Re: * Magyarositas = Hungarization (a bit long) #hungary


Gabor Hirsch <hirsch@...>
 

Ilan Koma schrieb:

AttilaRona@aol.com wrote:
I might be wrong, but I thought people had  to get only their grandparents
birth certificate during the Horthy regime.

Attila Róna
It seems that Attila Rona is wrong about the law I intereviwed my father at length about that
point and this what I got:
a)The hungarian law said that a person is considered Hungarian if his father is Hungarian.
This what somewhat uncclear since you had to prove that Adam was Hungarian, and therefore an
administartive regulation was issued that that  it is enough to prove that your male ancestor
was Hungarian in 1851 when they start issuing birth certificates. Hungarian in 1851 meant
that the persom was born in the area of greater Hungary.
b)On top of it by the Trianon treaty, you were Hungarian if you could prove that at the time
of Trianon treaty(1920) you had some municipal registration in smaller Hungary. My father
could not produce his ggfateer birth certificate, and so in 1938 he was called to the
police(or some other similar institution) and was given a formal notice of him being expelled
from Hungary. Nothing further was done about it. In october 1939 he fortunately decided of
his own free will to leave the country for Palestine.
Ilan Kozma
I am afraid there is a mixture about being Hungarian and/or Jewish and your father was already
far away when the most cruel rulings came into effect.

 Being an alien or not Hungarian (Jew) led to the massacre in Kamanets- Podolsk of 26'000 - the
first 5 figure massacre of the Nazi's "Final Solution", of the close 18'000 deportees from
Hungary, only about 2'000 survived.

Until the German invasion, regarding of the different Jewish laws life was acceptable in
Hungary. There were several discriminating laws, but still in our Gymnasium (Evangelical,
Lutheran?) there were 5 Jewish students in a class of 30, well above the proportion of the Jews
in the town (Bekescsaba 6%). I try to transcribe the lines >from "The Politics of Genocide, The
Holocaust in Hungary" Randolph Braham which shows the effects of the 3 anti Jewish laws:

The First Anti Jewish Law (Law No. XV:1938) went into effect on May 29, 1938. It set a 20
percent ceiling on the proportion of Jews in the professions and in financial, commercial, and
industrial enterprises employing more than ten persons. Enacted into law on May 4, 1939, the
Second Anti Jewish Law (Law No. IV:1939) went well beyond the scope of the first, restricting
to 6 percent the proportion of Jews allowable in such enterprises. It even provided a detailed
and complicated religious and "racial" definition of who was a Jew. Both laws were supported
with various degrees of enthusiasm by the representatives of the major Christian churches. The
Christian church leaders manifested some anxiety over the Third Anti Jewish Law (Law No.
XV:1941), by far the most brazenly racist piece of legislation ever adopted in Hungary, which
affected a considerable number of their parishioners. The law, which emulated Nazi Germany's
Nuremberg Law of 1935, went into effect on August 2, 1941. Among other things, it prohibited
marriage and sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews. The three major anti Jewish laws were
succeeded by a large number of legislative acts and governmental decrees that had a devastating
effect
on the economic well-being of the Jews, impacting especially hard those in the middle and lower
classes. The plight of indigent Jews, both indigenous and foreign, was partially alleviated by
the relatively large network of educational cultural institutions and social welfare
organizations that were maintained individually or collectively by the three major Jewish
denominations: the Neolog, Orthodox, and Status Quo.
 

I didn't found at the first sight any short and good definition of the question, "Who is a Jew"
in english, the best I found is >from Jeno Levai's "Fekete konyv, a magyar zsidosag
szenvedeseirol (Black Book , on the suffering of the Hungarian Jews)" it is in connection with
the third Jewish Law(but it is also incomplete). I transcribe it in Hungarian and try to give a
rough translation in english.

1. aki az izraelita hitfelekezet tagja,
    members of the Jewish community
2. aki az 1919. evi julius 31. napja utan tert at,
    The ones, converted after 31. July 1919
3. aki 1919 julius 31. napja utan anelkul lepett ki az izraelita hitfelekezetbol, hogy mas
felekezetbe belepett volna,
    Ones who left ?after? 31. July 1919 the Jewish community without becameing  member of
another one.
4. aki az 1919. evi julius ho 31. napia utan szuletett, ha a megielolt ido-
pontban apja vagy anyja az izaelita hitfelekezet tagia volt. (Kivetelek
a hosi halalt halt szulok gyermekei, hadirokkantak, tuzharcosok vagy
hadiozvegyek.) -
    Ones born after 31. July 1919, if the mother or father were at that time members of a
Jewish community (exceptions children of war's dead, disabled soldier, front soldier or war
widow).

I hope that my information help to clarify the subject.

Best regards
Gabor Hirsch

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