Date   

Travel to Pantalowice, Poland #general

sabramscpa@...
 

My cousin is interested in traveling to Pantalowice, Poland this
summer. This small area is near the southeast corner of Poland and it
is not far >from the Ukraine border.

Nearby larger areas/towns are Jaroslaw, Przemysl and Rzeszow.

If anyone has traveled to this area please e mail Ed Adler at
emadler@hotmail.com. He would like to benefit >from others who have
traveled to this region and to Poland.

Thanks in advance for your help.

Steve Abrams
Van Nuys, CA


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Travel to Pantalowice, Poland #general

sabramscpa@...
 

My cousin is interested in traveling to Pantalowice, Poland this
summer. This small area is near the southeast corner of Poland and it
is not far >from the Ukraine border.

Nearby larger areas/towns are Jaroslaw, Przemysl and Rzeszow.

If anyone has traveled to this area please e mail Ed Adler at
emadler@hotmail.com. He would like to benefit >from others who have
traveled to this region and to Poland.

Thanks in advance for your help.

Steve Abrams
Van Nuys, CA


Kovno Video #general

Curiousyl@...
 

Members of the Digest: FYI

In answer to the many queries I received and the messages on the Digests
pertaining to the Kovno Ghetto video, the following information was given me
today:

The USHMM video, "The Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto", is available for
sale in the USHMM Museum Shop.
Cost: $19.95

Phone Jerry Reen in the Museum office for further information on placing your
order: 1-202-479-9734

Sylvia FURSHMAN NUSINOV
Florida

MODERATOR NOTE: This is a one time mention.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Kovno Video #general

Curiousyl@...
 

Members of the Digest: FYI

In answer to the many queries I received and the messages on the Digests
pertaining to the Kovno Ghetto video, the following information was given me
today:

The USHMM video, "The Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto", is available for
sale in the USHMM Museum Shop.
Cost: $19.95

Phone Jerry Reen in the Museum office for further information on placing your
order: 1-202-479-9734

Sylvia FURSHMAN NUSINOV
Florida

MODERATOR NOTE: This is a one time mention.


Re: Isadore LEVINE: 1875 - 1936 #general

Marla Waltman Daschko <waltman@...>
 

Ricki Zunk put out a call for help earlier this week about the location
of a cemetary called Beth Jacob in Hamilton, Ontario. She said:

.... The brother of my mggm lived most of his adult life in
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
and was buried in the Beth Jacob Cemetery. ...
I found Beth Jacob Synagogue
listed at 375 Aberdeen in Hamilton, but no listing
for a Beth Jacob Cemetery.
Ricki, I think the problem you were having is that the Beth Jacob
Cemetary is not in Hamilton but is located in Burlington, Ontario which
is another smaller city that is adjacent to Hamilton. Burlington is sort
of a 'bedroom' community east of Hamilton and west of Toronto. It would
not be at all strange to have the cemetary for the congregation located
in one city and the synagogue in the other. I believe the address you
are looking for is:

BETH JACOB CEMETERY
1250 SNAKE
BURLINGTON, ON. CANADA
L7P 5A7
(905) 527-0775

Hope this helps.

Marla Waltman Daschko
Nepean, Ontario, Canada


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Isadore LEVINE: 1875 - 1936 #general

Marla Waltman Daschko <waltman@...>
 

Ricki Zunk put out a call for help earlier this week about the location
of a cemetary called Beth Jacob in Hamilton, Ontario. She said:

.... The brother of my mggm lived most of his adult life in
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
and was buried in the Beth Jacob Cemetery. ...
I found Beth Jacob Synagogue
listed at 375 Aberdeen in Hamilton, but no listing
for a Beth Jacob Cemetery.
Ricki, I think the problem you were having is that the Beth Jacob
Cemetary is not in Hamilton but is located in Burlington, Ontario which
is another smaller city that is adjacent to Hamilton. Burlington is sort
of a 'bedroom' community east of Hamilton and west of Toronto. It would
not be at all strange to have the cemetary for the congregation located
in one city and the synagogue in the other. I believe the address you
are looking for is:

BETH JACOB CEMETERY
1250 SNAKE
BURLINGTON, ON. CANADA
L7P 5A7
(905) 527-0775

Hope this helps.

Marla Waltman Daschko
Nepean, Ontario, Canada


GOLDFIELD from Elizavetgrad #general

Mel Schwey <bq780@...>
 

In a previous posting I asked for information on the GOLDFIELD or GOLDFELD
family >from Elizabethburg Russia. I have been corrected and find that the
proper town would be Elizavetgrad in Russia.

Would any one have any information about this family, some of whom settled
in Canada, and some may have settled in USA.

Any information would be greatly appreciated.

Sincerely,
Mel Schwey.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen GOLDFIELD from Elizavetgrad #general

Mel Schwey <bq780@...>
 

In a previous posting I asked for information on the GOLDFIELD or GOLDFELD
family >from Elizabethburg Russia. I have been corrected and find that the
proper town would be Elizavetgrad in Russia.

Would any one have any information about this family, some of whom settled
in Canada, and some may have settled in USA.

Any information would be greatly appreciated.

Sincerely,
Mel Schwey.


"Ilanot" Jewish Genealogy software program #general

MBernet@...
 

Doies anyone know how I can get technical help for Ilanot, genealogy software
published in Israel?

The only reference in the manual is to the publisher, in Israel, and I have
not been successful in getting a response >from there. Does anyone know how to
contact the software's designer, Richard Denison McDonald, who adapted Ilanot
from his own (freeware? shareware?) application, BirthWrite.
Can anyone recommend (private mail, please) a good compatible commercial
program suitable for Jewish genners in case I decide to switch?

Thanks

Michael Bernet, New York

MODERATOR NOTE: Please check JewishGen Discussion Group Archives at
http://www.jewishgen.org/wconnect/wc.isa?jg~jgsys~archpop


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen "Ilanot" Jewish Genealogy software program #general

MBernet@...
 

Doies anyone know how I can get technical help for Ilanot, genealogy software
published in Israel?

The only reference in the manual is to the publisher, in Israel, and I have
not been successful in getting a response >from there. Does anyone know how to
contact the software's designer, Richard Denison McDonald, who adapted Ilanot
from his own (freeware? shareware?) application, BirthWrite.
Can anyone recommend (private mail, please) a good compatible commercial
program suitable for Jewish genners in case I decide to switch?

Thanks

Michael Bernet, New York

MODERATOR NOTE: Please check JewishGen Discussion Group Archives at
http://www.jewishgen.org/wconnect/wc.isa?jg~jgsys~archpop


Favour needed in New York #general

Stephen Buetow <s.buetow@...>
 

I am writing this note in New Zealand.

I am trying to find a photograph of Rabbi Nachum Kaplan (Nachum ben
Moshe Aharon Maggid) >from the city of Lida. He died on 19 Adar
1916. He was, I think, Maggid of Jerusalem and buried on the Mount
of Olives. Ideally, the photograph would include his wife, Reiza,
who was the half-sister of the Choftetz Chaim. These are relatives
of mine, and I am seeking the photograph to complete a montage.

I am unsure where to begin looking. Such a photo is not contained in
the ArtScroll biography of the Chofetz Chaim.

I recall reading that there is an archive in New York that houses
thousands of historical photographs of Jewish men and women. It may
be in there, but you have to visit it in person - which is rather
difficult for me to do >from 12,000 miles away. So, I know this is a
long shot but if one of you, in New York, was planning a trip to this
archive for your own research ... perhaps you could check on my
request at the same time. I would be extremely grateful.

In anticipation
Stephen Buetow.

Dr. Stephen Buetow
Auckland, New Zealand


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Favour needed in New York #general

Stephen Buetow <s.buetow@...>
 

I am writing this note in New Zealand.

I am trying to find a photograph of Rabbi Nachum Kaplan (Nachum ben
Moshe Aharon Maggid) >from the city of Lida. He died on 19 Adar
1916. He was, I think, Maggid of Jerusalem and buried on the Mount
of Olives. Ideally, the photograph would include his wife, Reiza,
who was the half-sister of the Choftetz Chaim. These are relatives
of mine, and I am seeking the photograph to complete a montage.

I am unsure where to begin looking. Such a photo is not contained in
the ArtScroll biography of the Chofetz Chaim.

I recall reading that there is an archive in New York that houses
thousands of historical photographs of Jewish men and women. It may
be in there, but you have to visit it in person - which is rather
difficult for me to do >from 12,000 miles away. So, I know this is a
long shot but if one of you, in New York, was planning a trip to this
archive for your own research ... perhaps you could check on my
request at the same time. I would be extremely grateful.

In anticipation
Stephen Buetow.

Dr. Stephen Buetow
Auckland, New Zealand


Re: cemetery burials when the office doesn't have the name #general

David Shapiro <dshapiro@...>
 

At 10:56 AM 3/4/99 EST, Jonina Duker wrote:
society. If the society is defunct check the YIVO guide to
landsmanschaften. If that doesn't work see earlier posting on dealing
What about a defunct lodge of of I.O.B.A. (Independant Order Brith
Abraham). Would there records also be in YIVO? Were there duplicates in the
national headquarters? Does the national organization still exist? If so,
what is their address?

My relatives of the PERLMAN, LIEBERMAN, and BONDEREFSKY families were
active members of lodge No. 155 which was known as the Ezrath Achim -
Benevolent Brotherhood Lodge, and are buried in their plot, but the
cemetery doesn't seem to have records of the earlier burials there.

David Shapiro
Jerusalem
dshapiro@actcom.co.il


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: cemetery burials when the office doesn't have the name #general

David Shapiro <dshapiro@...>
 

At 10:56 AM 3/4/99 EST, Jonina Duker wrote:
society. If the society is defunct check the YIVO guide to
landsmanschaften. If that doesn't work see earlier posting on dealing
What about a defunct lodge of of I.O.B.A. (Independant Order Brith
Abraham). Would there records also be in YIVO? Were there duplicates in the
national headquarters? Does the national organization still exist? If so,
what is their address?

My relatives of the PERLMAN, LIEBERMAN, and BONDEREFSKY families were
active members of lodge No. 155 which was known as the Ezrath Achim -
Benevolent Brotherhood Lodge, and are buried in their plot, but the
cemetery doesn't seem to have records of the earlier burials there.

David Shapiro
Jerusalem
dshapiro@actcom.co.il


A random act of great braveness in WWII #general

Jane Lachs <Jane@...>
 

This might interest an ABRAM researcher:

Another crazy coincidence >from today's Sydney Morning Herald

WHEN Sasha Abram, 18, of Double Bay, was taken to St Vincent's Hospital
after a car smash in Rose Bay on Wednesday, she found one of her nurses was
Erica van Ash. Erica's family is >from Westerbork, Holland. During the war,
it was the site of a Nazi transit camp for Jews, but many "righteous
gentiles", including Erica's grandparents, risked their lives to help the
prisoners. One they helped was Phillip Abram, Sasha's grandfather. Years
later one granddaughter is caring for the other. Wednesday would have been
the late Phillip Abram's birthday.


Regards >from Jane Lachs in Munich Jane@Henio.Muc.De

Researching SHAW, TINGLE, CRAWSHAW, FIRTH, BREARLEY, HAIGH, BEAUMONT, CARR
in Yorkshire.
LACHS in Stryhance or anywhere in the Ukraine and anywhere else.
STERN in Berezany or anywhere in the Ukraine
SILBERFELD in Potoczany or anywhere in the Ukraine and anywhere else.
http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Fields/9499/


Page 179 #lithuania

Monty Starr <monty@...>
 

This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

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The Affair of the Doctor and the Town Chief by =
Pesach Chittin Weizer
=20
The event in the life of Keidan that I would like to write about I heard =
from my father while I was a child. But later in about 1923 I had =
occasion to hear about it not only >from a witness but even >from a =
principal who himself took an active part in the event and that was =
Moshe Milner, owner of a soda pop factory, a learned man, intelligent =
but mainly known as a practical joker.
=20
A short introduction: in 1923, and Lithuania was then already =
independent, a new area chief by the name of Yanushkvicius arrived in =
Keidan-young, nationalistic and a great Jew hater, but open about it. He =
wanted to clean up the town and took very drastic steps which fell =
heavily on the Jewish population. He decreed that within a very short =
time the wooden pavements should be put in good order, to install gates =
between every house, to paint all the houses fronting the main street =
and to keep the roads clean to the extent that the house owners had to =
sweep them the whole day. He gave a free hand to the police to enforce =
his instructions and to issue a report on any failure. The fine that was =
imposed in the event of a breach was substantial. There were days when =
tens of reports were issued and, in short, the Jews had troubles heaped =
upon them by the police and chief alike.
=20
The Jews found themselves trapped even more because it was in the spring =
and most people were engaged in growing cucumbers. Some Jews got =
together and discussed the problems of the reports. Some young people =
were talking about it in the street when they were approached by Moshe =
Milner. He asked them why they were sitting wringing their hands while =
the chief was ruining them. Why don't you do as we did more than thirty =
years ago when a similar thing happened? And what shall we do Reb Moshe? =
they asked.
=20
I'll tell you what to do he replied. Some of you get together and send =
a complaint to the interior minister or even to the president in simple, =
clear language saying that the chief is taking revenge on you due to =
some personal feelings against the Jews, ill-treats them, imposes =
illegal fines for untidiness when the cleanliness is of the highest =
order. Add that the chief is always drunk and plays cards day and night =
and is altogether not fulfilling his duties as the representative of a =
democratic government("democratic government" was a term widely used =
then), sign it with a false name and send it. We didn't accept his =
suggestion but we took the opportunity to ask him about the events of =
thirty years previously about which I want to write. Of course Moshe =
Milner agreed to tell us.
=20
In the year 1890 when Lithuania was still the Province of Kovno under =
Russian rule a new doctor by the nam e of Yavtokofsky arrived at the =
district hospital in Keidan, Russian by appearance and birth. Like now =
he began, with the chief, to be concerned about the cleanliness of the =
town and, as a result, to dig at the Jews. And then started the business =
of the reports. They were issued left and right. At the same time my pop =
factory suffered. Not a week went by without my "qualifying" for two =
reports.
=20
It became known to the Jews that instead of paying the fines into the =
treasury the chief would cancel them in return for a bribe.Some people =
said that he shared this with the doctor Yavtokofsky. It also became =
known that the cancelled reports were thrown in the stove in his office. =
Some residents got together and came up with a plan to send a complaint =
to the governor in Kovno about both the chief and the doctor. But how to =
get proof of the cancelled reports? And they came up with another plan =
for this.=20
=20
There was a Jew by the name of Mendel Epstein, a butcher and meat =
supplier to the army who went and came with a permit and had good =
relations with the chief and his secretary. I and Neta Wolpert conferred =
with Epstein and he suggested that the three of us proceed as follows. =
Tomorrow morning at a pre-arranged time I and Wolpert will go to the =
office to request a building license for a wood store. Epstein will =
already be waiting for us in the office. When we enter we won't remove =
our hats even though we know we have to do so in government offices. It =
was winter and both of us were wearing high fur hats. The secretary =
would surely start to shout at us to remove our hats and should he not =
do so then Epstein himself will shout at us, tell us off, snatch the =
hats and drop them in the stove(where the cancelled reports would be). =
At the same time I and Wolpert will apologise to the secretary saying =
that we are religious and didn't know that we have to remove our hats, =
beg his pardon and ask about the license. Afterwards we will ask for our =
hats to be returned to us. Then Epstein will join in and angrily tell us =
to get our hats out of the stove. As we do this we will try to stuff as =
many of the reports as possible into our hats. And here we are: all the =
staging was completely successful. Epstein removed our hats saying "you =
should be ashamed of yourselves for not removing your hats when hanging =
on the wall is a picture of the Tsar, ruler of India etc. etc." As we =
went to the oven to recover our hats Epstein engaged the secretary in =
conversation to give us time to fill the them. We came away >from the =
stove with our loot- the decisive proof - said goodbye and beat it.
=20
At home we tidied the reports, they were wrinkled up, about thirty in =
number and went to the lawyer- big Abramowitz- for him to write the =
complaint. The complaint was written in almost poetic fashion and here =
is the gist:
"About two years ago south east Russia was threatened by the deaths of =
many people; in Siberia last year the cholera spread with a harvest of =
blood; this year floods caused a heavy death toll and damage; there were =
fires all over Russia, something in the far east, earthquakes in the =
city of Vorony with hundreds killed- in short, disasters and calamities =
enough to prevent us ever sleeping peacefully again. But in our town of =
Keidan, thank God, nothing happened, no fires, no floods and no =
earthquakes, we simply lived a quiet, peaceful life and we were even =
able to help others caught up in disasters. But suddenly Yavcofsky, a =
new government doctor, arrived in our town and together with the local =
chief plotted to impose reports on us daily concerning cleanliness =
without any cause for such a thing because we endeavour to maintain =
cleanliness for the sake of our health. It seems as though the main =
function of the doctor and the chief is to issue reports, and the =
treasury does not benefit in the least >from the fines. Almost all the =
reports are cancelled in return for bribes, the money disappears into =
their pockets and they live a life of profligacy, of drunkenness and =
all-night card games. As proof here are tens of cancelled reports that =
we were able to acquire. Can it be right that such criminality should =
exist in our dear homeland? We request of your highness that you should =
instigate thorough investigation and questioning in order to punish the =
guilty. The complaint was signed I, Moshe Milner and Neta Wolpert.

We sent the complaint together with the cancelled reports to the =
governor of Kovno. And then the trouble started. It became clear that =
among the staff in the office of the governor was a friend of the =
doctor. When the complaint arrived he destroyed the reports and =
submitted the complaint without the proof. The governor ordered an =
investigation and accused me and Wolpert of a slander on a government =
officer. >from accusers we were suddenly accused. A short time later =
Wolpert and I were summoned to an investigator in Keidan. I decided to =
act simple. My answers were never relevant. The policeman who =
accompanied me( he received something in his hand) told the investigator =
that as long as he had known me I had been a normal person but lately I =
had begun to take leave of my senses. When we were asked who signed the =
complaint Wolpert and I said a man who had emigrated o America a few =
months ago so that there would be no fear of anyone else being accused. =
At the end of the investigation they wanted to send us to prison but =
they decided to bail us.

We awaited the trial that was going to be held in the district court in =
Kovno. We consulted a lawyer who told us there was no hope of our =
getting off, our guilt was obvious and we could expect a year upwards. =
The only advice he could give us was to continue to act simple. And as =
you know- smiles Moshe- at that I'm an expert. The two of us learnt our =
parts in anticipation of the trial.

At the trial in Kovno, continues Moshe, we dressed as paupers to invite =
sympathy. We didn't want to be helped by a lawyer who would want to =
argue and compete with the prosecutor as this could make us appear =
guilty. Simple logic told us that simple behaviour would be more =
successful.

"Here we are in court and to tell the truth we are scared stiff. The =
judges come in and everyone stands. A loud voice announces- the trial =
will start of Neta Wolpert and Moshe Milner who are accused of the =
criminal slander of government officers" The accusation is read out. The =
first of the accused, Neta Wolpert, answers in broken Russian with a few =
words in Hebrew, Yiddish and Polish and here follows the exchange with =
the Judge:
Did you sign the complaint to the governor?
Yes but it wasn't a complaint it was a request.
Are you guilty?
No.
Are you aware of the contents of the complaint?
When they gave me the request to sign they told me that winter was =
coming and many families can't afford to buy wood so they decided to =
request >from the authorities that they permit an allocation of free wood =
for those families. By the way I went to the chief for a permit to build =
a wood store. Afterwards I discovered that I hadn't the faintest idea of =
what it was all about. Only the Holy One blessed be He knows that I am =
innocent. I beg for your mercy that I should go free (here he puts his =
hand on his head and mumbles a Rosh Hashanah prayer that none of the =
judges understand).His words give rise to laughter and also some =
sympathy both amongst the public and also the judges and prosecutor.

Eventually it was my turn says Moshe seriously. The same questions and =
the same answers with slight differences and I also used some Lithuanian =
in which I was fluent. On the main question of whether I knew the =
contents of the complaint:
" I didn't know it was a complaint and I would not make complaints =
because according to my beliefs an informer is wicked and will end up in =
Hell.That's how it was. They told me there are in Keidan Jewish soldiers =
in the army of our revered Tsar who are religious, uphold the laws of =
Moses and don't eat non-kosher meat(this last in Hebrew) and therefore =
we asked permission >from his honour the chief to prepare kosher food for =
them. I am religious(here I held my fringes) so I signed the request =
readily. Furthermore I saw the signature of Neta Wolpert who is known as =
a very religious man and I wanted to share in the good deed. It didn't =
enter my mind to complain about the authorities because -the law of the =
land is my law-". I added a few passages >from Ethics of the Fathers =
translating them with difficulty and ended up by beating my heart like =
on Yom Kippur and finished with a strangulated voice, full of remorse =
and begging for mercy for me and my family finally saying that I was =
placing my fate in the hands of the righteous court.

The judges and prosecutor were somewhat stunned at my words. Our manner =
provided a basis for them to believe that perhaps there was some truth =
in our pleadings. In the end the senior judge asked the prosecutor for =
his opinion. He looked at us for a moment and apparently our condition =
and state of dress weakened his desire to argue with us and perhaps in =
the end a feeling of sympathy overtook him-in short he managed only =
these words "I support the accusation" and even this weakly it seemed to =
me.The judges retired to consult, we waited for the verdict. They =
returned after a little while. Again the court rose. All the details of =
the accusation were read out. The court found them guilty but in =
consideration of the extenuating circumstances that the two of them were =
not aware of what they were signing and were contrite the court imposed =
a fine of one rouble each.

We breathed a sigh of relief and paid the fine without any display of =
emotion so as not to raise suspicions. We went >from there to the Keidan =
lodging house in the old city of Kovno, had lunch(until then we had =
fasted), changed our clothes and went home.

And you know, ended Moshe Milner, >from that time the extensive reports =
ceased and the relations between us and the doctor were much friendlier.

For some unknown reason to me my father was using the pen name Moshe =
Milner for his newspaper articles around about the year 1920.
Monty

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<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
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<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>The=20
event in the life of Keidan that I would like to write about I heard =
from my=20
father while I was a child. But later in about 1923 I had occasion to =
hear about=20
it not only >from a witness but even >from a principal who himself took an =
active=20
part in the event and that was Moshe Milner, owner of a soda pop =
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learned man, intelligent but mainly known as a practical=20
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took very=20
drastic steps which fell heavily on the Jewish population. He decreed =
that=20
within a very short time the wooden pavements should be put in good =
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Jews found themselves trapped even more because it was in the spring and =
most=20
people were engaged in growing cucumbers. Some Jews got together and =
discussed=20
the problems of the reports. Some young people were talking about it in =
the=20
street when they were approached by Moshe Milner. He asked them why they =
were=20
sitting wringing their hands while the chief was ruining them. Why don't =
you do=20
as we did more than thirty years ago when a similar thing happened? And =
what=20
shall we do Reb Moshe? they asked.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT color=3D#000000><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT size=3D3>I'll tell&nbsp; =
</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS">you what to do he replied. Some of =
you get=20
together and send a complaint to the interior minister or even to the =
president=20
in simple, clear language saying that the chief is taking revenge on you =
due to=20
some personal feelings against the Jews, ill-treats them, imposes =
illegal fines=20
for untidiness when the cleanliness is of the highest order. Add that =
the chief=20
is always drunk and plays cards day and night and is altogether&nbsp; =
not=20
fulfilling his duties as the representative of a democratic=20
government(&quot;democratic government&quot; was a term widely used =
then), sign=20
it with a false name and send it. We didn't accept his suggestion but we =
took=20
the opportunity to ask him about the events of thirty years previously =
about=20
which I want to write. Of course Moshe Milner agreed to tell=20
us.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>In the=20
year 1890 when Lithuania was still the Province of Kovno under Russian =
rule a=20
new doctor by the nam e of Yavtokofsky arrived at the district hospital =
in=20
Keidan, Russian by appearance and birth. Like now&nbsp; he began, with =
the=20
chief, to be concerned about the cleanliness of the town and, as a =
result, to=20
dig at the Jews. And then started the business of the reports. They were =
issued=20
left and right. At the same time my pop factory suffered. Not a week =
went by=20
without my &quot;qualifying&quot; for two =
reports.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>It=20
became known to the Jews that instead of paying the fines into the =
treasury the=20
chief would cancel them in return for a bribe.Some people said that he =
shared=20
this with the doctor Yavtokofsky. It also became known that the =
cancelled=20
reports were thrown in the stove in his office. Some residents got =
together and=20
came up with a plan to&nbsp; send a complaint to the governor in Kovno =
about=20
both the chief and the doctor. But how to get proof of the cancelled =
reports?=20
And they came up with another plan for this. </FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans =
MS"><FONT=20
color=3D#000000 face=3D"">There was a Jew by the name of Mendel Epstein, =
a butcher=20
and meat supplier to the army who went and came with a permit and had =
good=20
relations with the chief and his secretary. I and Neta Wolpert conferred =
with=20
Epstein and he suggested that the three of us proceed as follows. =
Tomorrow=20
morning at a pre-arranged time I and Wolpert will go to the office to =
request a=20
building license for a wood store. Epstein will already be waiting for =
us in the=20
office. When we enter we&nbsp; won't remove our hats even though we know =
we have=20
to do so in government offices. It was winter and both of us were =
wearing high=20
fur hats. The secretary would surely start to shout at us to remove our =
hats and=20
should he not do so then Epstein himself will shout at us, tell us off, =
snatch=20
the hats and drop them in the stove(where the cancelled reports would =
be). At=20
the same time I and Wolpert will apologise to the secretary saying that =
we are=20
religious and didn't know that we have to remove our hats, beg his =
pardon and=20
ask about the license. Afterwards we will ask for our hats to be =
returned to us.=20
Then Epstein will join in and angrily tell us to get our hats out of the =
stove.=20
As we do this we will try to stuff as many of the reports as =
possible&nbsp; into=20
our hats. And here we are: all the staging was completely successful. =
Epstein=20
removed our hats saying &quot;you should be ashamed of yourselves for =
not=20
removing your hats when hanging on the wall is a picture of the Tsar, =
ruler of=20
India etc. etc.&quot; As we went to the oven to recover our hats Epstein =
engaged=20
the secretary in conversation to give us time to fill the them. We came =
away=20
from the stove with our loot- the decisive proof - said goodbye and beat =
it.</FONT></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>&nbsp;At home we tidied the reports, they were wrinkled up, =
about thirty=20
in number and went to the lawyer- big </FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
color=3D#000000=20
face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT size=3D3>Abramowitz- for =
him to write the=20
complaint. The complaint was written in almost poetic fashion and here =
is the=20
gist:</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>&quot;About two years ago south east Russia was threatened by =
the deaths=20
of many people; in Siberia last year the cholera spread with a harvest =
of blood;=20
this year floods caused a heavy death toll and damage; there were fires =
all over=20
Russia, something in the far east, earthquakes in the city of Vorony =
with=20
hundreds killed- in short, disasters and calamities enough to prevent us =
ever=20
sleeping peacefully again. But in our town of Keidan, thank God, nothing =

happened, no fires, no floods and no earthquakes, we simply lived a =
quiet,=20
peaceful life and we were even able to help others caught up in =
disasters. But=20
suddenly Yavcofsky, a new government doctor, arrived in our town and =
together=20
with the local chief plotted to impose reports on us daily concerning=20
cleanliness without any cause for such a thing because we endeavour to =
maintain=20
cleanliness for the sake of our health. It seems as though the main =
function of=20
the doctor and the chief is to issue reports, and the treasury does not =
benefit=20
in the least >from the fines. Almost all the reports are cancelled in =
return for=20
bribes, the money disappears into their pockets and they live a life of=20
profligacy, of drunkenness and all-night card games. As proof here are =
tens of=20
cancelled reports that we were able to acquire. Can it be right that =
such=20
criminality should exist in our dear homeland? We request of your =
highness that=20
you should instigate thorough investigation and questioning in order to =
punish=20
the guilty. The complaint was signed I, Moshe Milner and Neta=20
Wolpert.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>We sent=20
the complaint together with the cancelled reports to the governor of =
Kovno. And=20
then the trouble started. It became clear that among the staff in the =
office of=20
the governor was a friend of the doctor. When the complaint arrived he =
destroyed=20
the reports and submitted the complaint without the proof. The governor =
ordered=20
an investigation and accused me and Wolpert of a slander on a government =

officer. >from accusers we were suddenly accused. A short time later =
Wolpert and=20
I were summoned to an investigator in Keidan. I decided to act simple. =
My=20
answers were never relevant. The policeman who accompanied me( he =
received=20
something in his hand) told the investigator that as long as he had =
known me I=20
had been a normal person but lately I had begun to take leave of my =
senses. When=20
we were asked who signed the complaint Wolpert and I said a man who had=20
emigrated o America a few months ago so that there would be no fear of =
anyone=20
else being accused. At the end of the investigation they wanted to send =
us to=20
prison but they decided to bail us.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>We=20
awaited the trial that was going to be held in the district&nbsp; court =
in=20
Kovno. We consulted a lawyer who told us there was no hope of our =
getting off,=20
our guilt was obvious and we could expect a year upwards. The only =
advice he=20
could give us was to continue to act simple. And as you know- smiles =
Moshe- at=20
that I'm an expert. The two of us learnt our parts in anticipation of =
the=20
trial.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>At the=20
trial in Kovno, continues Moshe, we dressed as paupers to invite =
sympathy. We=20
didn't want to be helped by a lawyer who would want to argue and compete =
with=20
the prosecutor as this could make us appear guilty. Simple logic told us =
that=20
simple behaviour would be more successful.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>&quot;Here we are in court and to tell the truth we are scared =
stiff. The=20
judges come in and everyone stands. A loud voice announces- the trial =
will start=20
of Neta Wolpert and Moshe Milner who are accused of the criminal slander =
of=20
government officers&quot; The accusation is read out. The first of the =
accused,=20
Neta Wolpert, answers in broken Russian with a few words in Hebrew, =
Yiddish and=20
Polish and here follows the exchange with the =
Judge:</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Did you=20
sign the complaint to the governor?</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Yes but=20
it wasn't a complaint it was a request.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Are you=20
guilty?</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>No.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Are you=20
aware of the contents of the complaint?</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>When=20
they gave me the request to sign they told me that winter was coming and =
many=20
families can't afford to buy wood so they decided to request >from the=20
authorities that they permit an allocation of free wood for those =
families. By=20
the way I went to the chief for a permit to build a wood store. =
Afterwards I=20
discovered that I hadn't the faintest idea of what it was all about. =
Only the=20
Holy One blessed be He knows that I am innocent. I beg for your mercy =
that I=20
should go free (here he puts his hand on his head and mumbles a Rosh =
Hashanah=20
prayer that none of the judges understand).His words give rise to =
laughter and=20
also some sympathy both amongst the public and also the judges and=20
prosecutor.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>Eventually it was my turn says Moshe seriously. The same =
questions and=20
the same answers with slight differences and I also used some Lithuanian =
in=20
which I was fluent. On the main question of whether I knew the contents =
of the=20
complaint:</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>&quot;=20
I didn't know it was a complaint and I would not make complaints because =

according to my beliefs an informer is wicked and will end up in =
Hell.That's how=20
it was. They told me there are in Keidan Jewish soldiers in the army of =
our=20
revered Tsar who are religious, uphold the laws of Moses and don't eat=20
non-kosher meat(this last in Hebrew) and therefore we asked permission =
from his=20
honour the chief to prepare kosher food for them. I am religious(here I =
held my=20
fringes) so I signed the request readily. Furthermore I saw the =
signature of=20
Neta Wolpert who is known as a very religious man and I wanted to share =
in the=20
good deed. It didn't enter my mind to complain about the authorities =
because=20
-the law of the land is my law-&quot;. I added a few passages >from =
Ethics of the=20
Fathers translating them with difficulty and ended up by beating my =
heart like=20
on Yom Kippur and finished with a strangulated voice, full of remorse =
and=20
begging for mercy for me and my family finally saying that I was placing =
my fate=20
in the hands of the righteous court.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>The=20
judges and prosecutor were somewhat stunned at my words. Our manner =
provided a=20
basis for them to believe that perhaps there was some truth in our =
pleadings. In=20
the end the senior judge asked the prosecutor for his opinion. He looked =
at us=20
for a moment and apparently our condition and state of dress weakened =
his desire=20
to argue with us and perhaps in the end a feeling of sympathy overtook =
him-in=20
short he managed only these words &quot;I support the accusation&quot; =
and even=20
this weakly it seemed to me.The judges retired to consult, we waited for =
the=20
verdict. They returned after a little while. Again the court rose. All =
the=20
details of the accusation were read out. The court found them guilty but =
in=20
consideration of the extenuating circumstances that the two of them were =
not=20
aware of what they were signing and were contrite the court imposed a =
fine of=20
one rouble each.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>We=20
breathed a sigh of relief and paid the fine without any display of =
emotion so as=20
not to raise suspicions. We went >from there to the Keidan lodging house =
in the=20
old city of Kovno, had lunch(until then we had fasted), changed our =
clothes and=20
went home.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>And you=20
know, ended Moshe Milner, >from that time the extensive reports ceased =
and the=20
relations between us and the doctor were much=20
friendlier.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><EM><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans =
MS"><FONT size=3D3>For=20
some unknown reason to me my father was using the pen name Moshe Milner =
for his=20
newspaper articles around about the year =
1920.</FONT></FONT></EM></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><EM><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D"Comic Sans MS"=20
size=3D3>Monty</FONT></EM></DIV></DIV></BODY></HTML>

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JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen A random act of great braveness in WWII #general

Jane Lachs <Jane@...>
 

This might interest an ABRAM researcher:

Another crazy coincidence >from today's Sydney Morning Herald

WHEN Sasha Abram, 18, of Double Bay, was taken to St Vincent's Hospital
after a car smash in Rose Bay on Wednesday, she found one of her nurses was
Erica van Ash. Erica's family is >from Westerbork, Holland. During the war,
it was the site of a Nazi transit camp for Jews, but many "righteous
gentiles", including Erica's grandparents, risked their lives to help the
prisoners. One they helped was Phillip Abram, Sasha's grandfather. Years
later one granddaughter is caring for the other. Wednesday would have been
the late Phillip Abram's birthday.


Regards >from Jane Lachs in Munich Jane@Henio.Muc.De

Researching SHAW, TINGLE, CRAWSHAW, FIRTH, BREARLEY, HAIGH, BEAUMONT, CARR
in Yorkshire.
LACHS in Stryhance or anywhere in the Ukraine and anywhere else.
STERN in Berezany or anywhere in the Ukraine
SILBERFELD in Potoczany or anywhere in the Ukraine and anywhere else.
http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Fields/9499/


Keidan Jews #Keidan #Lithuania Page 179 #lithuania

Monty Starr <monty@...>
 

This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

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The Affair of the Doctor and the Town Chief by =
Pesach Chittin Weizer
=20
The event in the life of Keidan that I would like to write about I heard =
from my father while I was a child. But later in about 1923 I had =
occasion to hear about it not only >from a witness but even >from a =
principal who himself took an active part in the event and that was =
Moshe Milner, owner of a soda pop factory, a learned man, intelligent =
but mainly known as a practical joker.
=20
A short introduction: in 1923, and Lithuania was then already =
independent, a new area chief by the name of Yanushkvicius arrived in =
Keidan-young, nationalistic and a great Jew hater, but open about it. He =
wanted to clean up the town and took very drastic steps which fell =
heavily on the Jewish population. He decreed that within a very short =
time the wooden pavements should be put in good order, to install gates =
between every house, to paint all the houses fronting the main street =
and to keep the roads clean to the extent that the house owners had to =
sweep them the whole day. He gave a free hand to the police to enforce =
his instructions and to issue a report on any failure. The fine that was =
imposed in the event of a breach was substantial. There were days when =
tens of reports were issued and, in short, the Jews had troubles heaped =
upon them by the police and chief alike.
=20
The Jews found themselves trapped even more because it was in the spring =
and most people were engaged in growing cucumbers. Some Jews got =
together and discussed the problems of the reports. Some young people =
were talking about it in the street when they were approached by Moshe =
Milner. He asked them why they were sitting wringing their hands while =
the chief was ruining them. Why don't you do as we did more than thirty =
years ago when a similar thing happened? And what shall we do Reb Moshe? =
they asked.
=20
I'll tell you what to do he replied. Some of you get together and send =
a complaint to the interior minister or even to the president in simple, =
clear language saying that the chief is taking revenge on you due to =
some personal feelings against the Jews, ill-treats them, imposes =
illegal fines for untidiness when the cleanliness is of the highest =
order. Add that the chief is always drunk and plays cards day and night =
and is altogether not fulfilling his duties as the representative of a =
democratic government("democratic government" was a term widely used =
then), sign it with a false name and send it. We didn't accept his =
suggestion but we took the opportunity to ask him about the events of =
thirty years previously about which I want to write. Of course Moshe =
Milner agreed to tell us.
=20
In the year 1890 when Lithuania was still the Province of Kovno under =
Russian rule a new doctor by the nam e of Yavtokofsky arrived at the =
district hospital in Keidan, Russian by appearance and birth. Like now =
he began, with the chief, to be concerned about the cleanliness of the =
town and, as a result, to dig at the Jews. And then started the business =
of the reports. They were issued left and right. At the same time my pop =
factory suffered. Not a week went by without my "qualifying" for two =
reports.
=20
It became known to the Jews that instead of paying the fines into the =
treasury the chief would cancel them in return for a bribe.Some people =
said that he shared this with the doctor Yavtokofsky. It also became =
known that the cancelled reports were thrown in the stove in his office. =
Some residents got together and came up with a plan to send a complaint =
to the governor in Kovno about both the chief and the doctor. But how to =
get proof of the cancelled reports? And they came up with another plan =
for this.=20
=20
There was a Jew by the name of Mendel Epstein, a butcher and meat =
supplier to the army who went and came with a permit and had good =
relations with the chief and his secretary. I and Neta Wolpert conferred =
with Epstein and he suggested that the three of us proceed as follows. =
Tomorrow morning at a pre-arranged time I and Wolpert will go to the =
office to request a building license for a wood store. Epstein will =
already be waiting for us in the office. When we enter we won't remove =
our hats even though we know we have to do so in government offices. It =
was winter and both of us were wearing high fur hats. The secretary =
would surely start to shout at us to remove our hats and should he not =
do so then Epstein himself will shout at us, tell us off, snatch the =
hats and drop them in the stove(where the cancelled reports would be). =
At the same time I and Wolpert will apologise to the secretary saying =
that we are religious and didn't know that we have to remove our hats, =
beg his pardon and ask about the license. Afterwards we will ask for our =
hats to be returned to us. Then Epstein will join in and angrily tell us =
to get our hats out of the stove. As we do this we will try to stuff as =
many of the reports as possible into our hats. And here we are: all the =
staging was completely successful. Epstein removed our hats saying "you =
should be ashamed of yourselves for not removing your hats when hanging =
on the wall is a picture of the Tsar, ruler of India etc. etc." As we =
went to the oven to recover our hats Epstein engaged the secretary in =
conversation to give us time to fill the them. We came away >from the =
stove with our loot- the decisive proof - said goodbye and beat it.
=20
At home we tidied the reports, they were wrinkled up, about thirty in =
number and went to the lawyer- big Abramowitz- for him to write the =
complaint. The complaint was written in almost poetic fashion and here =
is the gist:
"About two years ago south east Russia was threatened by the deaths of =
many people; in Siberia last year the cholera spread with a harvest of =
blood; this year floods caused a heavy death toll and damage; there were =
fires all over Russia, something in the far east, earthquakes in the =
city of Vorony with hundreds killed- in short, disasters and calamities =
enough to prevent us ever sleeping peacefully again. But in our town of =
Keidan, thank God, nothing happened, no fires, no floods and no =
earthquakes, we simply lived a quiet, peaceful life and we were even =
able to help others caught up in disasters. But suddenly Yavcofsky, a =
new government doctor, arrived in our town and together with the local =
chief plotted to impose reports on us daily concerning cleanliness =
without any cause for such a thing because we endeavour to maintain =
cleanliness for the sake of our health. It seems as though the main =
function of the doctor and the chief is to issue reports, and the =
treasury does not benefit in the least >from the fines. Almost all the =
reports are cancelled in return for bribes, the money disappears into =
their pockets and they live a life of profligacy, of drunkenness and =
all-night card games. As proof here are tens of cancelled reports that =
we were able to acquire. Can it be right that such criminality should =
exist in our dear homeland? We request of your highness that you should =
instigate thorough investigation and questioning in order to punish the =
guilty. The complaint was signed I, Moshe Milner and Neta Wolpert.

We sent the complaint together with the cancelled reports to the =
governor of Kovno. And then the trouble started. It became clear that =
among the staff in the office of the governor was a friend of the =
doctor. When the complaint arrived he destroyed the reports and =
submitted the complaint without the proof. The governor ordered an =
investigation and accused me and Wolpert of a slander on a government =
officer. >from accusers we were suddenly accused. A short time later =
Wolpert and I were summoned to an investigator in Keidan. I decided to =
act simple. My answers were never relevant. The policeman who =
accompanied me( he received something in his hand) told the investigator =
that as long as he had known me I had been a normal person but lately I =
had begun to take leave of my senses. When we were asked who signed the =
complaint Wolpert and I said a man who had emigrated o America a few =
months ago so that there would be no fear of anyone else being accused. =
At the end of the investigation they wanted to send us to prison but =
they decided to bail us.

We awaited the trial that was going to be held in the district court in =
Kovno. We consulted a lawyer who told us there was no hope of our =
getting off, our guilt was obvious and we could expect a year upwards. =
The only advice he could give us was to continue to act simple. And as =
you know- smiles Moshe- at that I'm an expert. The two of us learnt our =
parts in anticipation of the trial.

At the trial in Kovno, continues Moshe, we dressed as paupers to invite =
sympathy. We didn't want to be helped by a lawyer who would want to =
argue and compete with the prosecutor as this could make us appear =
guilty. Simple logic told us that simple behaviour would be more =
successful.

"Here we are in court and to tell the truth we are scared stiff. The =
judges come in and everyone stands. A loud voice announces- the trial =
will start of Neta Wolpert and Moshe Milner who are accused of the =
criminal slander of government officers" The accusation is read out. The =
first of the accused, Neta Wolpert, answers in broken Russian with a few =
words in Hebrew, Yiddish and Polish and here follows the exchange with =
the Judge:
Did you sign the complaint to the governor?
Yes but it wasn't a complaint it was a request.
Are you guilty?
No.
Are you aware of the contents of the complaint?
When they gave me the request to sign they told me that winter was =
coming and many families can't afford to buy wood so they decided to =
request >from the authorities that they permit an allocation of free wood =
for those families. By the way I went to the chief for a permit to build =
a wood store. Afterwards I discovered that I hadn't the faintest idea of =
what it was all about. Only the Holy One blessed be He knows that I am =
innocent. I beg for your mercy that I should go free (here he puts his =
hand on his head and mumbles a Rosh Hashanah prayer that none of the =
judges understand).His words give rise to laughter and also some =
sympathy both amongst the public and also the judges and prosecutor.

Eventually it was my turn says Moshe seriously. The same questions and =
the same answers with slight differences and I also used some Lithuanian =
in which I was fluent. On the main question of whether I knew the =
contents of the complaint:
" I didn't know it was a complaint and I would not make complaints =
because according to my beliefs an informer is wicked and will end up in =
Hell.That's how it was. They told me there are in Keidan Jewish soldiers =
in the army of our revered Tsar who are religious, uphold the laws of =
Moses and don't eat non-kosher meat(this last in Hebrew) and therefore =
we asked permission >from his honour the chief to prepare kosher food for =
them. I am religious(here I held my fringes) so I signed the request =
readily. Furthermore I saw the signature of Neta Wolpert who is known as =
a very religious man and I wanted to share in the good deed. It didn't =
enter my mind to complain about the authorities because -the law of the =
land is my law-". I added a few passages >from Ethics of the Fathers =
translating them with difficulty and ended up by beating my heart like =
on Yom Kippur and finished with a strangulated voice, full of remorse =
and begging for mercy for me and my family finally saying that I was =
placing my fate in the hands of the righteous court.

The judges and prosecutor were somewhat stunned at my words. Our manner =
provided a basis for them to believe that perhaps there was some truth =
in our pleadings. In the end the senior judge asked the prosecutor for =
his opinion. He looked at us for a moment and apparently our condition =
and state of dress weakened his desire to argue with us and perhaps in =
the end a feeling of sympathy overtook him-in short he managed only =
these words "I support the accusation" and even this weakly it seemed to =
me.The judges retired to consult, we waited for the verdict. They =
returned after a little while. Again the court rose. All the details of =
the accusation were read out. The court found them guilty but in =
consideration of the extenuating circumstances that the two of them were =
not aware of what they were signing and were contrite the court imposed =
a fine of one rouble each.

We breathed a sigh of relief and paid the fine without any display of =
emotion so as not to raise suspicions. We went >from there to the Keidan =
lodging house in the old city of Kovno, had lunch(until then we had =
fasted), changed our clothes and went home.

And you know, ended Moshe Milner, >from that time the extensive reports =
ceased and the relations between us and the doctor were much friendlier.

For some unknown reason to me my father was using the pen name Moshe =
Milner for his newspaper articles around about the year 1920.
Monty

------=_NextPart_000_0017_01BE6665.930A2C00
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<DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>The=20
Affair of the Doctor and the Town=20
Chief&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&n=
bsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;=20
by Pesach Chittin Weizer</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>The=20
event in the life of Keidan that I would like to write about I heard =
from my=20
father while I was a child. But later in about 1923 I had occasion to =
hear about=20
it not only >from a witness but even >from a principal who himself took an =
active=20
part in the event and that was Moshe Milner, owner of a soda pop =
factory, a=20
learned man, intelligent but mainly known as a practical=20
joker.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>A short=20
introduction: in 1923, and Lithuania was then already independent, a new =
area=20
chief by the name of Yanushkvicius arrived in Keidan-young, =
nationalistic and a=20
great Jew hater, but open about it. He wanted to clean up the town and =
took very=20
drastic steps which fell heavily on the Jewish population. He decreed =
that=20
within a very short time the wooden pavements should be put in good =
order, to=20
install gates between every house, to paint all the houses fronting the =
main=20
street and to keep the roads clean to the extent that the house owners =
had to=20
sweep them&nbsp; the whole day. He gave a free hand to the police to =
enforce his=20
instructions and to issue a report on any failure. The fine that was =
imposed in=20
the event of a breach was substantial. There were days when tens of =
reports were=20
issued and, in short, the Jews had troubles heaped upon them by the =
police and=20
chief alike.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>The=20
Jews found themselves trapped even more because it was in the spring and =
most=20
people were engaged in growing cucumbers. Some Jews got together and =
discussed=20
the problems of the reports. Some young people were talking about it in =
the=20
street when they were approached by Moshe Milner. He asked them why they =
were=20
sitting wringing their hands while the chief was ruining them. Why don't =
you do=20
as we did more than thirty years ago when a similar thing happened? And =
what=20
shall we do Reb Moshe? they asked.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT color=3D#000000><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT size=3D3>I'll tell&nbsp; =
</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS">you what to do he replied. Some of =
you get=20
together and send a complaint to the interior minister or even to the =
president=20
in simple, clear language saying that the chief is taking revenge on you =
due to=20
some personal feelings against the Jews, ill-treats them, imposes =
illegal fines=20
for untidiness when the cleanliness is of the highest order. Add that =
the chief=20
is always drunk and plays cards day and night and is altogether&nbsp; =
not=20
fulfilling his duties as the representative of a democratic=20
government(&quot;democratic government&quot; was a term widely used =
then), sign=20
it with a false name and send it. We didn't accept his suggestion but we =
took=20
the opportunity to ask him about the events of thirty years previously =
about=20
which I want to write. Of course Moshe Milner agreed to tell=20
us.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>In the=20
year 1890 when Lithuania was still the Province of Kovno under Russian =
rule a=20
new doctor by the nam e of Yavtokofsky arrived at the district hospital =
in=20
Keidan, Russian by appearance and birth. Like now&nbsp; he began, with =
the=20
chief, to be concerned about the cleanliness of the town and, as a =
result, to=20
dig at the Jews. And then started the business of the reports. They were =
issued=20
left and right. At the same time my pop factory suffered. Not a week =
went by=20
without my &quot;qualifying&quot; for two =
reports.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>It=20
became known to the Jews that instead of paying the fines into the =
treasury the=20
chief would cancel them in return for a bribe.Some people said that he =
shared=20
this with the doctor Yavtokofsky. It also became known that the =
cancelled=20
reports were thrown in the stove in his office. Some residents got =
together and=20
came up with a plan to&nbsp; send a complaint to the governor in Kovno =
about=20
both the chief and the doctor. But how to get proof of the cancelled =
reports?=20
And they came up with another plan for this. </FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans =
MS"><FONT=20
color=3D#000000 face=3D"">There was a Jew by the name of Mendel Epstein, =
a butcher=20
and meat supplier to the army who went and came with a permit and had =
good=20
relations with the chief and his secretary. I and Neta Wolpert conferred =
with=20
Epstein and he suggested that the three of us proceed as follows. =
Tomorrow=20
morning at a pre-arranged time I and Wolpert will go to the office to =
request a=20
building license for a wood store. Epstein will already be waiting for =
us in the=20
office. When we enter we&nbsp; won't remove our hats even though we know =
we have=20
to do so in government offices. It was winter and both of us were =
wearing high=20
fur hats. The secretary would surely start to shout at us to remove our =
hats and=20
should he not do so then Epstein himself will shout at us, tell us off, =
snatch=20
the hats and drop them in the stove(where the cancelled reports would =
be). At=20
the same time I and Wolpert will apologise to the secretary saying that =
we are=20
religious and didn't know that we have to remove our hats, beg his =
pardon and=20
ask about the license. Afterwards we will ask for our hats to be =
returned to us.=20
Then Epstein will join in and angrily tell us to get our hats out of the =
stove.=20
As we do this we will try to stuff as many of the reports as =
possible&nbsp; into=20
our hats. And here we are: all the staging was completely successful. =
Epstein=20
removed our hats saying &quot;you should be ashamed of yourselves for =
not=20
removing your hats when hanging on the wall is a picture of the Tsar, =
ruler of=20
India etc. etc.&quot; As we went to the oven to recover our hats Epstein =
engaged=20
the secretary in conversation to give us time to fill the them. We came =
away=20
from the stove with our loot- the decisive proof - said goodbye and beat =
it.</FONT></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS">&nbsp;</FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>&nbsp;At home we tidied the reports, they were wrinkled up, =
about thirty=20
in number and went to the lawyer- big </FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
color=3D#000000=20
face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT size=3D3>Abramowitz- for =
him to write the=20
complaint. The complaint was written in almost poetic fashion and here =
is the=20
gist:</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>&quot;About two years ago south east Russia was threatened by =
the deaths=20
of many people; in Siberia last year the cholera spread with a harvest =
of blood;=20
this year floods caused a heavy death toll and damage; there were fires =
all over=20
Russia, something in the far east, earthquakes in the city of Vorony =
with=20
hundreds killed- in short, disasters and calamities enough to prevent us =
ever=20
sleeping peacefully again. But in our town of Keidan, thank God, nothing =

happened, no fires, no floods and no earthquakes, we simply lived a =
quiet,=20
peaceful life and we were even able to help others caught up in =
disasters. But=20
suddenly Yavcofsky, a new government doctor, arrived in our town and =
together=20
with the local chief plotted to impose reports on us daily concerning=20
cleanliness without any cause for such a thing because we endeavour to =
maintain=20
cleanliness for the sake of our health. It seems as though the main =
function of=20
the doctor and the chief is to issue reports, and the treasury does not =
benefit=20
in the least >from the fines. Almost all the reports are cancelled in =
return for=20
bribes, the money disappears into their pockets and they live a life of=20
profligacy, of drunkenness and all-night card games. As proof here are =
tens of=20
cancelled reports that we were able to acquire. Can it be right that =
such=20
criminality should exist in our dear homeland? We request of your =
highness that=20
you should instigate thorough investigation and questioning in order to =
punish=20
the guilty. The complaint was signed I, Moshe Milner and Neta=20
Wolpert.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>We sent=20
the complaint together with the cancelled reports to the governor of =
Kovno. And=20
then the trouble started. It became clear that among the staff in the =
office of=20
the governor was a friend of the doctor. When the complaint arrived he =
destroyed=20
the reports and submitted the complaint without the proof. The governor =
ordered=20
an investigation and accused me and Wolpert of a slander on a government =

officer. >from accusers we were suddenly accused. A short time later =
Wolpert and=20
I were summoned to an investigator in Keidan. I decided to act simple. =
My=20
answers were never relevant. The policeman who accompanied me( he =
received=20
something in his hand) told the investigator that as long as he had =
known me I=20
had been a normal person but lately I had begun to take leave of my =
senses. When=20
we were asked who signed the complaint Wolpert and I said a man who had=20
emigrated o America a few months ago so that there would be no fear of =
anyone=20
else being accused. At the end of the investigation they wanted to send =
us to=20
prison but they decided to bail us.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>We=20
awaited the trial that was going to be held in the district&nbsp; court =
in=20
Kovno. We consulted a lawyer who told us there was no hope of our =
getting off,=20
our guilt was obvious and we could expect a year upwards. The only =
advice he=20
could give us was to continue to act simple. And as you know- smiles =
Moshe- at=20
that I'm an expert. The two of us learnt our parts in anticipation of =
the=20
trial.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>At the=20
trial in Kovno, continues Moshe, we dressed as paupers to invite =
sympathy. We=20
didn't want to be helped by a lawyer who would want to argue and compete =
with=20
the prosecutor as this could make us appear guilty. Simple logic told us =
that=20
simple behaviour would be more successful.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>&quot;Here we are in court and to tell the truth we are scared =
stiff. The=20
judges come in and everyone stands. A loud voice announces- the trial =
will start=20
of Neta Wolpert and Moshe Milner who are accused of the criminal slander =
of=20
government officers&quot; The accusation is read out. The first of the =
accused,=20
Neta Wolpert, answers in broken Russian with a few words in Hebrew, =
Yiddish and=20
Polish and here follows the exchange with the =
Judge:</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Did you=20
sign the complaint to the governor?</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Yes but=20
it wasn't a complaint it was a request.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Are you=20
guilty?</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>No.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>Are you=20
aware of the contents of the complaint?</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>When=20
they gave me the request to sign they told me that winter was coming and =
many=20
families can't afford to buy wood so they decided to request >from the=20
authorities that they permit an allocation of free wood for those =
families. By=20
the way I went to the chief for a permit to build a wood store. =
Afterwards I=20
discovered that I hadn't the faintest idea of what it was all about. =
Only the=20
Holy One blessed be He knows that I am innocent. I beg for your mercy =
that I=20
should go free (here he puts his hand on his head and mumbles a Rosh =
Hashanah=20
prayer that none of the judges understand).His words give rise to =
laughter and=20
also some sympathy both amongst the public and also the judges and=20
prosecutor.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3>Eventually it was my turn says Moshe seriously. The same =
questions and=20
the same answers with slight differences and I also used some Lithuanian =
in=20
which I was fluent. On the main question of whether I knew the contents =
of the=20
complaint:</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>&quot;=20
I didn't know it was a complaint and I would not make complaints because =

according to my beliefs an informer is wicked and will end up in =
Hell.That's how=20
it was. They told me there are in Keidan Jewish soldiers in the army of =
our=20
revered Tsar who are religious, uphold the laws of Moses and don't eat=20
non-kosher meat(this last in Hebrew) and therefore we asked permission =
from his=20
honour the chief to prepare kosher food for them. I am religious(here I =
held my=20
fringes) so I signed the request readily. Furthermore I saw the =
signature of=20
Neta Wolpert who is known as a very religious man and I wanted to share =
in the=20
good deed. It didn't enter my mind to complain about the authorities =
because=20
-the law of the land is my law-&quot;. I added a few passages >from =
Ethics of the=20
Fathers translating them with difficulty and ended up by beating my =
heart like=20
on Yom Kippur and finished with a strangulated voice, full of remorse =
and=20
begging for mercy for me and my family finally saying that I was placing =
my fate=20
in the hands of the righteous court.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT =
size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>The=20
judges and prosecutor were somewhat stunned at my words. Our manner =
provided a=20
basis for them to believe that perhaps there was some truth in our =
pleadings. In=20
the end the senior judge asked the prosecutor for his opinion. He looked =
at us=20
for a moment and apparently our condition and state of dress weakened =
his desire=20
to argue with us and perhaps in the end a feeling of sympathy overtook =
him-in=20
short he managed only these words &quot;I support the accusation&quot; =
and even=20
this weakly it seemed to me.The judges retired to consult, we waited for =
the=20
verdict. They returned after a little while. Again the court rose. All =
the=20
details of the accusation were read out. The court found them guilty but =
in=20
consideration of the extenuating circumstances that the two of them were =
not=20
aware of what they were signing and were contrite the court imposed a =
fine of=20
one rouble each.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>We=20
breathed a sigh of relief and paid the fine without any display of =
emotion so as=20
not to raise suspicions. We went >from there to the Keidan lodging house =
in the=20
old city of Kovno, had lunch(until then we had fasted), changed our =
clothes and=20
went home.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT =
size=3D3>And you=20
know, ended Moshe Milner, >from that time the extensive reports ceased =
and the=20
relations between us and the doctor were much=20
friendlier.</FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"><FONT=20
size=3D3></FONT></FONT></FONT><FONT size=3D3><FONT=20
face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D""><EM><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans =
MS"><FONT size=3D3>For=20
some unknown reason to me my father was using the pen name Moshe Milner =
for his=20
newspaper articles around about the year =
1920.</FONT></FONT></EM></FONT><FONT=20
size=3D3><FONT face=3D"Comic Sans MS"></FONT></FONT></DIV>
<DIV><EM><FONT color=3D#000000 face=3D"Comic Sans MS"=20
size=3D3>Monty</FONT></EM></DIV></DIV></BODY></HTML>

------=_NextPart_000_0017_01BE6665.930A2C00--


Re: Girls' education in Vienna and Germany #general

George Mandler <gmandler@...>
 

NFatouros@aol.com wrote:

In 1904, the "Gymnasium" provided the only form of secondary education
which allowed students entry into the University, where they could learn to
become lawyers and doctors. A number of women did become doctors. Other
schools, such as the "Realshuchen" offered a good education, but "only" a
practical one, as do our vocational schools today. (One distinction between
the a University and a Realschule education was the substitution of modern
languages for classical in the Realschule) Some now well-known Jews attended
Realschulen: Ludwig Wittgenstein, Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and, no doubt,
others.
Just one correction. In the early 20th century - at least to 1938 there
were three kind of "Gymnasien" in Vienna - the original Gymnasium, the
Realgymnasium and the Realschule - all three were entrance schools to
the university - they differed in emphasis - the Gymansium taught Latin
and Greek, the Realgymnasium taught Latin and a modern language, the
Realschule taught English and French and had an emphasis on the
sciences. The "vocational" schools - entered without special special
examination -
were called Hauptschulen.

George Mandler


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Girls' education in Vienna and Germany #general

George Mandler <gmandler@...>
 

NFatouros@aol.com wrote:

In 1904, the "Gymnasium" provided the only form of secondary education
which allowed students entry into the University, where they could learn to
become lawyers and doctors. A number of women did become doctors. Other
schools, such as the "Realshuchen" offered a good education, but "only" a
practical one, as do our vocational schools today. (One distinction between
the a University and a Realschule education was the substitution of modern
languages for classical in the Realschule) Some now well-known Jews attended
Realschulen: Ludwig Wittgenstein, Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and, no doubt,
others.
Just one correction. In the early 20th century - at least to 1938 there
were three kind of "Gymnasien" in Vienna - the original Gymnasium, the
Realgymnasium and the Realschule - all three were entrance schools to
the university - they differed in emphasis - the Gymansium taught Latin
and Greek, the Realgymnasium taught Latin and a modern language, the
Realschule taught English and French and had an emphasis on the
sciences. The "vocational" schools - entered without special special
examination -
were called Hauptschulen.

George Mandler