Date   

Re: Bezirksrabbiner and Klaus Rabbi #general

jel
 

A Klaus Rabbi denotes the head of a religious school or Cheder.

Judith Lipmanson

In Germany, several rabbis whom I am researching in Germany during the period
1850 - 1940, held the positions -- "Bezirksrabbiner" or "Klaus Rabbi".
...
Was a Klaus Rabbi the Rabbi of a particular synagogue?


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Bezirksrabbiner and Klaus Rabbi #general

jel
 

A Klaus Rabbi denotes the head of a religious school or Cheder.

Judith Lipmanson

In Germany, several rabbis whom I am researching in Germany during the period
1850 - 1940, held the positions -- "Bezirksrabbiner" or "Klaus Rabbi".
...
Was a Klaus Rabbi the Rabbi of a particular synagogue?


IGRA's World War I Collection #general

Elena Bazes
 

This Sunday, November 11th marks the centenary of the end of World War I.

The Israel Genealogy Research Association (IGRA) is proud to present
its World War I collection in memory of those Jewish soldiers from
Palestine and abroad who fought in this war.

To see a preview of the collection, go to

https://www.slideshare.net/igra3/wwi-palestiine-centenerary

Before searching the databases, please register for free on the IGRA website:

http://genealogy.org.il/

To search the databases, go to

https://genealogy.org.il/AID/

Please note, the IGRA databases are searchable to all registrants. The
search results page is also available to all registrants. Additional
details regarding most databases are available only to paid IGRA
members. Certain exceptions exist due to requests of the specific
archives.

Elena Biegel Bazes
IGRA Publicity Chairperson


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen IGRA's World War I Collection #general

Elena Bazes
 

This Sunday, November 11th marks the centenary of the end of World War I.

The Israel Genealogy Research Association (IGRA) is proud to present
its World War I collection in memory of those Jewish soldiers from
Palestine and abroad who fought in this war.

To see a preview of the collection, go to

https://www.slideshare.net/igra3/wwi-palestiine-centenerary

Before searching the databases, please register for free on the IGRA website:

http://genealogy.org.il/

To search the databases, go to

https://genealogy.org.il/AID/

Please note, the IGRA databases are searchable to all registrants. The
search results page is also available to all registrants. Additional
details regarding most databases are available only to paid IGRA
members. Certain exceptions exist due to requests of the specific
archives.

Elena Biegel Bazes
IGRA Publicity Chairperson


Denial of Petition for Naturalization: "Was not well disposed to our institutions" #general

Meron Lavie
 

Hi all,

I have run across the Petition for Naturalization for a relative >from 1923,
to the Supreme Court of Kings County, NY.

His petition was denied. Actually, it took me quite a while to notice that
the petition was in fact denied; I had immediately listed him as naturalized
upon finding the Petition. Only in later review did I notice the denial.

This is the first time I ever saw a denied petition. The reason given by the
judge was: "Was not well disposed to our institutions".

There is evidence that the relative in question had psychiatric problems,
but that branch of the family were very simple people, and I find it
unlikely that he would have been an active, ideological anarchist,
polygamist, or belong to any extreme group whatsoever.

Also, given that he had bothered to apply for citizenship, and given that he
had signed the Petition (in which he swore he was not an anarchist or
polygamist, and was attached to the principles of the Constitution), I find
it difficult to believe that he then told the judge orally that he was in
favor of the violent overthrow of the government and replacing it with
anarchy. Also, being a bachelor, polygamy was ruled out.

Has anyone else ever run into a denied Petition for Naturalization, and if
so, for the above ostensive reason?

TIA,
Meron LAVIE


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Denial of Petition for Naturalization: "Was not well disposed to our institutions" #general

Meron Lavie
 

Hi all,

I have run across the Petition for Naturalization for a relative >from 1923,
to the Supreme Court of Kings County, NY.

His petition was denied. Actually, it took me quite a while to notice that
the petition was in fact denied; I had immediately listed him as naturalized
upon finding the Petition. Only in later review did I notice the denial.

This is the first time I ever saw a denied petition. The reason given by the
judge was: "Was not well disposed to our institutions".

There is evidence that the relative in question had psychiatric problems,
but that branch of the family were very simple people, and I find it
unlikely that he would have been an active, ideological anarchist,
polygamist, or belong to any extreme group whatsoever.

Also, given that he had bothered to apply for citizenship, and given that he
had signed the Petition (in which he swore he was not an anarchist or
polygamist, and was attached to the principles of the Constitution), I find
it difficult to believe that he then told the judge orally that he was in
favor of the violent overthrow of the government and replacing it with
anarchy. Also, being a bachelor, polygamy was ruled out.

Has anyone else ever run into a denied Petition for Naturalization, and if
so, for the above ostensive reason?

TIA,
Meron LAVIE


GRIES/GRIESZ fm Budapest #hungary

Caroline <cfgries@...>
 

Hi,
I am m looking for the Gries / Griesz Family of Budapest Hungary. My 2nd Great
Grandfather Jacob Gries left for the US. He left his mother Magdalena and his
siblings Josef, Benjamin, Michael, Rosalia and Teresa. I am looking for their
descendants.

Can anyone help me with getting my 3xâ??s Grea Grandmothers
headstone fixed in the Salgotarjani
Cemetery in Budapest. None of my attempts seem to be working.

Caroline F Gries
Denver CO
Cfgries@comcast.com

Moderator: When posting messages you are far more likely to get a useful
response if your subject line describes the content of the message. If you can
help, please reply off-list.


Hungary SIG #Hungary GRIES/GRIESZ fm Budapest #hungary

Caroline <cfgries@...>
 

Hi,
I am m looking for the Gries / Griesz Family of Budapest Hungary. My 2nd Great
Grandfather Jacob Gries left for the US. He left his mother Magdalena and his
siblings Josef, Benjamin, Michael, Rosalia and Teresa. I am looking for their
descendants.

Can anyone help me with getting my 3xâ??s Grea Grandmothers
headstone fixed in the Salgotarjani
Cemetery in Budapest. None of my attempts seem to be working.

Caroline F Gries
Denver CO
Cfgries@comcast.com

Moderator: When posting messages you are far more likely to get a useful
response if your subject line describes the content of the message. If you can
help, please reply off-list.


Re: Bezirksrabbiner and Klaus Rabbi #general

Evertjan. <exxjxw.hannivoort@...>
 

(Judith Lipmanson lipmanson@comcast.net) wrote on 09 Nov 2018 in
soc.genealogy.jewish:

A Klaus Rabbi denotes the head of a religious school or Cheder.
Where "Klaus", meaning "school" is >from Latin "clusa" [= closed]
Yiddish: klaus, klojs, klous, plural klojsn,
and is explained here:

<https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klaus_(Schule)>

--
Evertjan Hannivoort.
The Netherlands.
exjxwxhannivoortATinterxnlxnet
(Please change the x'es to dots)


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Bezirksrabbiner and Klaus Rabbi #general

Evertjan. <exxjxw.hannivoort@...>
 

(Judith Lipmanson lipmanson@comcast.net) wrote on 09 Nov 2018 in
soc.genealogy.jewish:

A Klaus Rabbi denotes the head of a religious school or Cheder.
Where "Klaus", meaning "school" is >from Latin "clusa" [= closed]
Yiddish: klaus, klojs, klous, plural klojsn,
and is explained here:

<https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klaus_(Schule)>

--
Evertjan Hannivoort.
The Netherlands.
exjxwxhannivoortATinterxnlxnet
(Please change the x'es to dots)


Re: Quest of a Bostonian to trace roots from Turkey to Spain #sephardic

Asparagirl
 

Hi Joshua,

You don't actually have to prove your ancestry all the way back to
pre-1492 Spain, you just need to prove descent >from a known Sephardic
community in the diaspora. Ideally the Spanish authorities are looking
for you to have documentation of a ketubah or birth certificate
indicating Sephardic roots, but many people don't have those, so they
look at the preponderance of the evidence. This can include things
like the use of Ladino language on tombstones (can you get someone in
Turkey to photograph the local cemetery where your grandmother lived?)
or Sephardic style naming on a tombstone (did your grandmother's
tombstone list her Hebrew name as "bat" her mother's name on the
tombstone, instead of her father's name?). They also want to know the
use of Ladino language in everyday life, affiliation with a known
Sephardic community in the United States (such as Bevis Marks
synagogue in London, or Temple Tifereth Israel in Los Angeles), and so
on.

I would recommend joining one of the many Facebook groups devoted to
people applying for citizenship via Sephardic ancestry. These groups
have people who have already gone through the process or are in the
middle of the process, and you can ask questions or read past stories
about what it was like. The groups that I know of are:

"Sephardic Jews & Spanish Citizenship"
https://www.facebook.com/groups/117900978372039/

"Americans of Sephardic Ancestry Pursuing Spanish Citizenship Group"
https://www.facebook.com/groups/167895653808057/

There might be others.

And you might have an easier time applying for Portuguese citizenship.
The eligibility rules there are nearly the same as for Spain, but
Portugal doesn't require you to pass an intermediate-level language
fluency test or a history/civics test, both of which Spain does
require. I have heard anecdotally that the two main Portuguese Jewish
communities in Porto (Oporto) and Lisbon (Lisboa) treat applications
somewhat differently, one being more lenient than the other, although
I don't remember which one is which.

Also unlike Spain, Portugal's law was written to include a long list
of Portuguese Sephardic surnames (some of which are also Spanish and
Italian Sephardic surnames) as additional factors they will consider
to be indicative of Sephardic ancestry. Merely having one of those
surnames in your family tree is not enough, but the data point will be
added to whatever other documentation you are able to provide.

The law explicitly lists the following surnames. (I have removed the
accent marks and special characters >from the names so that they will
transmit through JewishGen's antiquated e-mail system):

"In the Diaspora in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom remain,
among others, surnames:" ABRANTES, AGUILAR, ANDRADE, BRANDAO, BRITO,
BUENO, CARDOSO, CARVALHO, CASTRO, COSTA, COUTINHO, DOURADO, FONSECA,
FURTADO, GOMES, GOUVEIA, GRANJO, HENRIQUES, LARA, MARQUES, MELO E
PRADO, MESQUITA, MENDES, NETO, NUNES, PEREIRA, PINHEIRO, RODRIGUES,
ROSA, SARMENTO, SILVA, SOARES, TEIXEIRA, and TELES.

"In the Latin American diaspora remain, for example:" ALMEIDA, AVELAR,
BRAVO, CARVAJAL, CRESPO, DUARTE, FERREIRA, FRANCO, GATO, GONCALVES,
GUERREIRO, LEAO, LOPES, LEIRIA, LOBO, LOUSADA, MACHORRO, MARTINS,
MONTESINO, MORENO, MOTA, MACIAS, MIRANDA, OLIVEIRA, OSORIO, PARDO,
PINA, PINTO, PIMENTEL, PIZARRO, QUERIDO, REI, RIBEIRO, SALVADOR,
TORRES, and VIANA.

"In addition, other parts of the world there are also descendants of
Sephardic Jews >from Portugal to retain, in addition to the above,
among others, the following surnames:" AMORIM, AZEVEDO, ALVARES,
BARROS, BASTO, BELMONTE, CACERES, CAETANO, CAMPOS, CARNEIRO, CRUZ,
DIAS, DUARTE, ELIAS, ESTRELA, GAIOLA, JOSUE, LEMOS, LOMBROSO, LOPES,
MACHADO, MASCARENHAS, MATTOS, MEIRA, MELLO E CANTO, MENDES DA COSTA,
MIRANDA, MORAO, MOROES, MOTA, MOUCADA, NEGRO, OLIVEIRA, OSORIO (or
OZORIO), PAIVA, PILAO, PINTO, PESSOA, PRETO, SOUZA, VAZ, and VARGAS.

Again, merely having or not having one of these surnames in your
family tree is not enough to reclaim Portuguese citizenship, but the
names would be weighed with the other factors as your proof of
connection to the community.

For those interested, information about Portugal's law is available in
English here:
http://jewishcommunityofoporto.blogspot.pt/2014_12_01_archive.html

Good luck!

- Brooke Schreier Ganz
Mill Valley, California


Sephardic SIG #Sephardim Re: Quest of a Bostonian to trace roots from Turkey to Spain #sephardic

Asparagirl
 

Hi Joshua,

You don't actually have to prove your ancestry all the way back to
pre-1492 Spain, you just need to prove descent >from a known Sephardic
community in the diaspora. Ideally the Spanish authorities are looking
for you to have documentation of a ketubah or birth certificate
indicating Sephardic roots, but many people don't have those, so they
look at the preponderance of the evidence. This can include things
like the use of Ladino language on tombstones (can you get someone in
Turkey to photograph the local cemetery where your grandmother lived?)
or Sephardic style naming on a tombstone (did your grandmother's
tombstone list her Hebrew name as "bat" her mother's name on the
tombstone, instead of her father's name?). They also want to know the
use of Ladino language in everyday life, affiliation with a known
Sephardic community in the United States (such as Bevis Marks
synagogue in London, or Temple Tifereth Israel in Los Angeles), and so
on.

I would recommend joining one of the many Facebook groups devoted to
people applying for citizenship via Sephardic ancestry. These groups
have people who have already gone through the process or are in the
middle of the process, and you can ask questions or read past stories
about what it was like. The groups that I know of are:

"Sephardic Jews & Spanish Citizenship"
https://www.facebook.com/groups/117900978372039/

"Americans of Sephardic Ancestry Pursuing Spanish Citizenship Group"
https://www.facebook.com/groups/167895653808057/

There might be others.

And you might have an easier time applying for Portuguese citizenship.
The eligibility rules there are nearly the same as for Spain, but
Portugal doesn't require you to pass an intermediate-level language
fluency test or a history/civics test, both of which Spain does
require. I have heard anecdotally that the two main Portuguese Jewish
communities in Porto (Oporto) and Lisbon (Lisboa) treat applications
somewhat differently, one being more lenient than the other, although
I don't remember which one is which.

Also unlike Spain, Portugal's law was written to include a long list
of Portuguese Sephardic surnames (some of which are also Spanish and
Italian Sephardic surnames) as additional factors they will consider
to be indicative of Sephardic ancestry. Merely having one of those
surnames in your family tree is not enough, but the data point will be
added to whatever other documentation you are able to provide.

The law explicitly lists the following surnames. (I have removed the
accent marks and special characters >from the names so that they will
transmit through JewishGen's antiquated e-mail system):

"In the Diaspora in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom remain,
among others, surnames:" ABRANTES, AGUILAR, ANDRADE, BRANDAO, BRITO,
BUENO, CARDOSO, CARVALHO, CASTRO, COSTA, COUTINHO, DOURADO, FONSECA,
FURTADO, GOMES, GOUVEIA, GRANJO, HENRIQUES, LARA, MARQUES, MELO E
PRADO, MESQUITA, MENDES, NETO, NUNES, PEREIRA, PINHEIRO, RODRIGUES,
ROSA, SARMENTO, SILVA, SOARES, TEIXEIRA, and TELES.

"In the Latin American diaspora remain, for example:" ALMEIDA, AVELAR,
BRAVO, CARVAJAL, CRESPO, DUARTE, FERREIRA, FRANCO, GATO, GONCALVES,
GUERREIRO, LEAO, LOPES, LEIRIA, LOBO, LOUSADA, MACHORRO, MARTINS,
MONTESINO, MORENO, MOTA, MACIAS, MIRANDA, OLIVEIRA, OSORIO, PARDO,
PINA, PINTO, PIMENTEL, PIZARRO, QUERIDO, REI, RIBEIRO, SALVADOR,
TORRES, and VIANA.

"In addition, other parts of the world there are also descendants of
Sephardic Jews >from Portugal to retain, in addition to the above,
among others, the following surnames:" AMORIM, AZEVEDO, ALVARES,
BARROS, BASTO, BELMONTE, CACERES, CAETANO, CAMPOS, CARNEIRO, CRUZ,
DIAS, DUARTE, ELIAS, ESTRELA, GAIOLA, JOSUE, LEMOS, LOMBROSO, LOPES,
MACHADO, MASCARENHAS, MATTOS, MEIRA, MELLO E CANTO, MENDES DA COSTA,
MIRANDA, MORAO, MOROES, MOTA, MOUCADA, NEGRO, OLIVEIRA, OSORIO (or
OZORIO), PAIVA, PILAO, PINTO, PESSOA, PRETO, SOUZA, VAZ, and VARGAS.

Again, merely having or not having one of these surnames in your
family tree is not enough to reclaim Portuguese citizenship, but the
names would be weighed with the other factors as your proof of
connection to the community.

For those interested, information about Portugal's law is available in
English here:
http://jewishcommunityofoporto.blogspot.pt/2014_12_01_archive.html

Good luck!

- Brooke Schreier Ganz
Mill Valley, California


Bezirksrabbiner and Klaus Rabbiner #rabbinic

spdenker@...
 

In Germany, several rabbis whom I am researching in Germany during the
period 1850 - 1940, held the positions -- "Bezirksrabbiner" or "Klaus
Rabbi". I would like to understand exactly what these positions mean.
Was a Bezirksrabbiner the rabbi of an entire district or town, whose
salary was paid by the German state, and officially appointed to the
position by a governing (Jewish) state-level organization?

Was a Klaus Rabbi the Rabbi of a particular synagogue?

Where can I go for more information?

Stephen Denker
Brookline, MA Researching Wohlgemuth, Germany


Rabbinic Genealogy SIG #Rabbinic Bezirksrabbiner and Klaus Rabbiner #rabbinic

spdenker@...
 

In Germany, several rabbis whom I am researching in Germany during the
period 1850 - 1940, held the positions -- "Bezirksrabbiner" or "Klaus
Rabbi". I would like to understand exactly what these positions mean.
Was a Bezirksrabbiner the rabbi of an entire district or town, whose
salary was paid by the German state, and officially appointed to the
position by a governing (Jewish) state-level organization?

Was a Klaus Rabbi the Rabbi of a particular synagogue?

Where can I go for more information?

Stephen Denker
Brookline, MA Researching Wohlgemuth, Germany


Kristallnacht - 80 Years On #general

elirab52 <elirab52@...>
 

We commemorate the 80th anniversary of Kristallnacht, The Night Of
Broken Glass, tonight and tomorrow, 9 and 10 November.

Please view the post I have created:

https://elirab.me/kristallnacht-80/

with links to videos of:

Lore Zusman, who was born in Koenigsberg over 90 years ago. Lore shares
her memories of the Koenigsberg Synagogue, Kristallnacht and a book
presented to her mother after the synagogue was destroyed on
Kristallnacht in 1938. We include the Koenigsberg / Kaliningrad
KehilaLink with links to the synagogue and Kristallnacht;

Sara Kogan Lazarus sings the Yiddish song - Tsi darf es azoy zayn;

Ties That Bind - a moving, 9 minute documentary, featuring a
conversation between Uncle Boydie (Alf Turner) - grandson of indigenous
activist William Cooper, and Moshe Fiszman - a Holocaust survivor. This
movie was made in Australia in 2017. It is also now part of the USHMM's
(Washington) collection; and

Remembrance And Renewal - how a song survived the Holocaust, traveled
around the world and returned to the city of its birth. This features
the Ramatayim Men's Choir of Jerusalem.

Please watch these and feel free to share with others.

Shabbat Shalom and regards

Eli Rabinowitz
Perth, Australia
https://elirab.me


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Kristallnacht - 80 Years On #general

elirab52 <elirab52@...>
 

We commemorate the 80th anniversary of Kristallnacht, The Night Of
Broken Glass, tonight and tomorrow, 9 and 10 November.

Please view the post I have created:

https://elirab.me/kristallnacht-80/

with links to videos of:

Lore Zusman, who was born in Koenigsberg over 90 years ago. Lore shares
her memories of the Koenigsberg Synagogue, Kristallnacht and a book
presented to her mother after the synagogue was destroyed on
Kristallnacht in 1938. We include the Koenigsberg / Kaliningrad
KehilaLink with links to the synagogue and Kristallnacht;

Sara Kogan Lazarus sings the Yiddish song - Tsi darf es azoy zayn;

Ties That Bind - a moving, 9 minute documentary, featuring a
conversation between Uncle Boydie (Alf Turner) - grandson of indigenous
activist William Cooper, and Moshe Fiszman - a Holocaust survivor. This
movie was made in Australia in 2017. It is also now part of the USHMM's
(Washington) collection; and

Remembrance And Renewal - how a song survived the Holocaust, traveled
around the world and returned to the city of its birth. This features
the Ramatayim Men's Choir of Jerusalem.

Please watch these and feel free to share with others.

Shabbat Shalom and regards

Eli Rabinowitz
Perth, Australia
https://elirab.me


Viewmate Transliteration request: 1893 Postcard in German Handwriting (VM70190) #germany

Peter Lowe <Peter.Lowe@...>
 

I would be really very grateful if anyone could make a transliteration
of the wording on a postcard sent in 1893 >from Blankenberghe in Belgium
to my grandmother's cousin, Johanna FLATAU (nee HERZ).

The image of the card can be seen on Viewmate at this address:
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM70190

A full transliteration would be wonderful, but even a partial one of
the key information would be helpful.

I can understand sufficient German that a translation is not required.

Thank you for any help you can give me.

Peter Lowe, Hertford, England peter.lowe@danesbury.co.uk


Re: Anniversaries of Historic November events in Germany #germany

Hansmartin Unger <hansmartin.unger@...>
 

Thank you, Yvonne, for your reminder of these historic events.

While most GerSIG members are older, it is important that the
younger ones learn about what happened in Germany on these November
dates and keep these historic events in their minds. kind regards,

Hansmartin Unger, St. Gallen Switzerland hansmartin.unger@sunrise.ch

Yvonne Stern <yvonne.stern17@gmail.com> wrote:
This week the world will remember three important historical events
of the 20 century.

The 80th anniversary of the Reichspogromnacht will be on November 9th, 2018.
Crystal Night was the catastrophe before the catastrophe.

During the November 1938 Pogroms in Germany and Austria, more than
1,400 synagogues, prayer rooms and other meeting rooms as well as
thousands of Jewish businesses,shops, apartments and cemeteries
were vandalized. This included my grandparents home at Otto Beckstrasse
in Mannheim. In the days following, approximately 30,000 Jews
were imprisoned in concentration camps where hundreds were murdered
or died as a result of their imprisonment.

51 years later, on November 9th 1989, the Berlin Wall came down.

This week, the world will celebrate the anniversary of that fall.
When access to East Germany returned 29 years ago, it opened a
new world for Jews with German roots. Since then, little by little,
we've regained access to data of our ancestors and the cities where
they had lived and the cemeteries where they were buried.

This Sunday, the world will celebrate the 100th anniversary of
the end to "The War to end all Wars".

On November 11, the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918,
Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in
a railroad car outside Compiegne.

The First World War (1914 - 1918) left 9 million soldiers dead and
21 million wounded. About 100,000 Jews fought on the German side,
12,000 of them were killed in action including my uncle, barely
20 years old.


German SIG #Germany Viewmate Transliteration request: 1893 Postcard in German Handwriting (VM70190) #germany

Peter Lowe <Peter.Lowe@...>
 

I would be really very grateful if anyone could make a transliteration
of the wording on a postcard sent in 1893 >from Blankenberghe in Belgium
to my grandmother's cousin, Johanna FLATAU (nee HERZ).

The image of the card can be seen on Viewmate at this address:
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM70190

A full transliteration would be wonderful, but even a partial one of
the key information would be helpful.

I can understand sufficient German that a translation is not required.

Thank you for any help you can give me.

Peter Lowe, Hertford, England peter.lowe@danesbury.co.uk


German SIG #Germany Re: Anniversaries of Historic November events in Germany #germany

Hansmartin Unger <hansmartin.unger@...>
 

Thank you, Yvonne, for your reminder of these historic events.

While most GerSIG members are older, it is important that the
younger ones learn about what happened in Germany on these November
dates and keep these historic events in their minds. kind regards,

Hansmartin Unger, St. Gallen Switzerland hansmartin.unger@sunrise.ch

Yvonne Stern <yvonne.stern17@gmail.com> wrote:
This week the world will remember three important historical events
of the 20 century.

The 80th anniversary of the Reichspogromnacht will be on November 9th, 2018.
Crystal Night was the catastrophe before the catastrophe.

During the November 1938 Pogroms in Germany and Austria, more than
1,400 synagogues, prayer rooms and other meeting rooms as well as
thousands of Jewish businesses,shops, apartments and cemeteries
were vandalized. This included my grandparents home at Otto Beckstrasse
in Mannheim. In the days following, approximately 30,000 Jews
were imprisoned in concentration camps where hundreds were murdered
or died as a result of their imprisonment.

51 years later, on November 9th 1989, the Berlin Wall came down.

This week, the world will celebrate the anniversary of that fall.
When access to East Germany returned 29 years ago, it opened a
new world for Jews with German roots. Since then, little by little,
we've regained access to data of our ancestors and the cities where
they had lived and the cemeteries where they were buried.

This Sunday, the world will celebrate the 100th anniversary of
the end to "The War to end all Wars".

On November 11, the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918,
Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in
a railroad car outside Compiegne.

The First World War (1914 - 1918) left 9 million soldiers dead and
21 million wounded. About 100,000 Jews fought on the German side,
12,000 of them were killed in action including my uncle, barely
20 years old.

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