Date   

Mezuzzah #general

Judith Romney Wegner
 

Walking around the square we found in one doorway with a cut in the masonry,
which by height and angle was obviously where the muzzah (sp?) was placed.
>Howard L. Rosen

Howard:

Your story was interesting and very moving; thank you for sharing it with us.

In response to your query about the spelling of "muzzah," I just can't
resist quipping: "Wish they were all as E-Z as this one!" In other words
you were missing only those two letters! The correct transliteration
from the original Hebrew is "MEZUZZAH." The word (found several times in
the Bible, but most importantly at Deuteronomy 6:9 and 11:20) originally
meant the "doorpost" itself rather than the device that we attach to it --
but it has come to denote the container with its contents, a tiny parchment
scroll on which are written by hand the two passages >from Deuteronomy that
include the verses cited above, which prescribe the placing of "these
words" on the doorposts of one's house.

While on the subject, there has recently developed an alarming tendency to
double the WRONG "Z" -- thereby misspelling the word as "mezzuzah." This
is not an acceptable spelling, as technical reasons of Hebrew orthography
require doubling the SECOND Z -- and NOT the first one -- hence,
MEZUZZAH. (Anyone who cares to know why, please feel free to e-mail me
privately!)

Judith Romney Wegner
jrw@brown.edu


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Mezuzzah #general

Judith Romney Wegner
 

Walking around the square we found in one doorway with a cut in the masonry,
which by height and angle was obviously where the muzzah (sp?) was placed.
>Howard L. Rosen

Howard:

Your story was interesting and very moving; thank you for sharing it with us.

In response to your query about the spelling of "muzzah," I just can't
resist quipping: "Wish they were all as E-Z as this one!" In other words
you were missing only those two letters! The correct transliteration
from the original Hebrew is "MEZUZZAH." The word (found several times in
the Bible, but most importantly at Deuteronomy 6:9 and 11:20) originally
meant the "doorpost" itself rather than the device that we attach to it --
but it has come to denote the container with its contents, a tiny parchment
scroll on which are written by hand the two passages >from Deuteronomy that
include the verses cited above, which prescribe the placing of "these
words" on the doorposts of one's house.

While on the subject, there has recently developed an alarming tendency to
double the WRONG "Z" -- thereby misspelling the word as "mezzuzah." This
is not an acceptable spelling, as technical reasons of Hebrew orthography
require doubling the SECOND Z -- and NOT the first one -- hence,
MEZUZZAH. (Anyone who cares to know why, please feel free to e-mail me
privately!)

Judith Romney Wegner
jrw@brown.edu


A beadle is a "SHAMMAS" #general

Judith Romney Wegner
 

Subject: beadle
From: gayle riley <key2pst@pacbell.net>
>Does anyone know what a "beadle" did?
"Beadle" is an old-fashioned English word originally denoting a minor
official -- often a/k/a "sexton" -- who kept order in a church. He was
roughly the equivalent of the synagogue's so-called "SHAMMAS" (more
correctly, SHAMMASH).

So what's a Shammas? My Webster gives (as meaning #2 for "sexton"): "an
official in a synagogue who manages its day-to-day affairs" (like keeping
the place tidy, and seeing that prayerbooks and prayershawls etc. are set
out conveniently for the use of congregants. In the old days, in the
shtetl (as attested by writers like Sholem Aleikhem and Shai Agnon), he
was also a general handyman and gopher, responsible for tapping on
people's windows at the crack of dawn to wake them up for the weekday early
morning minyan -- and even for lighting the stove to heat the shul before
the worshippers arrived. (On Shabbat, they would resort to the services
of a "shabbas-goy" for this job.)

A principal function of today's "beadle" or Shammas is to act as usher,
especially on the High Holy Days. Remember the old joke? A man arrives
at the Shul door on Yom Kippur without a seat ticket, begging to be let in
to deliver a very urgent business message for a Mr. Cohen somewhere
inside. The Shammas refuses to let him in for free with no ticket. But
the man keeps insisting that it will be a total disaster if Mr. Cohen
doesn't get the message at once. Eventually the Shammas gives in to his
pleas, saying: "O.K., O.K., I'll let you in, but only to deliver the
business message. So help me, if I catch you praying even for a minute,
I'll kick you out right away!"

Judith Romney Wegner
jrw@brown.edu


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen A beadle is a "SHAMMAS" #general

Judith Romney Wegner
 

Subject: beadle
From: gayle riley <key2pst@pacbell.net>
>Does anyone know what a "beadle" did?
"Beadle" is an old-fashioned English word originally denoting a minor
official -- often a/k/a "sexton" -- who kept order in a church. He was
roughly the equivalent of the synagogue's so-called "SHAMMAS" (more
correctly, SHAMMASH).

So what's a Shammas? My Webster gives (as meaning #2 for "sexton"): "an
official in a synagogue who manages its day-to-day affairs" (like keeping
the place tidy, and seeing that prayerbooks and prayershawls etc. are set
out conveniently for the use of congregants. In the old days, in the
shtetl (as attested by writers like Sholem Aleikhem and Shai Agnon), he
was also a general handyman and gopher, responsible for tapping on
people's windows at the crack of dawn to wake them up for the weekday early
morning minyan -- and even for lighting the stove to heat the shul before
the worshippers arrived. (On Shabbat, they would resort to the services
of a "shabbas-goy" for this job.)

A principal function of today's "beadle" or Shammas is to act as usher,
especially on the High Holy Days. Remember the old joke? A man arrives
at the Shul door on Yom Kippur without a seat ticket, begging to be let in
to deliver a very urgent business message for a Mr. Cohen somewhere
inside. The Shammas refuses to let him in for free with no ticket. But
the man keeps insisting that it will be a total disaster if Mr. Cohen
doesn't get the message at once. Eventually the Shammas gives in to his
pleas, saying: "O.K., O.K., I'll let you in, but only to deliver the
business message. So help me, if I catch you praying even for a minute,
I'll kick you out right away!"

Judith Romney Wegner
jrw@brown.edu


Port of Departure #lithuania

Dr Saul Issroff <saul@...>
 

I had personally not been aware of Klaipeda being used a a departure
Port. But Ann Rabinowitz is visiting me and has been telling me of work
she is doing with Danish records, and it seems likely that some of the
ships going >from Libau (undoubtedly the main point of embarkation) also
stopped at Klaipeda. This may have been for a short period of time only,
and was a Russian based fleet.

I have just looked at Lloyd P. Gartner 'The Jewish Immigrant in England
1870-1914' George Allen and Unwin 1960 and at a Ph. D. Thesis by Riva
Krut, SOAS 1985 ( unpublished) on ThBuilding a Home and a Community: The
Jewish community in Johannesburg 1886-1914. Both deal extensively with
Eastern European Migration. I cannot find a specific reference to
Klaipeda.

Krut's thesis states that despite extensive searches by several peoplein
different archives no trace has been found of shipping records relating
to ports of departure in Lithuania.

I personally have looked at The British Consular records for Riga (
there does not seem to have been a consul in Libau) and found nothing of
relevance. I have also enquired at the national Maritime Museum archives
in Greenwich and found nothing.

Aubrey Newman, writing on The Poor Jew's Temporary Shelter in patterns
of Migration 1850-1914 ( Proceedings of a Conference 1993 only notes
emigration through Libau. Quoting >from a report on Kovno and Vilna
prepared for the Jewish Colonial Association in September 1906 henotes
that 'The number of emigrants embarking at Libau grows each year, and in
this regard the current year exceeds all precedents. At least two boats
a week depart >from Libau, each of these boats conveying 300-350 migrants
at the least.'

Libau had the advantage of being an all weather port. Definitely Riga
was iced over for part of the year, and presumably Klaipeda also freezes
over. My impression (and I may be wrong) is that Klaipeda probably does
not have deep water facilities. Look it up on the web.

Even today Klaipeda is a small town and is unlikely to have much
shipping traffic other than local barge and ferry traffic. It is
possible to take a boat >from Kovno to Klaipeda on a daily basis.

Saul


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Port of Departure #lithuania

Dr Saul Issroff <saul@...>
 

I had personally not been aware of Klaipeda being used a a departure
Port. But Ann Rabinowitz is visiting me and has been telling me of work
she is doing with Danish records, and it seems likely that some of the
ships going >from Libau (undoubtedly the main point of embarkation) also
stopped at Klaipeda. This may have been for a short period of time only,
and was a Russian based fleet.

I have just looked at Lloyd P. Gartner 'The Jewish Immigrant in England
1870-1914' George Allen and Unwin 1960 and at a Ph. D. Thesis by Riva
Krut, SOAS 1985 ( unpublished) on ThBuilding a Home and a Community: The
Jewish community in Johannesburg 1886-1914. Both deal extensively with
Eastern European Migration. I cannot find a specific reference to
Klaipeda.

Krut's thesis states that despite extensive searches by several peoplein
different archives no trace has been found of shipping records relating
to ports of departure in Lithuania.

I personally have looked at The British Consular records for Riga (
there does not seem to have been a consul in Libau) and found nothing of
relevance. I have also enquired at the national Maritime Museum archives
in Greenwich and found nothing.

Aubrey Newman, writing on The Poor Jew's Temporary Shelter in patterns
of Migration 1850-1914 ( Proceedings of a Conference 1993 only notes
emigration through Libau. Quoting >from a report on Kovno and Vilna
prepared for the Jewish Colonial Association in September 1906 henotes
that 'The number of emigrants embarking at Libau grows each year, and in
this regard the current year exceeds all precedents. At least two boats
a week depart >from Libau, each of these boats conveying 300-350 migrants
at the least.'

Libau had the advantage of being an all weather port. Definitely Riga
was iced over for part of the year, and presumably Klaipeda also freezes
over. My impression (and I may be wrong) is that Klaipeda probably does
not have deep water facilities. Look it up on the web.

Even today Klaipeda is a small town and is unlikely to have much
shipping traffic other than local barge and ferry traffic. It is
possible to take a boat >from Kovno to Klaipeda on a daily basis.

Saul


Ship passage from Klaipeda (Memel)? #lithuania

ELGOLD1@...
 

In reply to Norman Feldman, I am not aware of people leaving >from Klaipeda
(Memel) directly for America, although some ships may have left there for
other ports. Some of my relatives >from Dorbian (Darbenai), nearby, left from
the port of Libau (Liepaja) in Latvia, not far up the coast >from Klaipeda.
Even passage >from Libau was not direct, and they had to change ships in
Southampton, England. Other realtives >from this same area traveled overland to
Hamburg and then by ship. Memel was a German city and I assume it was well
connected by rail to locations in Germany.
Hope this helps. Maybe others can add more...
Eric Goldstein
ELGOLD1@aol.com


Re: Fw: Port of Departure #lithuania

Ikesspot@...
 

Klaipeda in Lithuania used to be called, I believe, Memel. As such, it was at
various times in East Prussia (Germany) and was one of the claims made by
Hitler as an excuse for his Eastward aggression. As to emigration >from Memel,
I can tell you nothing; although it's location would have made it one of the
ports for serving the Baltic portions of the Russian enpire.


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Ship passage from Klaipeda (Memel)? #lithuania

ELGOLD1@...
 

In reply to Norman Feldman, I am not aware of people leaving >from Klaipeda
(Memel) directly for America, although some ships may have left there for
other ports. Some of my relatives >from Dorbian (Darbenai), nearby, left from
the port of Libau (Liepaja) in Latvia, not far up the coast >from Klaipeda.
Even passage >from Libau was not direct, and they had to change ships in
Southampton, England. Other realtives >from this same area traveled overland to
Hamburg and then by ship. Memel was a German city and I assume it was well
connected by rail to locations in Germany.
Hope this helps. Maybe others can add more...
Eric Goldstein
ELGOLD1@aol.com


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Re: Fw: Port of Departure #lithuania

Ikesspot@...
 

Klaipeda in Lithuania used to be called, I believe, Memel. As such, it was at
various times in East Prussia (Germany) and was one of the claims made by
Hitler as an excuse for his Eastward aggression. As to emigration >from Memel,
I can tell you nothing; although it's location would have made it one of the
ports for serving the Baltic portions of the Russian enpire.


Re: Munkacs #hungary

cohentalk@...
 

Today I was given a bit of information I would like to check with the List.
In Munkacs, >from about 1936 to 1944, there was an area called Jewish Street.
Is anyone familiar with this? Did the street have another name too?
My great grandparents Leopold KATZ and Raizl WEISS-KATZ and their sons
Abraham/Adolph KATZ, born 1882, and Phillip KATZ, born 1895, lived at Jewish
Street.

Thanks for everyone's time and help.
Linda Cohen
cohentalk@aol.com, Michigan USA
looking for KATZ, EISENBERG, and WEISS >from Munkacs and Zsuko and?


Hungary SIG #Hungary Re: Munkacs #hungary

cohentalk@...
 

Today I was given a bit of information I would like to check with the List.
In Munkacs, >from about 1936 to 1944, there was an area called Jewish Street.
Is anyone familiar with this? Did the street have another name too?
My great grandparents Leopold KATZ and Raizl WEISS-KATZ and their sons
Abraham/Adolph KATZ, born 1882, and Phillip KATZ, born 1895, lived at Jewish
Street.

Thanks for everyone's time and help.
Linda Cohen
cohentalk@aol.com, Michigan USA
looking for KATZ, EISENBERG, and WEISS >from Munkacs and Zsuko and?


What is a "Hold" of Land? #hungary

Randell B. Weiss <rbweiss@...>
 

In my research, most of my Hungarian ancestors were tavern keepers,
although they called them inns. In many cases, they were lease-holders
until they could buy their own. At least that is my interpretation of the
few lines of information I've got >from a letter written >from Plesivec,
Slovakia in August, 1939 by my great-granduncle Miksa Koller.
But to be sure, I need to know how big a "hold" of land was. For 160
years, 1746-1906, my Koller ancestors lived on the same land they owned in
Egerszog, Hungary (near Aggtelek in Borsod-Abauj-Zemblen county). Miksa
described it thus:
"My parents lived their lives under good material conditions, and my
dear father was already born into good circumstances. Indeed, they had
more than 120 Hungarian 'hold' of debt-free real estate together with a
good dwelling house, the requisite farm buildings and a complete stand of
cattle, which my father left behind in the best of condition."
Depending on how big a "hold" is, they were either part-time farmers
or full-time farmers. And the answer affects how I interpret other lines
Miksa wrote. For example: "One sister of my dear father lived in
Egerszog, her husband's name was Hermann Weisz, of whom I have only known
their two sons. The one, Lorin, a resident of Pacsa near Rozsnyo [Paca,
Slovakia near Roznava], was lease-holder of an estate, lived for a long
time in Pacsa under the Counts Andrasy and, under medium circumstances,
died in Totszuha in Gomormegye [Gomor county of pre-Trianon Hungary]."
Given what Jews typically did, I would guess that Lorin leased a building
from the Count Andrasy >from which he ran a tavern. But if he was born on
a larger farm in Egerszog, maybe he managed a farm he leased >from the
Count.
Can someone tell me in acres or hectares how big a farm is 120
Hungarian "hold" of land? And in your own opinion, did that make them
part-time farmers or full-time farmers?

Thank you,
Randy Weiss
Medford, Massachusetts
rbweiss@ix.netcom.com

Researching:
FISCHER - Goncruszka & Kazincbarcika, Hungary; Starna (formerly
Sajoszarnya) & Kosice, Slovakia; Memphis, Tennessee.
GOODMAN - Zamutov (formerly Zamatof), Slovakia; Cleveland, Ohio.
KOHN - Goncruszka & Kazincbarcika, Hungary.
KOLLER - Egerszog & Tornanadaska, Hungary; Kosice & Plesivec
(formerly Pelsoc), Slovakia.
STARK - Komjati (formerly Komjan), Hungary; Jablonov nad Turnou
(formerly Turno), Slovakia; Cleveland, Ohio.
WEISS - Cleveland, Ohio (ancestors came >from a village in Hungary,
probably Zemplin county,Slovakia, but I don't know where).
WEISZ - Aggtelek, Hungary; Plesivec, Slovakia.


Hungary SIG #Hungary What is a "Hold" of Land? #hungary

Randell B. Weiss <rbweiss@...>
 

In my research, most of my Hungarian ancestors were tavern keepers,
although they called them inns. In many cases, they were lease-holders
until they could buy their own. At least that is my interpretation of the
few lines of information I've got >from a letter written >from Plesivec,
Slovakia in August, 1939 by my great-granduncle Miksa Koller.
But to be sure, I need to know how big a "hold" of land was. For 160
years, 1746-1906, my Koller ancestors lived on the same land they owned in
Egerszog, Hungary (near Aggtelek in Borsod-Abauj-Zemblen county). Miksa
described it thus:
"My parents lived their lives under good material conditions, and my
dear father was already born into good circumstances. Indeed, they had
more than 120 Hungarian 'hold' of debt-free real estate together with a
good dwelling house, the requisite farm buildings and a complete stand of
cattle, which my father left behind in the best of condition."
Depending on how big a "hold" is, they were either part-time farmers
or full-time farmers. And the answer affects how I interpret other lines
Miksa wrote. For example: "One sister of my dear father lived in
Egerszog, her husband's name was Hermann Weisz, of whom I have only known
their two sons. The one, Lorin, a resident of Pacsa near Rozsnyo [Paca,
Slovakia near Roznava], was lease-holder of an estate, lived for a long
time in Pacsa under the Counts Andrasy and, under medium circumstances,
died in Totszuha in Gomormegye [Gomor county of pre-Trianon Hungary]."
Given what Jews typically did, I would guess that Lorin leased a building
from the Count Andrasy >from which he ran a tavern. But if he was born on
a larger farm in Egerszog, maybe he managed a farm he leased >from the
Count.
Can someone tell me in acres or hectares how big a farm is 120
Hungarian "hold" of land? And in your own opinion, did that make them
part-time farmers or full-time farmers?

Thank you,
Randy Weiss
Medford, Massachusetts
rbweiss@ix.netcom.com

Researching:
FISCHER - Goncruszka & Kazincbarcika, Hungary; Starna (formerly
Sajoszarnya) & Kosice, Slovakia; Memphis, Tennessee.
GOODMAN - Zamutov (formerly Zamatof), Slovakia; Cleveland, Ohio.
KOHN - Goncruszka & Kazincbarcika, Hungary.
KOLLER - Egerszog & Tornanadaska, Hungary; Kosice & Plesivec
(formerly Pelsoc), Slovakia.
STARK - Komjati (formerly Komjan), Hungary; Jablonov nad Turnou
(formerly Turno), Slovakia; Cleveland, Ohio.
WEISS - Cleveland, Ohio (ancestors came >from a village in Hungary,
probably Zemplin county,Slovakia, but I don't know where).
WEISZ - Aggtelek, Hungary; Plesivec, Slovakia.


Age of Yeshiva Students #general

Olga G. Parker <OGParker@...>
 

My thanks to all who responded to this question. Many mentioned having
attended yeshiva themselves, and ages ranged >from childhood to adulthood.

However, I would like to quote >from David Goldman's reply (with his
permission), since he gave some information specific to the Volozhin
yeshiva which my grandfather had attended and someone else recently
inquired about this yeshiva:
---
"The Volozhin yeshiva was started in the early 19th century by
Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin, the disciple of the Gaon of Vilna. He initiated
the yeshiva movement. Prior to that time, yeshiva study ended for many boys
after bar-mitzvah, at which time they started working and married soon
thereafter. Their earlier studies were in cheder. Most boys were too busy
to have more than an occasional class, maybe on shabbos, for their years
thereafter. The children of rabbinical families or those financially able
to sustain learning after bar-mitzvah, usually obtained a tutor for their
sons who would study in the library of a rabbi or a wealthy benefactor.
This was the same situation everywhere. This system did not change for the
chassidim until the END of the 19th century.

With the advent of the yeshiva system, small yeshivas and a large one in
Volozhin were organized were communities would house and feed boys AFTER
cheder to continue their studies for as many years as was practical or
possible. Thus boys after 13 learned in Volozhin, lived with local
families, and were able to continue studying, EVEN if they were financially
incapable of doing so.


The creation of dormitory yeshivas developed only after world war one.
Your grandfather was therefore in Volozhin >from his bar mitzvah to when he
went to work or got married."
- - -
My thanks again to all who responded.

Olga G. Parker
OGParker@compuserve.com


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Age of Yeshiva Students #general

Olga G. Parker <OGParker@...>
 

My thanks to all who responded to this question. Many mentioned having
attended yeshiva themselves, and ages ranged >from childhood to adulthood.

However, I would like to quote >from David Goldman's reply (with his
permission), since he gave some information specific to the Volozhin
yeshiva which my grandfather had attended and someone else recently
inquired about this yeshiva:
---
"The Volozhin yeshiva was started in the early 19th century by
Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin, the disciple of the Gaon of Vilna. He initiated
the yeshiva movement. Prior to that time, yeshiva study ended for many boys
after bar-mitzvah, at which time they started working and married soon
thereafter. Their earlier studies were in cheder. Most boys were too busy
to have more than an occasional class, maybe on shabbos, for their years
thereafter. The children of rabbinical families or those financially able
to sustain learning after bar-mitzvah, usually obtained a tutor for their
sons who would study in the library of a rabbi or a wealthy benefactor.
This was the same situation everywhere. This system did not change for the
chassidim until the END of the 19th century.

With the advent of the yeshiva system, small yeshivas and a large one in
Volozhin were organized were communities would house and feed boys AFTER
cheder to continue their studies for as many years as was practical or
possible. Thus boys after 13 learned in Volozhin, lived with local
families, and were able to continue studying, EVEN if they were financially
incapable of doing so.


The creation of dormitory yeshivas developed only after world war one.
Your grandfather was therefore in Volozhin >from his bar mitzvah to when he
went to work or got married."
- - -
My thanks again to all who responded.

Olga G. Parker
OGParker@compuserve.com


Report from Lodz, Part Two #general

HOLORO@...
 

My plan for yesterday was to go to Lask, but I got an E-Mail >from a cousin in
Florida, suggesting that I visit Breziny where some of our family lived.

I hadn't planned to go there but yesterday when my researcher, Petje, showed
up I told her that the first order of business was Breziny. It's located about
ten miles east of Lodz. It was an overwhelming experience. There has been a
Jewish presence there since the sixteenth century and the population was 50%
Jewish in 1939.

Our first stop there was the U.S.C., the local Bureau of Records. All birth,
death and marriage records are kept there for 100 years, after which, they are
turned over to the Archives in another city. The only record we found after an
hour of searching was a cousin's birth. He had a habit of fibbing about his
age, but now we know he was born in 1899.

from there we went to the Jewish cemetery. It has been completely destroyed,
with a few broken headstones scattered around. A beautiful but stark monument
has been erected there by the Brzeziny Survivors Group in Tel Aviv, but it has
been scribbled over with anti-Semitic slogans.

We went to a museum in town which has sewing machines and irons used in the
garment industry, the principal business in Brzeziny. Outside the museum were
perhaps thirty broken headstones >from the Jewish cemetery. They were found in
the German Army barracks and it doesn't take much imagination to figure out
what they were used for. The curator told us that they will be used in a
memorial monument that will be erected by the survivors.

from the museum it was only a short walk into a park with a lovely lake and a
small river running off. Across the river there was a small bridge made of
headstones >from the cemetery. Petje said it is not clear if it was built by
the Germans during the occupation, or by the Poles afterward. Petje told me
that no one in local government will talk about it.

from Brzeziny we drove to Lask, about twenty miles west of Lodz. The
population had a large percentage of Jews there in 1939. My great grandfather,
SHIA RUDEK (1836-1909) was born there. His father Isaac (b. 1806), his
grandfather Shia Leyzer (b. 1762) and his great grandfather Leyzer (b. apx.
1735) were all born there and are probably buried there.

We went to went to a small park where there had been an open air market run by
Jewish merchants and tradesman for 200 or more years. Completely ringing the
square were small stores which Petje told me were all operated by Jews.
Walking around the square we found in one doorway with a cut in the masonry,
which by height and angle was obviously where the muzzah (sp?) was placed.

Today there probably aren't any Jews there.

We went to the cemetery located in a lovely wooded area. All the tombstones
but one were lying on the ground. They were not broken and many had beautiful
carvings. The one standing had been re-erected, but with the carving facing
away >from the grave. Someone had left two Yahrzeit candles there. We lit them
and I recited the Prayer for the Deceased.

Another emotional day for me in Poland.

Howard L. Rosen holoro@aol.com
Mountainside, NJ


Re: Yiskor book for Tulchin #general

ROBERT WEISS
 

On 19 Sep Esther Feinstein Sackheim wrote:


I understand there are no Yiskor books for Tulchin. Where would there be

a near town that might incorporate those records?Any help will be appreciated.

Thank you

Tulchin is mentioned in "Shtet un shtetlach in Ukraine un anderer Teylen fun
Russland" (Cities and shtetlach in Ukraine and in other parts of Russia) by
Mendl Osherowitch, New York, 1948, Yiddish, Call Number 937.51 O82s.

Best wishes to you and George for a happy and healthy new year.

Bob Weiss
RWeissJGS@aol.com


beadle #general

gayle riley <key2pst@...>
 

Does anyone know what a "beadle" did?

Gayle >from San Gabriel, Ca.
Searching EDER and SCHLISSEL >from Tarnobrzeg


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Report from Lodz, Part Two #general

HOLORO@...
 

My plan for yesterday was to go to Lask, but I got an E-Mail >from a cousin in
Florida, suggesting that I visit Breziny where some of our family lived.

I hadn't planned to go there but yesterday when my researcher, Petje, showed
up I told her that the first order of business was Breziny. It's located about
ten miles east of Lodz. It was an overwhelming experience. There has been a
Jewish presence there since the sixteenth century and the population was 50%
Jewish in 1939.

Our first stop there was the U.S.C., the local Bureau of Records. All birth,
death and marriage records are kept there for 100 years, after which, they are
turned over to the Archives in another city. The only record we found after an
hour of searching was a cousin's birth. He had a habit of fibbing about his
age, but now we know he was born in 1899.

from there we went to the Jewish cemetery. It has been completely destroyed,
with a few broken headstones scattered around. A beautiful but stark monument
has been erected there by the Brzeziny Survivors Group in Tel Aviv, but it has
been scribbled over with anti-Semitic slogans.

We went to a museum in town which has sewing machines and irons used in the
garment industry, the principal business in Brzeziny. Outside the museum were
perhaps thirty broken headstones >from the Jewish cemetery. They were found in
the German Army barracks and it doesn't take much imagination to figure out
what they were used for. The curator told us that they will be used in a
memorial monument that will be erected by the survivors.

from the museum it was only a short walk into a park with a lovely lake and a
small river running off. Across the river there was a small bridge made of
headstones >from the cemetery. Petje said it is not clear if it was built by
the Germans during the occupation, or by the Poles afterward. Petje told me
that no one in local government will talk about it.

from Brzeziny we drove to Lask, about twenty miles west of Lodz. The
population had a large percentage of Jews there in 1939. My great grandfather,
SHIA RUDEK (1836-1909) was born there. His father Isaac (b. 1806), his
grandfather Shia Leyzer (b. 1762) and his great grandfather Leyzer (b. apx.
1735) were all born there and are probably buried there.

We went to went to a small park where there had been an open air market run by
Jewish merchants and tradesman for 200 or more years. Completely ringing the
square were small stores which Petje told me were all operated by Jews.
Walking around the square we found in one doorway with a cut in the masonry,
which by height and angle was obviously where the muzzah (sp?) was placed.

Today there probably aren't any Jews there.

We went to the cemetery located in a lovely wooded area. All the tombstones
but one were lying on the ground. They were not broken and many had beautiful
carvings. The one standing had been re-erected, but with the carving facing
away >from the grave. Someone had left two Yahrzeit candles there. We lit them
and I recited the Prayer for the Deceased.

Another emotional day for me in Poland.

Howard L. Rosen holoro@aol.com
Mountainside, NJ