ViewMate translation request - Hungarian Death Record #austria-czech

Henry Schwartz

Hi All

I've posted a vital record in Hungarian for which I need a translation. It
is on ViewMate at the following address ...

Please respond via the form provided on the ViewMate image page.

Thank you very much.

Henry Schwartz

The Przemysl Identification Project: an update #austria-czech

Gesher Galicia SIG

This project, as announced earlier, aims to identify the town of
origin of 577 books of Jewish records held in the Przemysl State
Archive. Nearly all are index books of vital records, with most of
them presumed to be >from Galician towns. In some cases, the type of
book (of births, deaths, or marriages) is also not known.

Earlier this year, Gesher Galicia discussed with the Polish State
Archives and the Przemysl State Archive a possible project to identify
these books over two to three years, with Gesher Galicia members
making the identifications. An informal agreement was reached in
October and the project began at the end of that month. The formal
agreement was subsequently signed in Przemysl by Elzbieta Laska,
director of the Przemysl archive, and Piotr Gumola, Gesher Galicia's
representative in Poland. Under this agreement, the archive scanned
all 577 unknown books, and gave Gesher Galicia the scans.

The project, managed at the project secretariat in Warsaw by Piotr
Gumola and Pawel Malinowski, involves Gesher Galicia members who have
volunteered to be identifiers. To date, almost 30 members have offered
or inquired about taking part, and about half of these have become
regular identifiers. Another six people, including three Gesher
Galicia Board members, as well as Suzan Wynne, who founded Gesher
Galicia in 1993, act as verifiers, checking the evidence for the
identifications. See: .

In the almost two months the project has been running, the scans of 44
books, >from 21 towns, have been identified by volunteer members, and
around a third of these books have so far been verified. The 21 towns
include four >from western Galicia (present-day Poland), 15 from
eastern Galicia, and two (Lublin and Biala Podlaska) >from outside the
borders of the former Galicia. The towns, including those whose
identifications are still to be verified, are:
Biala Podlaska, Boryslaw (2), Bursztyn, Drohobycz (7), Kopyczynce,
Krakow (2), Lublin, Mikulince, Muszyna, Nadworna, Nowy Sacz (4),
Olesko (2), Pruchnik, Rohatyn (2), Rudki, Skole (2), Stanislawow (2),
Stryj (4), Tarnopol (5), Turka, and Zolkiew.

In some cases, the identified index books correspond with known books
of full records >from the same period, so that - while it is useful to
have the identification - these index books don't add much in the way
of previously unavailable information. However, there are also
instances where the full, original records are not known to exist, or,
if they do exist, have not yet been made accessible by civil
registration offices. In these cases, new genealogical information
will be revealed.

An example of this is >from one of the books - yet to be officially
verified - provisionally identified as the index book of Jewish
marriages >from Rohatyn, for the period 1914-1934. If verified, this
will shed new light on marriages in Rohatyn, as the full marriage
records >from the town are available for only a few of the years in
this period.

Gesher Galicia will provide updates to members, on a regular basis and
through the Members Portal, with details of the files identified. We
will also, at intervals, send batches of the verified identifications
to the Przemysl State Archive.

Non-members who would like to serve as identifiers are welcome to join
Gesher Galicia, at . All
existing members interested in helping are encouraged to write to
project secretariat.

For more information on the Przemysl ID Project, or to take part as an
identifier (members only), please contact:
przemysl-id@... .

For general questions and information on Gesher Galicia, please write
to: info@... .

Piotr Gumola, Pawel Malinowski: Gesher Galicia Secretariat for the
Przemysl Identification Project
Tony Kahane: Research Coordinator, Gesher Galicia

Send all inquiries to info@...

Gesher Galicia Membership 2020 #austria-czech

Gesher Galicia SIG

Are you a current member of Gesher Galicia?

It is the Gesher Galicia 2020 membership season. You can become a
member or renew your membership by going to:

Bring more Galician-focused research to your home computer! We are the
premier resource for those investigating their Galician roots.

Gesher Galicia has accomplished its phenomenal growth and development
through the creative energies of our many volunteers, along with the
generous contributions of over 1,400 members worldwide. Annual dues,
which start at $36, and donations make it all possible.

The Members Portal provides all 27 years of the searchable Galitzianer
research journal and access to the GG Family Finder (also searchable).
Also included are the Przemysl Identification Project and Archival
Records available to members only. These special Galician archival
records consist of records of the Holocaust-period, of Jewish
Taxpayers >from the 1930s, of annotated Medical Students/Doctors
database, as well as material >from Fond 424 at AGAD, video and audio
programs >from conferences, and the Gesher Galicia electronic library.

More benefits of membership are at

If it has been a while since you have you looked at our databases,
please go to our website as we have recently added many new records
and do so regularly.

Our website now features over 639,000 records in the All Galicia
Database >from 500 different data sources, an award-winning Map Room,
and the Galician Archival Inventories. Gesher Galicia has researchers
working on our behalf throughout Poland and Ukraine, expanding our
research into some fascinating (and unique) document collections.

Join with us in the great adventure of discovering your Galician roots
by becoming a member or renewing your membership.

Shelley K. Pollero
Gesher Galicia Membership Chair


Send all inquiries to membership@...

New Global Search facility on Gesher Galicia's website #austria-czech

Gesher Galicia SIG

Since introducing our improved online inventories for individual
archives earlier this year, we have worked to upgrade their
functioning. These inventories can be found in the pull-down menu in
the horizontal bar on the Gesher Galicia home page, at: .

Our online inventories cover all known Jewish Galician vital records
from state archives, as well as some Jewish community records, held
at: AGAD, Warsaw; three state archives in western Ukraine (in Lviv,
Ivano-Frankivsk, and Ternopil); and the Polish state archives in
Przemysl, Rzeszow, Sanok, Nowy Sacz, Tarnow, and Bochnia.

The main archive missing >from this list is the National Archives in
Krakow. Once the new archive building in Krakow has opened in 2020,
reassembling the large number of archival files >from currently five
different locations around and outside the city, we will add a new
inventory to our website for the Krakow archive.

We maintain our existing online archival inventories on a regular
basis, adding new files to them as they are made available by an
archive, making necessary corrections to existing entries, and adding
new sets of scans. Part of this work involves being in contact with
the archivists, including sometimes making visits to the archives. One
of our staff will be in the Nowy Sacz archive in the next few days,
for this same purpose. Other visits are planned in 2020 to various
archives across southeastern Poland and western Ukraine.

The Global Search
A powerful new tool is now freely available with our inventories. This
is a "Global Search" facility, which searches all Gesher Galicia's
online inventories of Jewish vital records, censuses, Holocaust-period
records and community records. Please find it, and experiment with it,
at: .

Further refinements will be added to this facility, and it will also
be extended to cover those Josephine and Franciscan cadastral survey
records >from Galicia that we are aware of, as well as Jewish taxpayer
records and some other types of record.

For more information on Gesher Galicia's Global Search facility and
other online inventories, or for general questions or information
about Gesher Galicia, please contact: info@... .

Pawel Malinowski
Inventories Manager, Gesher Galicia

Send all inquiries to info@...

End-of-year update on recent records added to the All Galicia Database #austria-czech

Gesher Galicia SIG

Since the last update a few months ago, indexes of the following vital
records have been added to the All Galicia Database, at:

Vital records
- Podhajce (Pidhaitsi)
Jewish births 1853-1881, 1884, 1886-1889 (4,627 records)

- Stanislawow (Stanislav, Stanislau, Ivano-Frankivsk)
Jewish deaths 1845-1863 (4,790 records)
Jewish deaths 1927-1931 (1,626 records)

- Nowy Targ
Jewish births 1919-1926 (445 records)
Jewish marriages 1924-1927, 1930, 1934, 1936, 1937 (169 records)
Jewish deaths 1927, 1931, 1938 (95 records)
Jewish deaths (index book) 1937 (33 records)

- Mikulince (Mykulyntsi)
Jewish births 1901, 1926 (132 records)
Jewish marriages 1899, 1932, 1934-1936 (53 records)
Jewish changes of name 1905, 1926 (2 records)

- Lezajsk (updating of earlier records, already on the database)
Jewish births (index book) 1881-1890 (1,358 records)
Jewish marriages (index book, grooms only) 1877-1938 (1,239 records)

- Zborow (Zboriv)
Jewish marriages (supplementary records) 1921-1931 (71 records)

Earlier this year, as announced at the time, we finished indexing all
the Tarnopol vital records held in the Ukrainian state archives. As
regards records >from Stanislawow in the Ukrainian archives, we are not
quite at that point. In the past several years, we have indexed and
uploaded to the database almost 18,000 vital records >from this town.
There remain, though, some birth, marriage and death records >from the
1930s >from Stanislawow, which we will index in early 2020. In doing
this, we will have completed all the vital records >from Stanislawow
held in the Ukrainian archives.

Other vital records coming soon in 2020 include birth, death and
marriage records >from Kroscienko nad Dunajcem >from the 1920s and
1930s, and 19th-century birth records >from Kosow (Kosiv).

Jewish taxpayers project
The following record sets have been added to the All Galicia Database.
- Skala (Skala Podilska) 1936 (138 records)
- Trembowla (Terebovlya) 1936 (180 records)

Taxpayer records >from the 1930s coming early in 2020:
- Olesko, Podkamien (Pidkamin, Tarnopol province), and Sasow (Sasiv).

Thanks as always to Mark Jacobson and Eddy Mitelsbach for their
continuing work on the Taxpayers project.

Holocaust project
For Holocaust Memorial Day in January 2020, we plan to be able to
announce uploads to the All Galicia Database, including:
- some 7,000 records of Jewish residents in Stanislawow, 1941-1942
- death certificates >from Rzeszow and Tyczyn, >from 1942 and 1943.

For more information, please contact: info@...
Please do NOT reply to this email.

Tony Kahane
Research Coordinator, Gesher Galicia

Send all inquiries to info@...

ViewMate Translation Request - German #austria-czech

Colin Cohn

My relative Feiga Frimet HAAR marriage to Friedrich KOWAND in Vienna in
1921 ended in divorce. Friedrich was baptized at birth and I'm trying to
understand why their marriage appears in the register of Jewish
marriages. Please provide a translation of the marriage record on
ViewMate at:

Please respond via the form provided on the ViewMate image page.

Colin Cohn
Sydney, Australia
Researching: Vienna: HAAR, RENDEL, ZINGER

1787 patent on Jewish given names #austria-czech

Michael Gordy

Much has been written on the adoption of surnames by Jews in the
Austrian lands, but less on rules governing given names. I have found
two Czech-language sources on a decree of 27 August 1787 (under Josef
II) establishing a list of given names that Jews would be permitted to
use. The restrictions were lifted by court order on 20 July 1836.

First, can anyone point to an English-language discussion of these
rules? We don't seem to have anything on the SIG FAQ. The
Czech-language sources are:

Second, my understanding is that the list excluded common names of the
time such as Herschl and Loebl. A casual glance at the birth
registers of Strassnitz (fond 1073, vol 1958) suggests that the names
were used regardless, though perhaps less frequently than they were in
earlier years. Has anything been written on the extent of enforcement
in Moravia?

Michael Gordy
Takoma Park, Maryland, USA

Re: Photo request- Los Angeles, CA

Laurie Sosna

I have 9 family members at Mt. Sinai, only 3 of the headstones include Hebrew inscriptions.
My mother's parents are two, I suspect Mom insisted on it when the headstones were made.
The third is my Mom, I insisted on having the Hebrew inscription include both her parents names.
The last time I visited (I live in San Francisco) I noticed as I looked around, most of the headstones don't either.

Laurie Sosna
San Francisco, CA

2019 Yizkor Book Project Review #yizkorbooks

Binny Lewis

Dear JewishGen Community,

Welcome to 2020!!

With the new year, we are kicking off an exciting new time for the Yizkor Book Projects. Please read below to see all of our updates from 2019 and our plans for 2020! 

Summary of Recent Progress
  • At, among our biggest priorities is the translation of Yizkor Books, which were written to perpetuate the legacy of Jewish communities destroyed during the Holocaust.
  • Since 1999, JewishGen has translated +70,000 pages.
  • Between June 2019 and December 2019, we translated 3,219 pages - all of which are freely available online via the JewishGen site. (A list of specific books which were updated will be posted in our next update).
  • The Yizkor Book Translation Team is comprised of more than 50 Project Coordinators, 20 Translators and +10 other volunteers working on different areas including the website, Necrologies, Master Name Indexing and Publishing and more.
  • Since May 2019, we have completed the translation of 7 new Yizkor Books! 
Completed Books since May 2019
Yizkor Books Available Online or in Hard Copy
JewishGen is pleased to announce the release of 5 fully translated Yizkor Books now available in hard copy. Copies of these new books can now be purchased by the descendants of those destroyed communities, as well as by museums, universities, synagogue libraries, and other interested persons. To view a list of all books available in hard copy, please click here. The list of most recent books, includes:
  • Miechov Memorial Book (Available online soon) - Available since: 12/30/2019
  • Memorial Book of Kobylnik - Available since: 12/29/2019
  • Memorial Book of the Jewish Community of Turobin, Poland - Available since: 12/8/2019
  • Memorial Book of the Communities Dobrzyn-Gollob, Poland - Available since: 6/2/2019
  • Memorial Book for the Jewish Community of Yurburg, Lithuania - Available since: 5/31/2019
New Projects
The Yizkor Book team has begun many new projects over the past few months and will be working hard during the next few years to complete them. To help these projects, please consider becoming a supporter by donating today! The list of recently initiated projects, includes:
We greatly appreciate our Translators and Project Coordinators! They put in many tireless hours ensuring that the translations are prepared correctly and made available for the benefit of the English speaking world. I would like to personally thank you for the incredible dedication and commitment our members have given to the project and hope that they will continue to work closely with us in the future! Thank You!

Get Involved!
We are working on many upcoming projects and can use the help of people with a variety of skills, including data entry, coding, translations, project management, and more. A list of upcoming projects includes:
  • Priority Book List to translate
  • New Workflow
  • Web Redesign
To apply as a volunteer/translator, please click here. To apply as a project coordinator, please click here to read our "Getting Started Guide"
Support a Yizkor Book Translation Project
A list of all active projects can be accessed here.

It has been an amazing few months since joining JewishGen and the Yizkor Books Team and I hope to continue working with all of you and doing the incredible work we do for years to come. If there are any mistakes in this newsletter, please feel free to reach out so I can correct the information appropriately as soon as possible.

All the best,

Binny Lewis

Director of Special Projects - Yizkor Books



Schlama TEICHER (1870-1932) from RUDNIK NAD SANEM. who are his descendants?

Leah and Eli Teicher

Dear Genners,

I am looking for descendants of Schlama/Sholomo/Salomon TEICHER born 1870 and died 1932.


Lived and died in Rudnik nad Sanem and Zaluce, both in Galicia Poland.

This information is derived from  JRI Poland data.

The descendants are cousins of my husband (who has no extended family from the TEICHER family).

Thanks in advance for any help.

Leah Teicher




Lodz Jewish voter list 1924

Russ Maurer

In October of 2018, Logan Kleinwaks posted about the addition of thousands of scans of Lodz Jewish community records to the Polish State Archive online collection. Among those he mentioned as examples was a 1924 voter list. I have examined this record group, which consists of 30 files (one for each letter of the alphabet) and can be accessed at . This list is alphabetical by surname, and includes only males, age 25 and over. The record includes the surname, first name (sometimes initial), age (often "at least 25", sometimes the actual age or year of birth) and the address in Lodz. The pages are neatly handwritten and are very easy to read. I have attached a sample page.

Although no purpose is stated for this list, my surmise, based on the age and gender criteria, is that this list was used for elections within the Jewish community. By contrast, voter lists for Polish civil elections (e.g., for President or to the Sejm) were not separated by religion, and included males and females at least 18 years old.

Based on the number of scans and the number of names per scan, there appear to be about 35,000 names in this voter list.

Russ Maurer
Pepper Pike, OH

A talk at the Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain in London #sephardic

Raymond Montanjees

Joshua Marrache will be coming >from Gibraltar to give a talk to the
Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain on Sunday 19th January.

"The Jewish Community of Gibraltar": Its foundation, together with its
Commercial and Family links to Morocco, Italy, Amsterdam and London
during the 18th and 19th centuries.

The meeting will be held at The Society of Genealogists, 14
Charterhouse Buildings, Goswell Road, London EC1M 7BA and will start
at 2.00pm. Closest stations - Barbican and Farringdon.
Please arrive for 1.45 so we can start promptly. Non-members of JGSGB
will be very welcome to join us, for whom there would be a nominal
charge of 5 GBP per person to include refreshments.
As you can see >from the title of Joshua's talk, this will cover
several areas of genealogical interest so we hope to see as many
people there as possible. If you are able to reach London, please
try to join us.
There will be a question and answer session after the talk. You are
welcome to bring along your own relevant research data. Please email
me to let me know if you will be joining us. Thank you. RSVPs to

Raymond Montanjees

Descendants of Rabbi David ben Moshe (of Kletzk)-Novarodok 19th cent. #rabbinic

Yonatan Ben-Ari

I'm still trying to connect with descendants of a Rabbi David ben
Moshe of Kletzk (family name unknown to me) who was the Rav of
Novarodok during the 19th cent. He is alos known by the book he wrote
"Galia Mesechet". According to a note a greatuncle of mine wrote many
years ago, an ancestor of ours was Rabbi David's brother.

What I do know is that he had a son Moshe who married a HOROWITZ from
Minsk and he adopted the same family name. David had a son-in-law,
RABINOWITZ who published Rabbi David's book.

Several years ago I was contacted by an (A)GOLNICK family in Baltimore
who are descendants of Rabbi David, and who wanted me to give them
informationabout my family but I didn't have much I could tell
them.except the above note.

Would appreciate contact with anyone researching this family.

My great grandparents, Meyer (ben Yitzchak) ABRAMOWITZ came to Eretz
Yisrael (Palestine) during the end of the 19th cent.

As an aside (or not) next week I will be attending a wedding in
Israelwhere oneside are GOLNICKs >from Poland .

Yoni Ben-Ari, Jerusalem

GERNSHEIM - is the name extinct?

David Lewin

I am researching a KAHN family, originally from Heilbronn, Germany

Hedwig Luise KAHN born 18 Jan 1907 married on 2 June 1943 a Johannes
Emmanuel Theophil GERNSHEIM in Munich. While the rest of her
siblings were all murdered by the Nazis, Hedwig and her husband
survived and in 1955 there was still a trace of them in Freiburg, Germany.

Data Protection laws have so far prevented me from getting any
further information

GERNSHEIM is an old Jewish family name in Worms and Mainz,
Germany. The Nazis murdered many.

Try as I might I find no one with that surname today. Google brings
only the town of that name whence presumably the Jewish name was
taken originally when they adopted family names. Did the Nazis
succeed in eradicating this family?

Can anyone here elaborate on these findings and teach me further please?

David Lewin

Glickman-Luria family in New York.

Neil Rosenstein

Trying to make contact with the family of Holocaust survivors and
scion of the Rubin of Sosnowiec, Halbertsm and other Dynasties - of
Mayer David Glickman and his brother Baruch Yosef Glickman. Mayer
David 's children are Dvoral Pearl (married David Henry Luria), Joshua
Heschel Glickman and Sarah Malka (Sherry).

Re: Photo request- Los Angeles, CA

Hilary Henkin

If you haven't gotten the pics by next weekend, I could go.  (My mom and several relatives are there, I could visit --.)

Just so you know, the gravestones tend to be flat and level with the ground except in special sections.  They tend to not have as much info as older cemeteries.


On 1/6/2020 9:22 AM, btkerman via Groups.Jewishgen.Org wrote:
Hi everyone,
I have recently found the burial location of my gg uncle and aunt in the Mount Sinai Memorial Park cemetery in Los Angeles, CA. The cemetery gave me the plot information but I don't have a picture or knowledge of the inscription on their gravestones. This could potentially be very helpful in my genealogical research.
If anyone is in the area and is able to take a picture for me that would be very much appreciated. Please contact me first to avoid multiple people troubling themselves unnecessarily. 
Here are the locations and I am attaching a map as provided by the cemetery. 
Carl LIBERMAN is:   Los Angeles – Moses – Map 21 – Lot 4848 – Space 2
Taube LIBERMAN is:   Los Angeles – Moses – Map 21 – Lot 4848 – Space 1

Thank you in advance for your assistance.
Binyamin Kerman
Baltimore MD


Re: ViewMate Romanian translation request

Valentin Lupu

"Civil Status Registry
   For Married people
No. 41                                 
Faivel Grunberg with       
Miss. Pessa Reiza Gotlib  
                                                      Certificate of Marriage
From the year 1876, February 29 issued at 2 P.M. Marriage Certificate for Mr. Faivel Grunberg, 22 year-old, without a  profession, of Jewish faith.
Born in Iassy in 1853, August 8, resident of Iassy, sector II, adult. The son of Tzalic Grunberg, resident of Iassy, sector II and of the late Mrs. ?ata Grunberg. He agreed (Tzalic, my note) by an authentic certificate legalized by the Iassy  County Court, sector III under No. 519 from January 16, 1876.
And for Miss. Pessa Reiza Gotlib, 17-year old of Jewish faith, without a profession, born in 1858, January 3 and resident of Iassy, sector III. She is unmarried, the minor daughter of Mr. Nusem Gotlib and Mrs. Rifca Gotlib, residents of Iassy, sect III . They agreed by an authentic certificate legalized by the Iassy County Court in sector III, under No. 518. from January 16, 1876. Those present have heard clearly that I prepared a marriage contract written and legalized by Iassy Country Court, sector III under No. 40 in January 19 , this year. The preliminary notices were published without any objection in this county only in the Saturdays of January 24 and 31 this year. The birth certificate of the husband....."

The rest of this document deals with the legal aspects of birth certificates for Faivel and Pessa, nonexistent at the time they were born. I think that Civil Status Registry offices were established after 1860, The language of this document is archaic and not easy to translate. Amazingly, the whole document contains no more than 5 or 6 sentences!

Valentin Lupu

Ashkenazi DNA percentage question #dna

Herbert Lazerow

I have 1 known Ashkenazi great grandparent of 8. One eight is 12.5%.
According to 23andMe, FTDNA, AncestryDNA and MyHeritage DNA
my DNA is about 20% Ashkenazi. All agree on this. This is 1.6 times
more Ashkenazi DNA than I can account for genealogically. Is it more
likely that I have an undiscovered ancestor with Ashkenazi DNA, who
perhaps assimilated, or that I simply inherited more than half of my
grandparent's Ashkenazi DNA?
It is more likely that you inherited more than your proportionate
share of your ggp's dna.
We each receive half our dna >from each parent, but it is a random
half. Assume that your ggp had only 8 genes, A-H. Assume further
that your gp inherited 4 of them, genes A-D, 50%. Your parent would
have inherited 4 genes >from your gp. They might have been A-D, in
which case your parent would have 50% Ashkenazi genes. If your parent
inherited genes E-H, he would have no Ashkenazi genes. Either result
is possible, though neither is the most statistically likely. It is
more likely that your parent inherited 3, 2, or 1 Ashkenazi genes.
The same calculus applies to your inheritance >from your parent, which
is why it appears that you have more Ashkenazi dna than you "should"
Herbert Lazerow
San Diego CA 92110 U.S.A.

Re: Ashkenazic percentage question #dna

Sarah L Meyer

Dear Mr. May,
The 1/8th is an average - or the mean of the distribution. Only from
your parents is it exactly 50-50. But >from your grandparents or great
grandparents the percentages vary. For example you could have received from
your mother you could have received 45% of her 50% >from her mother and 55%
of her 50% >from her father. >from your father you could have received 75% of
his 50% >from his father and 25% of his 50% >from his mother. You might look
at the ISOGG wiki ( for more
information. Most of their charts talk in percentage and cM charts of how
much DNA you share with your matches, but this is discussed as well. Also
there are several Facebook groups which deal with this sort of question.

Dear community,

I have 1 known Ashkenazi great grandparent of 8. One eight is 12.5%.
According to 23andMe, FTDNA, AncestryDNA and MyHeritage DNA my DNA is about
20% Ashkenazi. All agree on this. This is 1.6 times more Ashkenazi DNA than
I can account for genealogically.

Is it more likely that I have an undiscovered ancestor with Ashkenazi DNA,
who perhaps assimilated, or that I simply inherited more than half of my
grandparent's Ashkenazi DNA? Thank you for your kind erudite help!

Richard May @MayTzu

Re: Issue#140 of Genealo-J--Alliance Israelite Universelle #germany


IGRA (Israel Genealogy Research Association) has
received permission and is undertaking a project with permission of the
offices of Alliance (AIU) in Paris to prepare lists of students >from the
schools in Morocco and then other countries >from North Africa, which are in
Israeli archives. These lists are important to IGRA because of the
immigration of many members of the Jewish communities in those countries to

Ellen Stepak, Tel Aviv, Israel estepak@...