Regarding the second option, name changes are not uncommon. My grandfather's name was Sharff, but changed it to Broun after he survived a shipwreck coming to America. We understand it was tradition to change your name in recognition of G-d performing such a miracle, or alternately, to prevent the evil eye from finding you again. (Bruun was the name of a Swedish sailor on the same lifeboat; Broun is the Scottish spelling as the survivors were brought to Stornoway.
We have other cousins who took names of deceased friends or cousins to avoid military service in the Tsar's army.
Larry (Itzik Leib) Broun
Washington, DC | USA