Date   

Re: Places of origin of British Jews #unitedkingdom

jeremy frankel
 

David Grant posed the question:
1) You state that early records were not kept "for entries into Hull
and Leith, and other places on the British North Sea coast". Is this
a fact or have the records just not been released yet?

The answer is that the records do not exist. One has to bear in mind
the vast, vast majority of immigrants entering the United Kingdom
during the 19th century were transiting through en-route to another
destination such as Canada, the United States, Australia, South
Africa, etc. This being the case there was no need let alone desire
for the UK Government to hold on to these records any longer than was
necessary.

A few years ago I was researching the UK Government immigration
sub-committee reports >from about the 1870s. These make for
fascinating reading with people like Rothschild and Montefiore asking
all kinds of questions of people who actually worked at the ports.
These port staff readily admitted that there were lists and these
were sent on to London but were routinely destroyed after a while.

Back then the government was not interested in names but numbers. It
was all a matter of statistics and knowing what the "flow-rate" was
so to speak. How many people were coming, where >from and where they
were going to. These answers can be seen in the various reports these
sub-committees published.

David Grant then commented:
"However after a certain length of time the powers that be just gave
everyone British citizenship if they had been in UK for any length of
time. There were no actual naturalisation forms filled."

Me here: I'm not sure this is really correct. Naturalisation was a
privilege conferred on people (as is most things in life) so I don't
think that after some time it was just willy-nilly handed out.

The most important reason people naturalised is so that they could
vote and have a voice in the running of the country - just like I did
when I became a US citizen. Otherwise there is no difference in what
an American-born person can do and what I can do. The only difference
is voting.

I would like to see evidence >from David showing how his ancestors
became citizens without filling out the various forms.

One last thing; yes, Ancestry has scanned the naturalisation records
for the period 1870-1912 and placed them online. However these are
just the "A" records. There is a subsidiary set, the "B" records
which provide other details - witnesses attesting to the worth of the
applicant. And in the case of my four Koenigsberg relatives (whose
documents I acquired over 20 years ago) includes the Metropolitan
Police report.

I hope this explanation is of some use.

Jeremy Frankel
--
Jeremy G Frankel
ex-London, England
now Folsom, CA

Searching for:
FRANKEL: Plock, Poland; London, England
GOLDRATH/GOLD: Praszka, Poland; London, England
KOENIGSBERG: Vilkaviskis, Lithuania; London, England; NY, USA
LEVY (later LEADER): Kalisz, Poland; London, England
Pinkus, Poland; London, England
PRINCZ/PRINCE: Krakow, Poland; London, England; NY, USA


JCR-UK SIG #UnitedKingdom RE: Places of origin of British Jews #unitedkingdom

jeremy frankel
 

David Grant posed the question:
1) You state that early records were not kept "for entries into Hull
and Leith, and other places on the British North Sea coast". Is this
a fact or have the records just not been released yet?

The answer is that the records do not exist. One has to bear in mind
the vast, vast majority of immigrants entering the United Kingdom
during the 19th century were transiting through en-route to another
destination such as Canada, the United States, Australia, South
Africa, etc. This being the case there was no need let alone desire
for the UK Government to hold on to these records any longer than was
necessary.

A few years ago I was researching the UK Government immigration
sub-committee reports >from about the 1870s. These make for
fascinating reading with people like Rothschild and Montefiore asking
all kinds of questions of people who actually worked at the ports.
These port staff readily admitted that there were lists and these
were sent on to London but were routinely destroyed after a while.

Back then the government was not interested in names but numbers. It
was all a matter of statistics and knowing what the "flow-rate" was
so to speak. How many people were coming, where >from and where they
were going to. These answers can be seen in the various reports these
sub-committees published.

David Grant then commented:
"However after a certain length of time the powers that be just gave
everyone British citizenship if they had been in UK for any length of
time. There were no actual naturalisation forms filled."

Me here: I'm not sure this is really correct. Naturalisation was a
privilege conferred on people (as is most things in life) so I don't
think that after some time it was just willy-nilly handed out.

The most important reason people naturalised is so that they could
vote and have a voice in the running of the country - just like I did
when I became a US citizen. Otherwise there is no difference in what
an American-born person can do and what I can do. The only difference
is voting.

I would like to see evidence >from David showing how his ancestors
became citizens without filling out the various forms.

One last thing; yes, Ancestry has scanned the naturalisation records
for the period 1870-1912 and placed them online. However these are
just the "A" records. There is a subsidiary set, the "B" records
which provide other details - witnesses attesting to the worth of the
applicant. And in the case of my four Koenigsberg relatives (whose
documents I acquired over 20 years ago) includes the Metropolitan
Police report.

I hope this explanation is of some use.

Jeremy Frankel
--
Jeremy G Frankel
ex-London, England
now Folsom, CA

Searching for:
FRANKEL: Plock, Poland; London, England
GOLDRATH/GOLD: Praszka, Poland; London, England
KOENIGSBERG: Vilkaviskis, Lithuania; London, England; NY, USA
LEVY (later LEADER): Kalisz, Poland; London, England
Pinkus, Poland; London, England
PRINCZ/PRINCE: Krakow, Poland; London, England; NY, USA


Re: Places of origin of British Jews #unitedkingdom

Richard Cooper
 

David Grant on 10 March stated "after a certain length of time the
powers that be just gave everyone British citizenship if they had been
in UK for any length of time."
Well, that's a new one on me.
My father's stepfather Zalman GOLDBAND came to England in 1912 aged 20.
He spent WWI flitting >from place to place to avoid being called up or deported.
For most of WWII he was nervous about the same thing happening, with
the added bonus that deportation would have guaranteed his death as a
Jew in Nazi-occupied Lithuania.
He died in 1972 aged 80 after 60 years in the British Isles during
which time he was never offered the peace of mind of becoming a
British citizen.

Best wishes and happy ancestor-spotting,
Richard Cooper (NB: Not related to any COOPERs!)
Midhurst, UK
MILLET, ENGELBERG, BLUMENKEHL, SUSSWEIN, WACKS & PITERZIL >from Tarnow,
Dabrowa Tarnowska and Lezajsk
LEZTER, SALENDER, RINENBERG, EISEN & KRAETTER >from Rzeszow and Kolbuszowa
YAROSHEVSKY, SHAPOCHNIKOW & GRANITUR >from Odessa and Zlatopol/Novomirgorod
LEWINSTEIN >from Berdichev
ADLER, FINKELSTEIN, PARYLLE, WEINTRAUB & ZILZ >from Tarnopol and Trembowla
BORENSTEIN, MATELEVITCH,GODZINSKIJ & ZIMNOWICZ and >from Warsaw and Radun


JCR-UK SIG #UnitedKingdom RE: Places of origin of British Jews #unitedkingdom

Richard Cooper
 

David Grant on 10 March stated "after a certain length of time the
powers that be just gave everyone British citizenship if they had been
in UK for any length of time."
Well, that's a new one on me.
My father's stepfather Zalman GOLDBAND came to England in 1912 aged 20.
He spent WWI flitting >from place to place to avoid being called up or deported.
For most of WWII he was nervous about the same thing happening, with
the added bonus that deportation would have guaranteed his death as a
Jew in Nazi-occupied Lithuania.
He died in 1972 aged 80 after 60 years in the British Isles during
which time he was never offered the peace of mind of becoming a
British citizen.

Best wishes and happy ancestor-spotting,
Richard Cooper (NB: Not related to any COOPERs!)
Midhurst, UK
MILLET, ENGELBERG, BLUMENKEHL, SUSSWEIN, WACKS & PITERZIL >from Tarnow,
Dabrowa Tarnowska and Lezajsk
LEZTER, SALENDER, RINENBERG, EISEN & KRAETTER >from Rzeszow and Kolbuszowa
YAROSHEVSKY, SHAPOCHNIKOW & GRANITUR >from Odessa and Zlatopol/Novomirgorod
LEWINSTEIN >from Berdichev
ADLER, FINKELSTEIN, PARYLLE, WEINTRAUB & ZILZ >from Tarnopol and Trembowla
BORENSTEIN, MATELEVITCH,GODZINSKIJ & ZIMNOWICZ and >from Warsaw and Radun


Traveling alone in Poland at 15 year old / Zakopane ski resort #general

Marc <marcrys@...>
 

Dear all,

Mieczyslaw RYSZFELD (>from Warszaw) is listed as a visitor (guest) of the
Polish ski resort of Zakopane in 1929 (link:
http://mbc.malopolska.pl/dlibra/doccontent?id=82259&dirids=1 ).

The scarcity of the Ryszfeld family name (only in Warszaw with this
spelling) as well as the first name being very unusual among the Warszaw
branch lead me to think it may be the same person as Mecislas Ryszfeld, a
21y old student of weaving in 1935 in western France (Mulhouse). The latter
is listed in the school archives as being born in 1914.

Were they the same persons, Mieczyslaw Ryszfeld would have been 15 or 15 and
a half year old...

Would such a teenager travel alone on "holiday" to a ski resort 500km away
from Warszaw in the early 20th c. ?
Would it be a possible way to France through (current) Slovaquia Austria
etc... ? Actually, looking at a map, this way leads directly to the above
French border city of Mulhouse. But then winter is probably not the best of
times.

Was it usual procedure at that time for a winter resort's journal to list
supposedly unknown visitors as well as their place of residence in the
resort? Zakopane seems to have been quite in fashion as a train access dates
back to 1899, and 1st ski-jump 1925.

Thank you for your ideas.

As a side theme, I own the 1935 class photo >from the Mulhouse weaving
school, but then all members on the picture able to recognize Mecislas would
be above 100yr old today...

Marc Ryszfeld
Paris, France
Searching RYSZFELD. CHAYETTE. DON (Vilno). STOCZYK (Warszaw)


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Traveling alone in Poland at 15 year old / Zakopane ski resort #general

Marc <marcrys@...>
 

Dear all,

Mieczyslaw RYSZFELD (>from Warszaw) is listed as a visitor (guest) of the
Polish ski resort of Zakopane in 1929 (link:
http://mbc.malopolska.pl/dlibra/doccontent?id=82259&dirids=1 ).

The scarcity of the Ryszfeld family name (only in Warszaw with this
spelling) as well as the first name being very unusual among the Warszaw
branch lead me to think it may be the same person as Mecislas Ryszfeld, a
21y old student of weaving in 1935 in western France (Mulhouse). The latter
is listed in the school archives as being born in 1914.

Were they the same persons, Mieczyslaw Ryszfeld would have been 15 or 15 and
a half year old...

Would such a teenager travel alone on "holiday" to a ski resort 500km away
from Warszaw in the early 20th c. ?
Would it be a possible way to France through (current) Slovaquia Austria
etc... ? Actually, looking at a map, this way leads directly to the above
French border city of Mulhouse. But then winter is probably not the best of
times.

Was it usual procedure at that time for a winter resort's journal to list
supposedly unknown visitors as well as their place of residence in the
resort? Zakopane seems to have been quite in fashion as a train access dates
back to 1899, and 1st ski-jump 1925.

Thank you for your ideas.

As a side theme, I own the 1935 class photo >from the Mulhouse weaving
school, but then all members on the picture able to recognize Mecislas would
be above 100yr old today...

Marc Ryszfeld
Paris, France
Searching RYSZFELD. CHAYETTE. DON (Vilno). STOCZYK (Warszaw)


Detroit Orphanage and US Army records #general

bernerfolk
 

I'm trying to learn the fate and family of a female immigrant cousin
who left NYC for Detroit, probably between 1910-1925. An elderly
cousin recalls hearing she had died and someone trying,
unsuccessfully, to place her son with family back in NY. I found
a possible son in the Detroit Hebrew Orphan's Home in 1930 and a
couple of military records, all of which may or may not be for the
family I'm looking for.

I've spoken with YIVO where they were kind enough to check their
microfilm of records >from the Detroit social services agencies but
they didn't find a record for this individual, and Hebrew Union
Archive had no records of this type. Does anyone have any
suggestions for locating information on the boy in the Detroit
Hebrew Orphanage in 1930?

The National Jewish Welfare Board, Bureau of War Records, has an
Alphabetical Card showing "authenticated" the soldier was wounded
in Europe, inquiry date 7/24/45. The source of the information
is given as "Mar. 1945 Mo. rep .sub. by S. Saferstein-in mo.
rep. source bk."

~ Can anyone translate this bureaucratic shorthand?
~ Are there likely additional records >from this organization which
could be helpful in learning this soldier's family ties?

NARA provides an Army Serial Number, branch of service, enlistment date, etc.
~ Is it possible to request WWII US Army personnel records? Are
they likely to provide family information if the soldier was an orphan?

Any suggestions would be appreciated,
Sherri Venditti


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Detroit Orphanage and US Army records #general

bernerfolk
 

I'm trying to learn the fate and family of a female immigrant cousin
who left NYC for Detroit, probably between 1910-1925. An elderly
cousin recalls hearing she had died and someone trying,
unsuccessfully, to place her son with family back in NY. I found
a possible son in the Detroit Hebrew Orphan's Home in 1930 and a
couple of military records, all of which may or may not be for the
family I'm looking for.

I've spoken with YIVO where they were kind enough to check their
microfilm of records >from the Detroit social services agencies but
they didn't find a record for this individual, and Hebrew Union
Archive had no records of this type. Does anyone have any
suggestions for locating information on the boy in the Detroit
Hebrew Orphanage in 1930?

The National Jewish Welfare Board, Bureau of War Records, has an
Alphabetical Card showing "authenticated" the soldier was wounded
in Europe, inquiry date 7/24/45. The source of the information
is given as "Mar. 1945 Mo. rep .sub. by S. Saferstein-in mo.
rep. source bk."

~ Can anyone translate this bureaucratic shorthand?
~ Are there likely additional records >from this organization which
could be helpful in learning this soldier's family ties?

NARA provides an Army Serial Number, branch of service, enlistment date, etc.
~ Is it possible to request WWII US Army personnel records? Are
they likely to provide family information if the soldier was an orphan?

Any suggestions would be appreciated,
Sherri Venditti


The Netherlands to give a face to 10,000 killed US WWII Soldiers #general

Debby Gincig Painter
 

This is a great project. I have nothing to do with it but thought
it should be shared.

Debby Painter
Michigan

http://degezichtenvanmargraten.nl/index.php/en-US/news/44-the-netherlands-to-give-a-face-to-10-000-killed-u-s-wwii-soldiers
[or http://tinyurl.com/pho6ud3 - MODERATOR]


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen The Netherlands to give a face to 10,000 killed US WWII Soldiers #general

Debby Gincig Painter
 

This is a great project. I have nothing to do with it but thought
it should be shared.

Debby Painter
Michigan

http://degezichtenvanmargraten.nl/index.php/en-US/news/44-the-netherlands-to-give-a-face-to-10-000-killed-u-s-wwii-soldiers
[or http://tinyurl.com/pho6ud3 - MODERATOR]


Young Israel honorees from 1982 biographical sketches #general

Gary Lelonek <gary.lelonek@...>
 

Dear Genners,

I came across an award and bencher book >from the 70th anniversary
dinner for the National Council of Young Israel dated Sunday, March
14, 1982. In addition to listing the honorees they also provide a
biographical sketch of each and mention their community involvement.
Here is a list of the honorees:

Eli GERSTEN of NY
Nathaniel and Ruth SAPERSTEIN of NY
Dr. Murray MEDNICK and Risha GOODMAN of NY
Ben and Rachel GILMAN of Coney Island
Lena ALTSHULD of Cleveland
Ernest and Kitty FIELD of NY and Greater Miami
Carole and Jack FORGASH of Flatbush
Dr. Edward and Glenda HAROW of Century City California
Max and Ceil HEIMOWITZ of Skylake Florida
Erwin and Lotte KATZ of Brookline
Elias and Ilse LAUER of Woodmere
Harold and Florence MEISELMAN of NYC
Morris NOVETSKY and Phyllis MOSKOWITZ of Southfield
Rabbi Symcha Bunim PIONTNICA of Boro Park
Joe and Thelma ROBINSON of Midwood
Hans and Shulamith SEIDEMANN of Forest Hills
Samuel "Sonny" and Doris SKLAR of Kew Gardens Hills
Rabbi Leon L. SOLONCHE of Plainview
Cantor Lawrence and Roslyn STERN of Pelham Parkway.

If anyone would like a copy of a biographical sketch please email me.
Thank you,
Gary Lelonek

NOTE: The MODERATOR - who had to retype all of the above names in
upper case - will not be held responsible for any typographical
errors.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Young Israel honorees from 1982 biographical sketches #general

Gary Lelonek <gary.lelonek@...>
 

Dear Genners,

I came across an award and bencher book >from the 70th anniversary
dinner for the National Council of Young Israel dated Sunday, March
14, 1982. In addition to listing the honorees they also provide a
biographical sketch of each and mention their community involvement.
Here is a list of the honorees:

Eli GERSTEN of NY
Nathaniel and Ruth SAPERSTEIN of NY
Dr. Murray MEDNICK and Risha GOODMAN of NY
Ben and Rachel GILMAN of Coney Island
Lena ALTSHULD of Cleveland
Ernest and Kitty FIELD of NY and Greater Miami
Carole and Jack FORGASH of Flatbush
Dr. Edward and Glenda HAROW of Century City California
Max and Ceil HEIMOWITZ of Skylake Florida
Erwin and Lotte KATZ of Brookline
Elias and Ilse LAUER of Woodmere
Harold and Florence MEISELMAN of NYC
Morris NOVETSKY and Phyllis MOSKOWITZ of Southfield
Rabbi Symcha Bunim PIONTNICA of Boro Park
Joe and Thelma ROBINSON of Midwood
Hans and Shulamith SEIDEMANN of Forest Hills
Samuel "Sonny" and Doris SKLAR of Kew Gardens Hills
Rabbi Leon L. SOLONCHE of Plainview
Cantor Lawrence and Roslyn STERN of Pelham Parkway.

If anyone would like a copy of a biographical sketch please email me.
Thank you,
Gary Lelonek

NOTE: The MODERATOR - who had to retype all of the above names in
upper case - will not be held responsible for any typographical
errors.


Re: Stolpersteine and Memorial Plaques #germany

suzetarica@...
 

Hello, I wanted to mention as an alternative to Stolpersteine, the example
of my small town in Rheinland-Pfalz, Bollendorf. There was a community
of about 100 Jews. About 50 of them died in the Holocaust. The synagogue
had been burned down. We, the descendants, were able to ask the town for
a large memorial plaque offered by the mayor and town council, (who by
the way had no idea there had been such a vibrant Jewish community)
and the descendants of the Bollendorf community themselves paid for
another plaque listing all the full names and dates of the victims.
They both are on a wall along the town cemetery, in a public place.
They show the staggering extent of the destruction in one place.

Suzanne Tarica Bethesda MD suzetarica@...


German SIG #Germany Re: Stolpersteine and Memorial Plaques #germany

suzetarica@...
 

Hello, I wanted to mention as an alternative to Stolpersteine, the example
of my small town in Rheinland-Pfalz, Bollendorf. There was a community
of about 100 Jews. About 50 of them died in the Holocaust. The synagogue
had been burned down. We, the descendants, were able to ask the town for
a large memorial plaque offered by the mayor and town council, (who by
the way had no idea there had been such a vibrant Jewish community)
and the descendants of the Bollendorf community themselves paid for
another plaque listing all the full names and dates of the victims.
They both are on a wall along the town cemetery, in a public place.
They show the staggering extent of the destruction in one place.

Suzanne Tarica Bethesda MD suzetarica@...


Royalterra Jewish Genealogy Website #general

kelwel@...
 

I discovered this website which has many Jewish family trees on it and I
found that there are on it a number of persons with my family name. Also one
of my friends found a number of relatives on this website.

The question is: where did the people who are in charge of this website get
the information?

Since there is no way of contacting the website, I posted a message on the
Jewishgen discussion group and did get >from Logan Kleinwachs the information
on the organization and the people behind it.

It is an organization with the name of Sefarad House, located in Northampton
in the UK (I am omitting the street address and postal code). The person in
charge of the website seems to be a Mr. Jacob Maldonado.

If anyone knows anything about this organization I would appreciate a
response.

Henry Wellisch
Toronto

MODERATOR: Quick Googles of "Jacob Maldonado" with "Sefarad" and also
"Jacob Maldonado" with "Northampton" yield links to a wide variety
of companies (many apparently now dissolved), fundraising sites
(including Kickstarter), and even photos of Jacob. He also appears
on LinkedIn.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Royalterra Jewish Genealogy Website #general

kelwel@...
 

I discovered this website which has many Jewish family trees on it and I
found that there are on it a number of persons with my family name. Also one
of my friends found a number of relatives on this website.

The question is: where did the people who are in charge of this website get
the information?

Since there is no way of contacting the website, I posted a message on the
Jewishgen discussion group and did get >from Logan Kleinwachs the information
on the organization and the people behind it.

It is an organization with the name of Sefarad House, located in Northampton
in the UK (I am omitting the street address and postal code). The person in
charge of the website seems to be a Mr. Jacob Maldonado.

If anyone knows anything about this organization I would appreciate a
response.

Henry Wellisch
Toronto

MODERATOR: Quick Googles of "Jacob Maldonado" with "Sefarad" and also
"Jacob Maldonado" with "Northampton" yield links to a wide variety
of companies (many apparently now dissolved), fundraising sites
(including Kickstarter), and even photos of Jacob. He also appears
on LinkedIn.


Re: Jirka, Jiri FIEDLER #austria-czech

Madeleine Isenberg
 

I googled and found this article as mentioned by Helen Epstein about
the murderer of the Jiri and Dagmar Fiedlers.
You can read about the subterfuge that the murderer undertook to
canvas their home and murder of this wonderful couple.
http://www.praguemonitor.com/2015/02/25/respekt-prague-jewish-historian-fiedler-killed-thief

Madeleine Isenberg
Beverly Hills, CA
madeleine.isenberg@...

Researching: GOLDMAN, STEINER, LANGER, GLUECKSMAN in various parts of
Galicia, Poland: Nowy Targ, Nowy Sanz, Wachsmund, Dembno, Lapuszna,
Krakow, who migrated into Kezmarok or nearby towns in northern
Slovakia and Czech Republic (i.e., those who lived/had businesses in
Moravska Ostrava).
GOLDSTEIN in Abaujszina (Sena), Szkaros and Kosice, Slovakia; Tolcsva,
Hungary; very briefly in Timisoara, Romania


Austria-Czech SIG #Austria-Czech Re: Jirka, Jiri FIEDLER #austria-czech

Madeleine Isenberg
 

I googled and found this article as mentioned by Helen Epstein about
the murderer of the Jiri and Dagmar Fiedlers.
You can read about the subterfuge that the murderer undertook to
canvas their home and murder of this wonderful couple.
http://www.praguemonitor.com/2015/02/25/respekt-prague-jewish-historian-fiedler-killed-thief

Madeleine Isenberg
Beverly Hills, CA
madeleine.isenberg@...

Researching: GOLDMAN, STEINER, LANGER, GLUECKSMAN in various parts of
Galicia, Poland: Nowy Targ, Nowy Sanz, Wachsmund, Dembno, Lapuszna,
Krakow, who migrated into Kezmarok or nearby towns in northern
Slovakia and Czech Republic (i.e., those who lived/had businesses in
Moravska Ostrava).
GOLDSTEIN in Abaujszina (Sena), Szkaros and Kosice, Slovakia; Tolcsva,
Hungary; very briefly in Timisoara, Romania


Re: RE Stolpersteine not to be walked on #germany

Fritz Neubauer
 

Am 12.03.2015 Gunther Steinberg gunste24@... wrote:
... Of course there is an alternative. What remains of the Jewish
Quarter of Venice has memorial plaques set into walls.
A very nice solution which makes that site worth visiting.
Dear Gunther,
the suggestion to put plates into walls seems to be impratical, because
you would need an agreement with each individual house owner (or
owners!), while the pavements are city property, and the city
administrations can do there or allow whatever they decide to do. Such a
situation arose e.g. in my town here when many years ago a plate was
supposed to be affixed into the wall of the house where originally the
local synagoge stood. The house owners refused to allow that, so the
city erected a small monument in front of the house - the memorial
meetings in November have been taking place there ever since ...

With kind regards Fritz Neubauer, North Germany


German SIG #Germany Re: RE Stolpersteine not to be walked on #germany

Fritz Neubauer
 

Am 12.03.2015 Gunther Steinberg gunste24@... wrote:
... Of course there is an alternative. What remains of the Jewish
Quarter of Venice has memorial plaques set into walls.
A very nice solution which makes that site worth visiting.
Dear Gunther,
the suggestion to put plates into walls seems to be impratical, because
you would need an agreement with each individual house owner (or
owners!), while the pavements are city property, and the city
administrations can do there or allow whatever they decide to do. Such a
situation arose e.g. in my town here when many years ago a plate was
supposed to be affixed into the wall of the house where originally the
local synagoge stood. The house owners refused to allow that, so the
city erected a small monument in front of the house - the memorial
meetings in November have been taking place there ever since ...

With kind regards Fritz Neubauer, North Germany

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