Date   

Re: New York City Housing Records #general

Peter Zavon <pzavon@...>
 

Leases are and were contracts drawn between the building owner and the
person seeking to occupy space in the building. Records of any given lease
would have been kept in the business office of the building owner and/or his
attorney. It seems most unlikely to me that any central repository would
have been created.

If there was some legal dispute about a lease, there would, no doubt, be
records in the archives of the court that heard the dispute, but that would
be a small fraction of the total number of leases entered into in a given
year.

And I suspect that many, perhaps most (?), apartment rentals would have been
tenant-at-will arrangements. In these situations, there may have been no
written document at all. The tenant paid the agreed-upon rent (usually in
cash) each week or each month and could leave, or be evicted, at the any
time.

If you know that someone was renting >from a large institution, perhaps that
institution has kept records, but with the high cost of space in NYC during
the late 20th century and the lack of business value in decades old
residential lease documents, I suspect that would be an uncommon situation.
By a "large institution", I mean something like the Catholic Diocese of New
York. My maternal grandfather rented his tailor shop and apartment >from the
Catholic Diocese in a building on Fulton Street in Brooklyn beginning before
WWI. Perhaps the Diocese business office has records of this, but I doubt
it. He eventually bought the building >from them and rented out the 3
apartments, living behind the shop when his marriage broke up. I *know* there
are no records of those rentals as my paternal grandfather eventually bought
the building >from my maternal grandfather, and my father and uncle inherited
it. They sold it outside the family in the 1970's.

--
Peter Zavon
Penfield, NY

"Gary Gershfield" <gmgkpc@hotmail.com> wrote:

I am trying to find out if old records exist for NYC leases and people
renting apartments.In other words,if I know the address of a relative,are
there records like this that could lead to additional information.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: New York City Housing Records #general

Peter Zavon <pzavon@...>
 

Leases are and were contracts drawn between the building owner and the
person seeking to occupy space in the building. Records of any given lease
would have been kept in the business office of the building owner and/or his
attorney. It seems most unlikely to me that any central repository would
have been created.

If there was some legal dispute about a lease, there would, no doubt, be
records in the archives of the court that heard the dispute, but that would
be a small fraction of the total number of leases entered into in a given
year.

And I suspect that many, perhaps most (?), apartment rentals would have been
tenant-at-will arrangements. In these situations, there may have been no
written document at all. The tenant paid the agreed-upon rent (usually in
cash) each week or each month and could leave, or be evicted, at the any
time.

If you know that someone was renting >from a large institution, perhaps that
institution has kept records, but with the high cost of space in NYC during
the late 20th century and the lack of business value in decades old
residential lease documents, I suspect that would be an uncommon situation.
By a "large institution", I mean something like the Catholic Diocese of New
York. My maternal grandfather rented his tailor shop and apartment >from the
Catholic Diocese in a building on Fulton Street in Brooklyn beginning before
WWI. Perhaps the Diocese business office has records of this, but I doubt
it. He eventually bought the building >from them and rented out the 3
apartments, living behind the shop when his marriage broke up. I *know* there
are no records of those rentals as my paternal grandfather eventually bought
the building >from my maternal grandfather, and my father and uncle inherited
it. They sold it outside the family in the 1970's.

--
Peter Zavon
Penfield, NY

"Gary Gershfield" <gmgkpc@hotmail.com> wrote:

I am trying to find out if old records exist for NYC leases and people
renting apartments.In other words,if I know the address of a relative,are
there records like this that could lead to additional information.


Seek town Bergheim or Berkheim near Frankfur a.M. #germany

j. sturkop <j.sturkop@...>
 

I am looking for a Jewish family who lived (in 1778) in Berkheim (probably:
Bergheim) near Frankfurt. I am now looking for the location of that Berkheim
/ Bergheim. In Germany, I found six locations of that name, but I believe
that the closest to Frankfurt is the village Bergheim at appr. 25 kilometers
southwest of Kassel, between Korbach and Fritzler. But that is still a 100
kilometers away >from Frankfurt. Does anyone know a Berkheim / Bergheim which
is closer to Frankfurt than that? AND: does anybody know something of the
18th Century Jewish population of that place? Met vriendelijke groet,

Ko Sturkop j.sturkop@hccnet.nl www.sturkop.nl


German SIG #Germany Seek town Bergheim or Berkheim near Frankfur a.M. #germany

j. sturkop <j.sturkop@...>
 

I am looking for a Jewish family who lived (in 1778) in Berkheim (probably:
Bergheim) near Frankfurt. I am now looking for the location of that Berkheim
/ Bergheim. In Germany, I found six locations of that name, but I believe
that the closest to Frankfurt is the village Bergheim at appr. 25 kilometers
southwest of Kassel, between Korbach and Fritzler. But that is still a 100
kilometers away >from Frankfurt. Does anyone know a Berkheim / Bergheim which
is closer to Frankfurt than that? AND: does anybody know something of the
18th Century Jewish population of that place? Met vriendelijke groet,

Ko Sturkop j.sturkop@hccnet.nl www.sturkop.nl


Re: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

Zeev Raphael <zeevra@...>
 

Dear Susan and Fritz,
Fritz Neubauer wrote:
"... it was NOT a protest, but one of the laws arising >from the Nuremberg
laws stated that starting on August 17, 1938 every German Jew was
*** forced *** to add "Israel" or "Sara" as middle names to their names to make
their Jewishness obvious. These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon them
by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war."

Having had this law applied to myself, I can confirm Fritz's comments.
My name (in those days) was "Heinz", and I thus became "Heinz Israel".
I can produce several documents illustrating this.

I have two comments:

1. True, the law was issued on August 17, 1938. However it came into force,
only "starting on January 1, 1939". See text of the decree, at the
website cited below or contact me for the text.

2. Jews with authorized and clearly Jewish names, did NOT have to adopt
the additional name. Thus my father Jacob did not have to add
"Israel" to his name. He did so nevertheless, and became "Jacob Israel"...
Best wishes, Zeev Raphael, Haifa e-mail: zeevra@aerodyne.technion.ac.il


Downloaded from: http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=6289

Second decree on law concerning change of first and last names (Zweite
Verordnung zur Durchf?hrung des Gesetzes ?ber die Aenderung von Familiennamen und
Vornmen)
Gist of the law: Forcing Jews to adopt the names "Israel" and "Sara".
Document Number: 2873-PS
Date: 17 Aug 1938
Reichsgesetzblatt-Page: I.1044
Signed by: Frick


German SIG #Germany Re: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

Zeev Raphael <zeevra@...>
 

Dear Susan and Fritz,
Fritz Neubauer wrote:
"... it was NOT a protest, but one of the laws arising >from the Nuremberg
laws stated that starting on August 17, 1938 every German Jew was
*** forced *** to add "Israel" or "Sara" as middle names to their names to make
their Jewishness obvious. These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon them
by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war."

Having had this law applied to myself, I can confirm Fritz's comments.
My name (in those days) was "Heinz", and I thus became "Heinz Israel".
I can produce several documents illustrating this.

I have two comments:

1. True, the law was issued on August 17, 1938. However it came into force,
only "starting on January 1, 1939". See text of the decree, at the
website cited below or contact me for the text.

2. Jews with authorized and clearly Jewish names, did NOT have to adopt
the additional name. Thus my father Jacob did not have to add
"Israel" to his name. He did so nevertheless, and became "Jacob Israel"...
Best wishes, Zeev Raphael, Haifa e-mail: zeevra@aerodyne.technion.ac.il


Downloaded from: http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=6289

Second decree on law concerning change of first and last names (Zweite
Verordnung zur Durchf?hrung des Gesetzes ?ber die Aenderung von Familiennamen und
Vornmen)
Gist of the law: Forcing Jews to adopt the names "Israel" and "Sara".
Document Number: 2873-PS
Date: 17 Aug 1938
Reichsgesetzblatt-Page: I.1044
Signed by: Frick


Re: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

Dick Plotz
 

Fritz Neubauer wrote in response to Susan Meehan:
These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon
them by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war.
I have seen many notations in birth records of the imposition of the
additional names and of their removal. What is remarkable to me is
that the removal seems to follow no rhyme or reason. I've asked here
about what prompted the notations of removal, and received no
definitive answer. What I do know is that many people who did not
survive nevertheless had a notation of removal on their birth records,
and that this was not a matter of a Standesamt or archive official
simply paging through the records and entering a removal note on each
record with an additional name; a single record book might contain
records with and without removal notes, haphazardly scattered through
the Jewish records.

My best guess is that perhaps someone tried to remove the added names
by recalling who the Jewish residents were and about when they were
born and looking them up in the indexes, or maybe just by looking for
Jewish names in the indexes. In the first case, the presence of a
removal note would indicate that the person had been remembered, which
might possibly be helpful to a genealogical researcher; in the second
case, it would be of no importance at all.

Does anyone have more specfic information? My experience is with
Napoleonic-style narrative records >from the Rheinland.

Dick Plotz Providence RI USA


German SIG #Germany Re: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

Dick Plotz
 

Fritz Neubauer wrote in response to Susan Meehan:
These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon
them by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war.
I have seen many notations in birth records of the imposition of the
additional names and of their removal. What is remarkable to me is
that the removal seems to follow no rhyme or reason. I've asked here
about what prompted the notations of removal, and received no
definitive answer. What I do know is that many people who did not
survive nevertheless had a notation of removal on their birth records,
and that this was not a matter of a Standesamt or archive official
simply paging through the records and entering a removal note on each
record with an additional name; a single record book might contain
records with and without removal notes, haphazardly scattered through
the Jewish records.

My best guess is that perhaps someone tried to remove the added names
by recalling who the Jewish residents were and about when they were
born and looking them up in the indexes, or maybe just by looking for
Jewish names in the indexes. In the first case, the presence of a
removal note would indicate that the person had been remembered, which
might possibly be helpful to a genealogical researcher; in the second
case, it would be of no importance at all.

Does anyone have more specfic information? My experience is with
Napoleonic-style narrative records >from the Rheinland.

Dick Plotz Providence RI USA


Rozalia/Rosha given name #lithuania

Nathalie Ried <nathalieried@...>
 

Dear Litvaksiggers,
I have a great -grandmother, born in Vilnius in 1870, whose "secular name"
(the only one I know) was Rozalia. I thought it was an equivalent of Rachel
(via "Raizel") but I found an unknown equivalent in the Lithuania Given
Names Database : Rosha or Rusha. I had never come across this Hebrew name
before. I'd like to know more about its origins and meaning. Thanks for your
help,

Nathalie Ried (Paris, France)


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Rozalia/Rosha given name #lithuania

Nathalie Ried <nathalieried@...>
 

Dear Litvaksiggers,
I have a great -grandmother, born in Vilnius in 1870, whose "secular name"
(the only one I know) was Rozalia. I thought it was an equivalent of Rachel
(via "Raizel") but I found an unknown equivalent in the Lithuania Given
Names Database : Rosha or Rusha. I had never come across this Hebrew name
before. I'd like to know more about its origins and meaning. Thanks for your
help,

Nathalie Ried (Paris, France)


Film on Rescue of Budapest Jews #romania

Robert Friedman <rfriedman@...>
 

You're all invited to a film screening at YIVO on Tuesday!

Passport to Life: The Rescue of Budapest Jews, by Agnes Vertes

Tuesday April 12, 2005 at 7:00 PM
Center for Jewish History
15 West 16th Street, New York, NY

Besides opening remarks by Carl Rheins (YIVO's
Executive Director), Gabor Horvath (Hungarian
Consul General), and Randolph Braham (CUNY Graduate
Center), the evening will also feature a panel
discussion after the film.

At the reception to follow, a resource table will
be set up with reference materials for Hungarian-
Jewish Genealogy, including Jordan Auslander's new
Genealogical Gazetteer of the Kingdom of Hungary.

For Tickets/Admission Fees:
Center for Jewish History Box Office, 917-606-8200
http://calendar.cjh.org/calendar/calendarevent.cfm?ID=3D831&viewtype=3Dm&=
date=3D4%2F3%2F2005

Submitted by:
Robert Friedman
Director, Center for Jewish History Genealogy Institute
www.cjh.org/family


Romania SIG #Romania Film on Rescue of Budapest Jews #romania

Robert Friedman <rfriedman@...>
 

You're all invited to a film screening at YIVO on Tuesday!

Passport to Life: The Rescue of Budapest Jews, by Agnes Vertes

Tuesday April 12, 2005 at 7:00 PM
Center for Jewish History
15 West 16th Street, New York, NY

Besides opening remarks by Carl Rheins (YIVO's
Executive Director), Gabor Horvath (Hungarian
Consul General), and Randolph Braham (CUNY Graduate
Center), the evening will also feature a panel
discussion after the film.

At the reception to follow, a resource table will
be set up with reference materials for Hungarian-
Jewish Genealogy, including Jordan Auslander's new
Genealogical Gazetteer of the Kingdom of Hungary.

For Tickets/Admission Fees:
Center for Jewish History Box Office, 917-606-8200
http://calendar.cjh.org/calendar/calendarevent.cfm?ID=3D831&viewtype=3Dm&=
date=3D4%2F3%2F2005

Submitted by:
Robert Friedman
Director, Center for Jewish History Genealogy Institute
www.cjh.org/family


Re: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

David Seldner
 

Dear all,

I also noticed during my research that some "Israels" and "Sarahs"
had been removed, others not. The answer why this is so is relatively
simple. There had to be a reason to change the name again. In
some cases survivors requested the change of name, in other
cases descendants asked for it (like in the case of my family).
And, as I was told in one Standesamt, it had happened that the
chief of the Standesamt had given the order to do it.

David Seldner, Karlsruhe, Germany


BRESLAU to South AFRICA: GOLDMANN, FRIEDLAENDER and MAHN #germany

Adam Yamey <adamandlopa@...>
 

Louis GOLDMANN was born in Breslau and in the early
19th century immigrated to Burghersdorp in the Cape of
Good Hope. He married Caroline, née SICHEL, and he
died in Frankfurt in about 1877.

He was in some way related to the FRIEDLAENDER family
some of whom moved >from Breslau to Beuthen before
migrating to Midelburg in South Africa in the mid-
19th century. It is possible that the GOLDMANN family
was related in some way to the MAHN family also from
Breslau. Natalie MAHN married Isadore FRIEDLAENDER (or
FRIEDLANDER as the family is now named).

I would be very grateful if anyone can show me how
these families >from Breslau are related.

Adam Yamey, London, UK<adamandlopa@yahoo.co.uk>


German SIG #Germany RE: Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany

David Seldner
 

Dear all,

I also noticed during my research that some "Israels" and "Sarahs"
had been removed, others not. The answer why this is so is relatively
simple. There had to be a reason to change the name again. In
some cases survivors requested the change of name, in other
cases descendants asked for it (like in the case of my family).
And, as I was told in one Standesamt, it had happened that the
chief of the Standesamt had given the order to do it.

David Seldner, Karlsruhe, Germany


German SIG #Germany BRESLAU to South AFRICA: GOLDMANN, FRIEDLAENDER and MAHN #germany

Adam Yamey <adamandlopa@...>
 

Louis GOLDMANN was born in Breslau and in the early
19th century immigrated to Burghersdorp in the Cape of
Good Hope. He married Caroline, née SICHEL, and he
died in Frankfurt in about 1877.

He was in some way related to the FRIEDLAENDER family
some of whom moved >from Breslau to Beuthen before
migrating to Midelburg in South Africa in the mid-
19th century. It is possible that the GOLDMANN family
was related in some way to the MAHN family also from
Breslau. Natalie MAHN married Isadore FRIEDLAENDER (or
FRIEDLANDER as the family is now named).

I would be very grateful if anyone can show me how
these families >from Breslau are related.

Adam Yamey, London, UK<adamandlopa@yahoo.co.uk>


Re: Seek town Bergheim or Berkheim near Frankfur a.M. #germany

Fritz Neubauer
 

j. sturkop schrieb:

I am looking for a Jewish family who lived (in 1778) in Berkheim (probably:
Bergheim) near Frankfurt. I am now looking for the location of that Berkheim
/ Bergheim. In Germany, I found six locations of that name, but I believe
that the closest to Frankfurt is the village Bergheim at appr. 25 kilometers
southwest of Kassel, between Korbach and Fritzler. But that is still a 100
kilometers away >from Frankfurt. Does anyone know a Berkheim / Bergheim which
is closer to Frankfurt than that?
Dear Ko,
there is also the possibility that you are really looking for
"Berkersheim" (with a "ers" added) which in the old days used to be an
independent village just outside of Frankfurt/Main but was incorporated
into Frankfurt and is now a district of Frankfurt/Main,

with kind regards

Fritz Neubauer, North Germany <fritz.neubauer@uni-bielefeld.de>


German SIG #Germany Re: Seek town Bergheim or Berkheim near Frankfur a.M. #germany

Fritz Neubauer
 

j. sturkop schrieb:

I am looking for a Jewish family who lived (in 1778) in Berkheim (probably:
Bergheim) near Frankfurt. I am now looking for the location of that Berkheim
/ Bergheim. In Germany, I found six locations of that name, but I believe
that the closest to Frankfurt is the village Bergheim at appr. 25 kilometers
southwest of Kassel, between Korbach and Fritzler. But that is still a 100
kilometers away >from Frankfurt. Does anyone know a Berkheim / Bergheim which
is closer to Frankfurt than that?
Dear Ko,
there is also the possibility that you are really looking for
"Berkersheim" (with a "ers" added) which in the old days used to be an
independent village just outside of Frankfurt/Main but was incorporated
into Frankfurt and is now a district of Frankfurt/Main,

with kind regards

Fritz Neubauer, North Germany <fritz.neubauer@uni-bielefeld.de>


INTRO - thanks and what I'm working on #germany

Susan Meehan <smeehan@...>
 

Hello, GerSig -
I've just joined the group. I'm a newbie to geneology in general, and
a novice in doing German Jewish genealogy research in particular.

First, let me thank everyone who resonded to my question about the use
of "Israel" and "Sarah" as middle names, as seen in the German Minority
Census of 1939. What a terrible story you have told! How utterly
devastating to use the most glorious names within Judaism as a marker
for humiliation and death! Each of you gave me just a little different
viewpoint >from which you explained what had happened, and that was most
interesting. I am very grateful for your prompt and most useful help.

My primary research goals are as follows:
to see if I can find enough about my grandmother's family, almost
wiped out in the Shoah, to submit a well-crafted claim to the Swiss
Dormant Banks Claims commission;

to find out more in general about my paternal grandmother's family,
which came >from Rawitsch (now Rawicz), formerly Prussia and now Poland.

The names there are:
SANDER, my greatgrandmother's maiden name, about which I know
nothing except that the family was middle class in the 1870's
(there's a great story about why I don't know - another time for
that, I think) and

POGORSELSKY, my greatgrandfather's name in many variant
spellings. He was a trader of pelts and other goods and quite
traditional as well as orthodox. I know that his family was
murdered - at least six sent >from Hamburg to Minsk, where
they were killed - and probably about 30 more.

My father rescued one cousin in Hamburt the night before
Hitler closed all the ports permanently; she was the only
survivor of them, and she and my family are all that is left
of this clan.

This research will let me know for sure if a large family of
persons (mostly >from Berlin) whose names are spelled
Pogorzelski are related to my Pogerselsky's. Of course, the
names would be pronounced almost the same. I think
there is a real chance they are related, but I'm not
sure how. Some sleuthing on my part turned up the fact that the two
spellings each have persons born in the same little town of Rawitsch.
Bound to be related, I think! Unfortunately, the 21 Pogorzelski's that

I've researched thus far were wiped out pretty much en masse, although
there is a tiny remnant in Israel. Do you know how people who left
records at Yad Vashem can be contacted?

to find out about my paternal grandfather's family,
BERGMAN, >from Riga Latvia. They were upper-middle class, non-observant,
German-speakers. While most came here in the 1880's, I understand that
my great uncle Simon rescued at least one family member during WWII.

Thanks for any help - as you know, I have been studying the 1939 german
Minority Census most carefully (an emeotional experience when one sees
one's family's signatures on what amounted to a death certificate) as
well as gedenkbuchs, Yad Vashem files, and lists >from the various
concentration/labor camps. It is sad but fascinating work. Perhaps an
article will come out of it on how one learns to maneuver through this
information system.

FYI - live in Washington, DC, which is a great help. I speak
well-accented French and Spanish, and a little Russian. Unfortunately,
I do not speak or read German - wish my father and grandmother had
taught me! I'm an avid System X Macintosh user. My fingers don't do
Windows, but they do do Reunion!

Susan Bergman Meehan Washington DC smeehan@tcs.wap.org

BTW - I had a fascinatingly unpleasant experience trying to get the
instruction page for the 1939 German Minority Census translated. Some
things don't change, I guess.


German SIG #Germany INTRO - thanks and what I'm working on #germany

Susan Meehan <smeehan@...>
 

Hello, GerSig -
I've just joined the group. I'm a newbie to geneology in general, and
a novice in doing German Jewish genealogy research in particular.

First, let me thank everyone who resonded to my question about the use
of "Israel" and "Sarah" as middle names, as seen in the German Minority
Census of 1939. What a terrible story you have told! How utterly
devastating to use the most glorious names within Judaism as a marker
for humiliation and death! Each of you gave me just a little different
viewpoint >from which you explained what had happened, and that was most
interesting. I am very grateful for your prompt and most useful help.

My primary research goals are as follows:
to see if I can find enough about my grandmother's family, almost
wiped out in the Shoah, to submit a well-crafted claim to the Swiss
Dormant Banks Claims commission;

to find out more in general about my paternal grandmother's family,
which came >from Rawitsch (now Rawicz), formerly Prussia and now Poland.

The names there are:
SANDER, my greatgrandmother's maiden name, about which I know
nothing except that the family was middle class in the 1870's
(there's a great story about why I don't know - another time for
that, I think) and

POGORSELSKY, my greatgrandfather's name in many variant
spellings. He was a trader of pelts and other goods and quite
traditional as well as orthodox. I know that his family was
murdered - at least six sent >from Hamburg to Minsk, where
they were killed - and probably about 30 more.

My father rescued one cousin in Hamburt the night before
Hitler closed all the ports permanently; she was the only
survivor of them, and she and my family are all that is left
of this clan.

This research will let me know for sure if a large family of
persons (mostly >from Berlin) whose names are spelled
Pogorzelski are related to my Pogerselsky's. Of course, the
names would be pronounced almost the same. I think
there is a real chance they are related, but I'm not
sure how. Some sleuthing on my part turned up the fact that the two
spellings each have persons born in the same little town of Rawitsch.
Bound to be related, I think! Unfortunately, the 21 Pogorzelski's that

I've researched thus far were wiped out pretty much en masse, although
there is a tiny remnant in Israel. Do you know how people who left
records at Yad Vashem can be contacted?

to find out about my paternal grandfather's family,
BERGMAN, >from Riga Latvia. They were upper-middle class, non-observant,
German-speakers. While most came here in the 1880's, I understand that
my great uncle Simon rescued at least one family member during WWII.

Thanks for any help - as you know, I have been studying the 1939 german
Minority Census most carefully (an emeotional experience when one sees
one's family's signatures on what amounted to a death certificate) as
well as gedenkbuchs, Yad Vashem files, and lists >from the various
concentration/labor camps. It is sad but fascinating work. Perhaps an
article will come out of it on how one learns to maneuver through this
information system.

FYI - live in Washington, DC, which is a great help. I speak
well-accented French and Spanish, and a little Russian. Unfortunately,
I do not speak or read German - wish my father and grandmother had
taught me! I'm an avid System X Macintosh user. My fingers don't do
Windows, but they do do Reunion!

Susan Bergman Meehan Washington DC smeehan@tcs.wap.org

BTW - I had a fascinatingly unpleasant experience trying to get the
instruction page for the 1939 German Minority Census translated. Some
things don't change, I guess.