Gabor Hirsch <hirsch@...>
Ilan Koma schrieb:
AttilaRona@aol.com wrote:I am afraid there is a mixture about being Hungarian and/or Jewish and your father was alreadyI might be wrong, but I thought people had to get only their grandparentsIt seems that Attila Rona is wrong about the law I intereviwed my father at length about that
far away when the most cruel rulings came into effect.
Being an alien or not Hungarian (Jew) led to the massacre in Kamanets- Podolsk of 26'000 - the
first 5 figure massacre of the Nazi's "Final Solution", of the close 18'000 deportees from
Hungary, only about 2'000 survived.
Until the German invasion, regarding of the different Jewish laws life was acceptable in
Hungary. There were several discriminating laws, but still in our Gymnasium (Evangelical,
Lutheran?) there were 5 Jewish students in a class of 30, well above the proportion of the Jews
in the town (Bekescsaba 6%). I try to transcribe the lines >from "The Politics of Genocide, The
Holocaust in Hungary" Randolph Braham which shows the effects of the 3 anti Jewish laws:
The First Anti Jewish Law (Law No. XV:1938) went into effect on May 29, 1938. It set a 20
percent ceiling on the proportion of Jews in the professions and in financial, commercial, and
industrial enterprises employing more than ten persons. Enacted into law on May 4, 1939, the
Second Anti Jewish Law (Law No. IV:1939) went well beyond the scope of the first, restricting
to 6 percent the proportion of Jews allowable in such enterprises. It even provided a detailed
and complicated religious and "racial" definition of who was a Jew. Both laws were supported
with various degrees of enthusiasm by the representatives of the major Christian churches. The
Christian church leaders manifested some anxiety over the Third Anti Jewish Law (Law No.
XV:1941), by far the most brazenly racist piece of legislation ever adopted in Hungary, which
affected a considerable number of their parishioners. The law, which emulated Nazi Germany's
Nuremberg Law of 1935, went into effect on August 2, 1941. Among other things, it prohibited
marriage and sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews. The three major anti Jewish laws were
succeeded by a large number of legislative acts and governmental decrees that had a devastating
on the economic well-being of the Jews, impacting especially hard those in the middle and lower
classes. The plight of indigent Jews, both indigenous and foreign, was partially alleviated by
the relatively large network of educational cultural institutions and social welfare
organizations that were maintained individually or collectively by the three major Jewish
denominations: the Neolog, Orthodox, and Status Quo.
I didn't found at the first sight any short and good definition of the question, "Who is a Jew"
in english, the best I found is >from Jeno Levai's "Fekete konyv, a magyar zsidosag
szenvedeseirol (Black Book , on the suffering of the Hungarian Jews)" it is in connection with
the third Jewish Law(but it is also incomplete). I transcribe it in Hungarian and try to give a
rough translation in english.
1. aki az izraelita hitfelekezet tagja,
members of the Jewish community
2. aki az 1919. evi julius 31. napja utan tert at,
The ones, converted after 31. July 1919
3. aki 1919 julius 31. napja utan anelkul lepett ki az izraelita hitfelekezetbol, hogy mas
felekezetbe belepett volna,
Ones who left ?after? 31. July 1919 the Jewish community without becameing member of
4. aki az 1919. evi julius ho 31. napia utan szuletett, ha a megielolt ido-
pontban apja vagy anyja az izaelita hitfelekezet tagia volt. (Kivetelek
a hosi halalt halt szulok gyermekei, hadirokkantak, tuzharcosok vagy
Ones born after 31. July 1919, if the mother or father were at that time members of a
Jewish community (exceptions children of war's dead, disabled soldier, front soldier or war
I hope that my information help to clarify the subject.