Date   

Re: Research Questions #bessarabia

Yefim Kogan
 

Hi Ann,

Thanks for the message. I think my message might be interesting to others too. I should tell you, that
I never hear such last name, I am sure that I did not know many of last names.

I looked up the Revision list and double checked with original, and the translation was done correctly.
The only thing I found that you wrote Yankel's father's name as Shakna, but in fact it is Shakhna.

Next thing what I did is tried to find an origin of that surname, and I did it at Aleksander Beider's book:
Bakhchalej (this is how it is written in the dictionary), but it is very close to what you wrote. It is said
that it was common in Kishinev (that is great), and the surname is a Toponymical origin (Geographical)
from a village called Bakchaliya (Bendery uezd)... and that village exists on the current Google maps it
is called Baccealia (written in Romanian). I am not sure now about Napoleonic soldier, but I would
suggest to try to find out more about that village, and about the name of the village.

All the best,

Hug Sameah,
Yefim Kogan
Bessarabia SIG Leader and Coordinator
--------------------------
from Annie Lustig
Sent: Sunday, April 2, 2017 11:02 AM

Part of my research is to not only find facts about members in my tree, but to also track down some
family stories. One such story comes >from my great grandfather's family >from Kishinev.............


Bessarabia SIG #Bessarabia RE: Research Questions #bessarabia

Yefim Kogan
 

Hi Ann,

Thanks for the message. I think my message might be interesting to others too. I should tell you, that
I never hear such last name, I am sure that I did not know many of last names.

I looked up the Revision list and double checked with original, and the translation was done correctly.
The only thing I found that you wrote Yankel's father's name as Shakna, but in fact it is Shakhna.

Next thing what I did is tried to find an origin of that surname, and I did it at Aleksander Beider's book:
Bakhchalej (this is how it is written in the dictionary), but it is very close to what you wrote. It is said
that it was common in Kishinev (that is great), and the surname is a Toponymical origin (Geographical)
from a village called Bakchaliya (Bendery uezd)... and that village exists on the current Google maps it
is called Baccealia (written in Romanian). I am not sure now about Napoleonic soldier, but I would
suggest to try to find out more about that village, and about the name of the village.

All the best,

Hug Sameah,
Yefim Kogan
Bessarabia SIG Leader and Coordinator
--------------------------
from Annie Lustig
Sent: Sunday, April 2, 2017 11:02 AM

Part of my research is to not only find facts about members in my tree, but to also track down some
family stories. One such story comes >from my great grandfather's family >from Kishinev.............


Re: Location of Bajovagar #hungary

tom
 

the closest name i could find is bajorva'ga's in saros megye,
which is bajerovce in present-day slovakia.
the jewshgen gazetteer does not list it as having a jewish community,
but there are 5 smaller communities within a 10-mile radius.


....... tom klein, toronto


albie.hochhauser@gmail.com wrote:

In the 1867 census, my great-grandfather is listed as having been
born in Bajovagar or Bajovagas in 1841. The handwriting on the census
record makes it difficult to distinguish the last letter of the
location.
In a house sale contract dated 1844, my great-great-grandfather is
shown as living in Berwager. I assume these are the same place and
that Berwager is the German equivalent of Bajovagar/s.
Any suggestions as to its present day location? It's probably in
Northern Slovakia, near Brezovice, but I can't find anything close to
either spelling.
Albert Hochhauser
Moderator: Unless someone has new info, this thread is ended.


Hungary SIG #Hungary Re: Location of Bajovagar #hungary

tom
 

the closest name i could find is bajorva'ga's in saros megye,
which is bajerovce in present-day slovakia.
the jewshgen gazetteer does not list it as having a jewish community,
but there are 5 smaller communities within a 10-mile radius.


....... tom klein, toronto


albie.hochhauser@gmail.com wrote:

In the 1867 census, my great-grandfather is listed as having been
born in Bajovagar or Bajovagas in 1841. The handwriting on the census
record makes it difficult to distinguish the last letter of the
location.
In a house sale contract dated 1844, my great-great-grandfather is
shown as living in Berwager. I assume these are the same place and
that Berwager is the German equivalent of Bajovagar/s.
Any suggestions as to its present day location? It's probably in
Northern Slovakia, near Brezovice, but I can't find anything close to
either spelling.
Albert Hochhauser
Moderator: Unless someone has new info, this thread is ended.


Completeness of birth and marriage records #hungary

jrmilch@...
 

I have made great use of the Hungarian birth and marriage records in
building my family tree. However, I find that they are very
sparse--it appears that only certain records have been transcribed and
indexed. For example, there are many children that I know were born
near Rajec, Slovakia, but they don't appear in the records. Also,
it is rare to find both birth and marriage records for the same
person.

Can anyone help me understand the gaps? Were many births and
marriages never recorded? Are these records >from distributed
archives, and many have been lost? Are there more records on
microfilm at LDS, which have never been put into the online index?

thank you, Jim Milch

Moderator: You did not mention the years that the births
and marriages took place but I assume they happened when Rajecz was
in Trencsen megye, Hungary. The vital records database includes close
to 3000 BMD records >from Rajecz, including 70 births, 23 marriages, and
14 deaths but there are many reasons why you are not finding some that
you need:
1. Register was not filmed by Family Search;
2. Register has not been indexed by H-SIG volunteers;
3. Events were not reported;
4. Names are misspelled in the Jewish register;
5. Event took place in another place;
6. Marriages were often not reported.
Others can probably think of more reasons but there are also remedies.
1. Check FamilySearch.org to see if register images are available on-line or
can be borrowed for use at a nearby library branch (this may require browsing
through many images);
2. If FamilySearch has the register but it has not been indexed, volunteer as
as an indexer!


Hungary SIG #Hungary Completeness of birth and marriage records #hungary

jrmilch@...
 

I have made great use of the Hungarian birth and marriage records in
building my family tree. However, I find that they are very
sparse--it appears that only certain records have been transcribed and
indexed. For example, there are many children that I know were born
near Rajec, Slovakia, but they don't appear in the records. Also,
it is rare to find both birth and marriage records for the same
person.

Can anyone help me understand the gaps? Were many births and
marriages never recorded? Are these records >from distributed
archives, and many have been lost? Are there more records on
microfilm at LDS, which have never been put into the online index?

thank you, Jim Milch

Moderator: You did not mention the years that the births
and marriages took place but I assume they happened when Rajecz was
in Trencsen megye, Hungary. The vital records database includes close
to 3000 BMD records >from Rajecz, including 70 births, 23 marriages, and
14 deaths but there are many reasons why you are not finding some that
you need:
1. Register was not filmed by Family Search;
2. Register has not been indexed by H-SIG volunteers;
3. Events were not reported;
4. Names are misspelled in the Jewish register;
5. Event took place in another place;
6. Marriages were often not reported.
Others can probably think of more reasons but there are also remedies.
1. Check FamilySearch.org to see if register images are available on-line or
can be borrowed for use at a nearby library branch (this may require browsing
through many images);
2. If FamilySearch has the register but it has not been indexed, volunteer as
as an indexer!


Re: Location of Bajovagar #hungary

Peter Absolon
 

Hi

It is Bajorvagas, today's Bajerovce:

https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajorv%C3%A1g%C3%A1s
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajerovce

Best,

Peter Absolon
Kosice, Slovakia

On 4 April 2017 at 14:30, Albert M Hochhauser
albie.hochhauser@gmail.com <h-sig@lyris.jewishgen.org> wrote:
In the 1867 census, my great-grandfather is listed as having been
born in Bajovagar or Bajovagas in 1841. The handwriting on the census
record makes it difficult to distinguish the last letter of the
location.
In a house sale contract dated 1844, my great-great-grandfather is
shown as living in Berwager. I assume these are the same place and
that Berwager is the German equivalent of Bajovagar/s.
Any suggestions as to its present day location? It's probably in
Northern Slovakia, near Brezovice, but I can't find anything close to
either spelling.
Albert Hochhauser

albie.hochhauser@gmail.com


Re: Location of Bajovagar and Other Towns in Slovakia of Today #hungary

Madeleine Isenberg
 

To All,

Having been involved in research in Slovakia for several years, a very
useful site for finding current names of town is this:
http://www.cisarik.com/0_all-villages-A.html. THe genealogy
researcher (probably Juraj Cisarik), who compiled this provides former
Hungarian and German names for the towns and even a map so you can see
the proximity to other towns.

For Mr. Hochhauser, Bajovagar was found to be Bajerovce.

Regards,

Madeleine Isenberg
madeleine.isenberg@gmail.com
Beverly Hills, CA

Researching: GOLDMAN, STEINER, LANGER, GLUECKSMAN, STOTTER in various
parts of Galicia, Poland: Nowy Targ, Nowy Sanz, Wachsmund, Dembno,
Lapuszna, Krakow, who migrated into Kezmarok or nearby towns in
northern Slovakia and Czech Republic (i.e., those who lived/had
businesses in Moravska Ostrava).
GOLDSTEIN in Abaujszina (Sena or Szina), Szkaros and Kosice, Slovakia;
Tolcsva and Tokaj, Hungary; very briefly in Timisoara, Romania

On Tue, Apr 4, 2017 at 11:04 PM, H-SIG digest <h-sig@lyris.jewishgen.org> w=
rote:

H-SIG Digest for Tuesday, April 04, 2017.

1. Location of Bajovagar

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Location of Bajovagar
From: albie.hochhauser@gmail.com
Date: Tue, 4 Apr 2017 15:30:36 +0300
X-Message-Number: 1

In the 1867 census, my great-grandfather is listed as having been
born in Bajovagar or Bajovagas in 1841. The handwriting on the census
record makes it difficult to distinguish the last letter of the
location.
In a house sale contract dated 1844, my great-great-grandfather is
shown as living in Berwager. I assume these are the same place and
that Berwager is the German equivalent of Bajovagar/s.
Any suggestions as to its present day location? It's probably in
Northern Slovakia, near Brezovice, but I can't find anything close to
either spelling.
Albert Hochhauser

albie.hochhauser@gmail.com


Hungary SIG #Hungary Re: Location of Bajovagar #hungary

Peter Absolon
 

Hi

It is Bajorvagas, today's Bajerovce:

https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajorv%C3%A1g%C3%A1s
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajerovce

Best,

Peter Absolon
Kosice, Slovakia

On 4 April 2017 at 14:30, Albert M Hochhauser
albie.hochhauser@gmail.com <h-sig@lyris.jewishgen.org> wrote:
In the 1867 census, my great-grandfather is listed as having been
born in Bajovagar or Bajovagas in 1841. The handwriting on the census
record makes it difficult to distinguish the last letter of the
location.
In a house sale contract dated 1844, my great-great-grandfather is
shown as living in Berwager. I assume these are the same place and
that Berwager is the German equivalent of Bajovagar/s.
Any suggestions as to its present day location? It's probably in
Northern Slovakia, near Brezovice, but I can't find anything close to
either spelling.
Albert Hochhauser

albie.hochhauser@gmail.com


Hungary SIG #Hungary Re: Location of Bajovagar and Other Towns in Slovakia of Today #hungary

Madeleine Isenberg
 

To All,

Having been involved in research in Slovakia for several years, a very
useful site for finding current names of town is this:
http://www.cisarik.com/0_all-villages-A.html. THe genealogy
researcher (probably Juraj Cisarik), who compiled this provides former
Hungarian and German names for the towns and even a map so you can see
the proximity to other towns.

For Mr. Hochhauser, Bajovagar was found to be Bajerovce.

Regards,

Madeleine Isenberg
madeleine.isenberg@gmail.com
Beverly Hills, CA

Researching: GOLDMAN, STEINER, LANGER, GLUECKSMAN, STOTTER in various
parts of Galicia, Poland: Nowy Targ, Nowy Sanz, Wachsmund, Dembno,
Lapuszna, Krakow, who migrated into Kezmarok or nearby towns in
northern Slovakia and Czech Republic (i.e., those who lived/had
businesses in Moravska Ostrava).
GOLDSTEIN in Abaujszina (Sena or Szina), Szkaros and Kosice, Slovakia;
Tolcsva and Tokaj, Hungary; very briefly in Timisoara, Romania

On Tue, Apr 4, 2017 at 11:04 PM, H-SIG digest <h-sig@lyris.jewishgen.org> w=
rote:

H-SIG Digest for Tuesday, April 04, 2017.

1. Location of Bajovagar

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Location of Bajovagar
From: albie.hochhauser@gmail.com
Date: Tue, 4 Apr 2017 15:30:36 +0300
X-Message-Number: 1

In the 1867 census, my great-grandfather is listed as having been
born in Bajovagar or Bajovagas in 1841. The handwriting on the census
record makes it difficult to distinguish the last letter of the
location.
In a house sale contract dated 1844, my great-great-grandfather is
shown as living in Berwager. I assume these are the same place and
that Berwager is the German equivalent of Bajovagar/s.
Any suggestions as to its present day location? It's probably in
Northern Slovakia, near Brezovice, but I can't find anything close to
either spelling.
Albert Hochhauser

albie.hochhauser@gmail.com


BABAD family in Haifa #general

Neil@...
 

Trying to make contact with the descendants of the Babad rabbinical
family. Aaron (son of Moshe Babad of Varitch and Zolkiew who perished)
survived and lived in Haifa. He had a son Moshe and daughter Malka.

Neil Rosenstein

MODERATOR NOTE: Please respond privately with contact information.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen BABAD family in Haifa #general

Neil@...
 

Trying to make contact with the descendants of the Babad rabbinical
family. Aaron (son of Moshe Babad of Varitch and Zolkiew who perished)
survived and lived in Haifa. He had a son Moshe and daughter Malka.

Neil Rosenstein

MODERATOR NOTE: Please respond privately with contact information.


Mendel BECKERMAN USA #general

vangheluwe.smietan
 

I am interessed to have genealogical details about Mendel BECKERMAN emigrated
in USA, 11th of August 1906.

Daniel Vangheluwe, FRANCE

MODERATOR NOTE: Mendel arrived in New York on the S.S. Campania >from Liverpool.
Please respond privately unless providing information regarding methods or
techniques.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Mendel BECKERMAN USA #general

vangheluwe.smietan
 

I am interessed to have genealogical details about Mendel BECKERMAN emigrated
in USA, 11th of August 1906.

Daniel Vangheluwe, FRANCE

MODERATOR NOTE: Mendel arrived in New York on the S.S. Campania >from Liverpool.
Please respond privately unless providing information regarding methods or
techniques.


Re: Residence Rules in Russian Empire #bessarabia

Herbert Lazerow
 

<It has come to my attention that residence identification did not always
correspond to where a person actually lived. A person could be called a
Zhitomir bourgeois [meshchanin] but live in Odessa, or a Proskurov
meshchanin but live somewhere else. It had something to do with places of
registration versus places of residence, or residence of one's father versus
where the child lived.>
Each person in the Russian Empire was registered. That registration had two
components.

The first component was a status. For most Jews, that status was "townsperson"
or "bourgeois" [meshchanin in Russian]. About 10% of Jews were registered as
merchants, of which there were 3 different classes. Jews in the military were
registered as soldiers, often with their precise ranks or the name of their
unit, and when they left service they were retired soldiers. I have
occasionally seen Jews registered as peasants. For perhaps obvious reasons, I
have never seen a Jew registered as nobility or as clergy. Occasionally one is
registered as an honorary citizen. Occasionally one is registered as a citizen
of a foreign country.

The second component of registration was a place. In the case of my Kimmelman
ancestors who lived in Nezhin Ukraine 1850-1890, that place was Vitebsk.
Presumably, they lived in Vitebsk when they first came to Russia.

That registration was hereditary and patrilineal. A woman who married took on
the registration of her husband. (Thus, you have the incongruous spectacle of
a married woman being registered as a soldier at a time when there were no
women in the Russian military.) A child took the registration of his or her
father.

Registration could be changed, but that took effort and money, the latter of
which was in short supply in the Jewish community. After the liberation of the
serfs, it does not appear that there was any practical consequence to changing
your place of registration.

In the 19th century, there began a period of (comparative) movement in the
Russian Empire. Seeking economic opportunity, people tended to move >from the
countryside to the towns, >from small towns to larger cities, and >from north to
south. Odessa goes >from 100,000 people in 1800 to more than a million in 1900.

So people simply moved where they could. While theoretically Jews could not
live outside the Pale of Settlement before 1917 unless they resided in
agricultural colonies, were military or retired military, or merchants, those
laws were not much enforced before 1880, and perhaps only sporadically
thereafter.

It is hard to know when most Jews acquired their registration. Since most
Jews and Roman Catholics in Ukraine were either murdered or expelled in the
turmoil surrounding the liberation of Ukraine >from Poland in 1648, and only
returned gradually, the most likely time for their registration would be
1700-1800.

A person's birth, death, marriage and divorce records would be at the place
of residence because the act occurred there. At least in theory, the person's
census records should be at the place of registration. I have no experience
with whether that theory was observed in practice.

Bert

Herbert Lazerow


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Residence Rules in Russian Empire #general

Herbert Lazerow
 

<It has come to my attention that residence identification did not always
correspond to where a person actually lived. A person could be called a
Zhitomir bourgeois [meshchanin] but live in Odessa, or a Proskurov
meshchanin but live somewhere else. It had something to do with places of
registration versus places of residence, or residence of one's father versus
where the child lived.>
Each person in the Russian Empire was registered. That registration had two
components.

The first component was a status. For most Jews, that status was "townsperson"
or "bourgeois" [meshchanin in Russian]. About 10% of Jews were registered as
merchants, of which there were 3 different classes. Jews in the military were
registered as soldiers, often with their precise ranks or the name of their
unit, and when they left service they were retired soldiers. I have
occasionally seen Jews registered as peasants. For perhaps obvious reasons, I
have never seen a Jew registered as nobility or as clergy. Occasionally one is
registered as an honorary citizen. Occasionally one is registered as a citizen
of a foreign country.

The second component of registration was a place. In the case of my Kimmelman
ancestors who lived in Nezhin Ukraine 1850-1890, that place was Vitebsk.
Presumably, they lived in Vitebsk when they first came to Russia.

That registration was hereditary and patrilineal. A woman who married took on
the registration of her husband. (Thus, you have the incongruous spectacle of
a married woman being registered as a soldier at a time when there were no
women in the Russian military.) A child took the registration of his or her
father.

Registration could be changed, but that took effort and money, the latter of
which was in short supply in the Jewish community. After the liberation of the
serfs, it does not appear that there was any practical consequence to changing
your place of registration.

In the 19th century, there began a period of (comparative) movement in the
Russian Empire. Seeking economic opportunity, people tended to move >from the
countryside to the towns, >from small towns to larger cities, and >from north to
south. Odessa goes >from 100,000 people in 1800 to more than a million in 1900.

So people simply moved where they could. While theoretically Jews could not
live outside the Pale of Settlement before 1917 unless they resided in
agricultural colonies, were military or retired military, or merchants, those
laws were not much enforced before 1880, and perhaps only sporadically
thereafter.

It is hard to know when most Jews acquired their registration. Since most
Jews and Roman Catholics in Ukraine were either murdered or expelled in the
turmoil surrounding the liberation of Ukraine >from Poland in 1648, and only
returned gradually, the most likely time for their registration would be
1700-1800.

A person's birth, death, marriage and divorce records would be at the place
of residence because the act occurred there. At least in theory, the person's
census records should be at the place of registration. I have no experience
with whether that theory was observed in practice.

Bert

Herbert Lazerow


How to Obtain a Death record from Israel-Seeking record on Chava//Khava(GREENBERG)Schwartz #general

sacredsisters677 <sacredsisters677@...>
 

Hi All

I am hoping someone can help me with obtaining a death record >from Israel. I am
trying to trace this last known kin of Yosef & Anna GREENBERG. Yosef & Ana died
in the Shoah and their daughter Chava (GREENBERG) SCHWARTZ submitted a POT back
in 1976.

I have had some research done in the past which has revealed to me that Chava
immigrated to Israel about 1969 and died there in July 13 of 1997 in Kfar
Sabakfar Sava Israel. I have a photo of the tombstone, but what I am really
hoping for is to find any evidence of her having children who survived her. I
am hoping a copy of her death record would shed some light. I am trying to
comfirm her connection to my great-grandfather Abraham Adolph GREENBERG who
shares the same parentage as Yosef her father. Any and all help is appreciated
in this matter.

Sarah Greenberg(USA-CT)
sacredsisters677@gmail.com


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen How to Obtain a Death record from Israel-Seeking record on Chava//Khava(GREENBERG)Schwartz #general

sacredsisters677 <sacredsisters677@...>
 

Hi All

I am hoping someone can help me with obtaining a death record >from Israel. I am
trying to trace this last known kin of Yosef & Anna GREENBERG. Yosef & Ana died
in the Shoah and their daughter Chava (GREENBERG) SCHWARTZ submitted a POT back
in 1976.

I have had some research done in the past which has revealed to me that Chava
immigrated to Israel about 1969 and died there in July 13 of 1997 in Kfar
Sabakfar Sava Israel. I have a photo of the tombstone, but what I am really
hoping for is to find any evidence of her having children who survived her. I
am hoping a copy of her death record would shed some light. I am trying to
comfirm her connection to my great-grandfather Abraham Adolph GREENBERG who
shares the same parentage as Yosef her father. Any and all help is appreciated
in this matter.

Sarah Greenberg(USA-CT)
sacredsisters677@gmail.com


Re: Residence Rules in Russian Empire #bessarabia

Judith Singer
 

The set of residence rules for Jews in the Russian Empire is complex
and self-contradictory. They changed several times over the course of
Russian rule.

The set of laws concerning Jews issued by Tsar Alexander I in 1804
required that all Jews be registered and adopt a surname. Any Jew who
could not provide written proof of their registration would be treated
as a vagabond. Although Jews were allowed to relocate, they first had
to provide evidence >from their landowner of their residence [nearly
all land in the Pale and in Russia in general was owned by nobles,
even the large towns] that they had satisfied all their financial and
other obligations and provide the local court with a tax-paying
certificate >from their kahal. The local court would then issue a
passport to the place where the Jew wished to relocate. Jews without a
passport would be arrested by police and sent into the steppe lands.
See "1804 Russian set of laws concerning Jews" by Vitaly Charny
(http://www.jewishgen.org/Belarus/lists/1804_laws.htm ) for further
details.

Under Tsar Alexander II, however, the laws regarding residence were
relaxed and it was easier for veterans, professionals, artisans and
merchants of the first guild to obtain permission to reside elsewhere,
even outside the Pale. At one point, approximately 5% of the Jews of
Russia were living outside the Pale.

When Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 and the virulently
anti-Semitic Nicholas I became Tsar, a new set of laws was promulgated
in May 1882 and additional laws every year thereafter restricting the
rights of Jews in every respect, including residence. For example,
thousands of Jews who had been living lawfully in Moscow were abruptly
expelled in 1891.

The laws are too complex and changed too often to set forth here. For
details as of 1890, see "On Personal Status and Right of Settlement
and Movement", part of "1890 Summary of Laws Relating to the Jews in
Russia (Excerpts >from the Foster Commission Report)" at
http://www.angelfire.com/ms2/belaroots/foster.htm#settlement1 . For
laws between 1890 and 1912, see "Legal Restrictions Imposed upon the
Jews since 1882" at http://www.angelfire.com/ms2/belaroots/wolf.htm

As if that were not complex enough, it should be borne in mind that
laws were not always enforced as written. Sometimes the enforcement
was lax or spotty, sometimes the local officials chose to interpret
the laws more harshly than written, and sometimes the laws could be
circumvented with bribery, which became a necessary part of life for
Jews in Russia.

Lastly, the place of birth is so often different >from the place of
residence that, though I have not seen scholarly commentary on this,
it appears to me that women often returned temporarily to their
mothers' homes when it was time to give birth.

You will see if you look at the records >from the 1897 Census of Russia
that there are different entries for place of birth, place of
registration, and place of residence, so it was accepted by the
officials even during a time of oppressive restrictions that Jews might
live in a place other than where registered.

Judith Singer


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Residence Rules in Russian Empire #general

Judith Singer
 

The set of residence rules for Jews in the Russian Empire is complex
and self-contradictory. They changed several times over the course of
Russian rule.

The set of laws concerning Jews issued by Tsar Alexander I in 1804
required that all Jews be registered and adopt a surname. Any Jew who
could not provide written proof of their registration would be treated
as a vagabond. Although Jews were allowed to relocate, they first had
to provide evidence >from their landowner of their residence [nearly
all land in the Pale and in Russia in general was owned by nobles,
even the large towns] that they had satisfied all their financial and
other obligations and provide the local court with a tax-paying
certificate >from their kahal. The local court would then issue a
passport to the place where the Jew wished to relocate. Jews without a
passport would be arrested by police and sent into the steppe lands.
See "1804 Russian set of laws concerning Jews" by Vitaly Charny
(http://www.jewishgen.org/Belarus/lists/1804_laws.htm ) for further
details.

Under Tsar Alexander II, however, the laws regarding residence were
relaxed and it was easier for veterans, professionals, artisans and
merchants of the first guild to obtain permission to reside elsewhere,
even outside the Pale. At one point, approximately 5% of the Jews of
Russia were living outside the Pale.

When Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 and the virulently
anti-Semitic Nicholas I became Tsar, a new set of laws was promulgated
in May 1882 and additional laws every year thereafter restricting the
rights of Jews in every respect, including residence. For example,
thousands of Jews who had been living lawfully in Moscow were abruptly
expelled in 1891.

The laws are too complex and changed too often to set forth here. For
details as of 1890, see "On Personal Status and Right of Settlement
and Movement", part of "1890 Summary of Laws Relating to the Jews in
Russia (Excerpts >from the Foster Commission Report)" at
http://www.angelfire.com/ms2/belaroots/foster.htm#settlement1 . For
laws between 1890 and 1912, see "Legal Restrictions Imposed upon the
Jews since 1882" at http://www.angelfire.com/ms2/belaroots/wolf.htm

As if that were not complex enough, it should be borne in mind that
laws were not always enforced as written. Sometimes the enforcement
was lax or spotty, sometimes the local officials chose to interpret
the laws more harshly than written, and sometimes the laws could be
circumvented with bribery, which became a necessary part of life for
Jews in Russia.

Lastly, the place of birth is so often different >from the place of
residence that, though I have not seen scholarly commentary on this,
it appears to me that women often returned temporarily to their
mothers' homes when it was time to give birth.

You will see if you look at the records >from the 1897 Census of Russia
that there are different entries for place of birth, place of
registration, and place of residence, so it was accepted by the
officials even during a time of oppressive restrictions that Jews might
live in a place other than where registered.

Judith Singer

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