attila Jozsef,painters like Csontvary and huge
musicians like Bartok, Kodaly, Szigeti,Szekely Mihaly and many-many
others lived and created in this period). This society was based on
two elements: the gentries, most of whome once belonged to the
nobility and were or wished to be land-owners and the other group:
the bourgeoisie.To the latter belonged the large factory owners,
the merchants and the intellectuals, like journalists, artists
and educated professionals.
The hungarian society at all was based on these two pillars. The
majority of the bourgeoisie was Jew. Just as an example, more,
than 25% of the capital Budapest was Jewish - more,than 250.000
only in the city.
Horthy himself was rather deeply involved in and connected to
both groups.One of his sons, for example, had a Jewish wife.
Under the antisemitic pressure, the government accepted anti-
Jewish laws already in the 20-th years, which became harder after
the second world war broke out.The grown up Jewish male population
was taken to forced labour camps already in 1940. There they were
treated harshly,but the authorities refused to transfer them to
Germany or to other death camps in Easter Europe. Hence the great
majority of the Jews were still free and alive till March 1944
when the Germans occupied Hungary - in spite of beeing allies.
I tend to beleive, that the Hungarian government and Horthy did not
want to take part in the genocide of the Jews, though many
Hungarians did and gave hand to the murder of some 400.000 of us.
Sorry, I tried to be shorter,but I could not.In fact, you can find
a more autentic, detailed and comprehensive description on the
subject,for instance in the book of Raphael Patai; "The Jews in
Hungary". Still,you can perhaps also feel the emotions of a survivor.
The best regards:
Miryam and David Gordon