Date   

Seek information from Offenbach #germany

Susan Edel
 

Does anyone know where I can find out about the Jewish community of
Offenbach in Germany? Which archives would have the information?

Many Thanks, Susan EDEL, Petach Tikva, Israel

A NOTE >from THE MODERATOR (a former teacher of writing)

I spent a few hours today with my mother (84) listening to her exchange
nostalgic campus annecdotes with college classmates.

Maybe that's why I quickly recalled the voices of my teachers at the same
school when I read Susan's brief (points for that, anyway) message.

1. Please don't make us guess what help you would like >from us. I'll
assume that you are looking for birth, mar. and death records but
you don't say that. It would cost but a few keystrokes to tell exactly
what "information" you need.

2. The town finder (Shtetl Seeker) at JewishGen lists 4 German towns named
Offenbach and one Offnbach.

That excellent tool at <http://www.jewishgen.org/ShtetlSeeker/> will
quickly tell you the map coordinates and distance >from Berlin of all
five. A mouse click on the coordinates ( eg. 4812 0812 )
of any town will produce a map of the district which shold help you
decide if it is the right Bach. (With so many of them, it's easy
to become confused.)

Sorry, Susan. My mother made me do it. (She was an English teacher too.)


German SIG #Germany Seek information from Offenbach #germany

Susan Edel
 

Does anyone know where I can find out about the Jewish community of
Offenbach in Germany? Which archives would have the information?

Many Thanks, Susan EDEL, Petach Tikva, Israel

A NOTE >from THE MODERATOR (a former teacher of writing)

I spent a few hours today with my mother (84) listening to her exchange
nostalgic campus annecdotes with college classmates.

Maybe that's why I quickly recalled the voices of my teachers at the same
school when I read Susan's brief (points for that, anyway) message.

1. Please don't make us guess what help you would like >from us. I'll
assume that you are looking for birth, mar. and death records but
you don't say that. It would cost but a few keystrokes to tell exactly
what "information" you need.

2. The town finder (Shtetl Seeker) at JewishGen lists 4 German towns named
Offenbach and one Offnbach.

That excellent tool at <http://www.jewishgen.org/ShtetlSeeker/> will
quickly tell you the map coordinates and distance >from Berlin of all
five. A mouse click on the coordinates ( eg. 4812 0812 )
of any town will produce a map of the district which shold help you
decide if it is the right Bach. (With so many of them, it's easy
to become confused.)

Sorry, Susan. My mother made me do it. (She was an English teacher too.)


Re: Death Certificates Dortmund - Thank you! #germany

Don and Debby (Gincig) Painter <painter@...>
 

I would like to thank everyone who took the time to write me with
addreses, websites and offers of help. Jewishgen truly consists of
wonderful people.

Debby Gincig Painter <painter@mei.net>

MODERATOR NOTE:
I agree. But to be "wonderful" it is first necessary for us to BE.

Please inscribe your graciouss thanks on the JewishGen Wall of Honor
where all will find your message for years to come.
<http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/Honors0.html>
Your truly wonderful contribution of $10 or more can make it happen and,
with others, will allow us to continue being - and trying to help.
<http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/Honors.ihtml>


German SIG #Germany Re: Death Certificates Dortmund - Thank you! #germany

Don and Debby (Gincig) Painter <painter@...>
 

I would like to thank everyone who took the time to write me with
addreses, websites and offers of help. Jewishgen truly consists of
wonderful people.

Debby Gincig Painter <painter@mei.net>

MODERATOR NOTE:
I agree. But to be "wonderful" it is first necessary for us to BE.

Please inscribe your graciouss thanks on the JewishGen Wall of Honor
where all will find your message for years to come.
<http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/Honors0.html>
Your truly wonderful contribution of $10 or more can make it happen and,
with others, will allow us to continue being - and trying to help.
<http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/Honors.ihtml>


Net Captures Lost World of Shtetl - Witness to a Jewish Century #general

Carlos Glikson
 

There is an article today in Wired News

http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,57204,00.html?tw=wn_ascii

titled "Net Captures Lost World of Shtetl", referred to Centropa and its
project "Witness to a Jewish Century" .

Centropa is the Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation, and
the project is described as unearthing invaluable records of once-thriving
Jewish communities, the main source of information and photographs being
elderly Jews.

Centropa's activities are described at
http://www.centropa.org/mainpage/main.asp

Carlos Glikson
Buenos Aires


Re Rachel SHLAMOWITZ <seeking information> #general

michael tarlo <wilemita@...>
 

I realise that I mis-spelt the above name in my e-mail of the 8th January
under the heading Help required.So if I could repeat the message which was
...I would like some help in trying to trace my paternal grandmothers family
and to find out if she perished in the holocoust.Her maiden name was Rachel
SHLAMOWITZ<known English spelling>.She married my grandfather JOseph Tarlo
in Poland and came to England with him where she gave birth to my father
Wolf <William>Tarlo in 1906 in Liverpool.Shortly after she returned to
Poland taking my father with her and subsequently shedivorced my grandfather
and sent my father to rejoin his fatherin England.Rachel then married a
widower who already had three girls,his name is not known but I believe the
girls names to be Ryioka,Topiza and Mela. Ihave a photo of three girls with
those names.I don"t have any more information. IIdo know some of my family
came >from the Lodz area and atown called Krosniewice <is that the same
place as Krosnerty? Thank you for your assistance so far and also to the two
people who gave information on people called Tarlo which I willfollow up.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Net Captures Lost World of Shtetl - Witness to a Jewish Century #general

Carlos Glikson
 

There is an article today in Wired News

http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,57204,00.html?tw=wn_ascii

titled "Net Captures Lost World of Shtetl", referred to Centropa and its
project "Witness to a Jewish Century" .

Centropa is the Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation, and
the project is described as unearthing invaluable records of once-thriving
Jewish communities, the main source of information and photographs being
elderly Jews.

Centropa's activities are described at
http://www.centropa.org/mainpage/main.asp

Carlos Glikson
Buenos Aires


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re Rachel SHLAMOWITZ <seeking information> #general

michael tarlo <wilemita@...>
 

I realise that I mis-spelt the above name in my e-mail of the 8th January
under the heading Help required.So if I could repeat the message which was
...I would like some help in trying to trace my paternal grandmothers family
and to find out if she perished in the holocoust.Her maiden name was Rachel
SHLAMOWITZ<known English spelling>.She married my grandfather JOseph Tarlo
in Poland and came to England with him where she gave birth to my father
Wolf <William>Tarlo in 1906 in Liverpool.Shortly after she returned to
Poland taking my father with her and subsequently shedivorced my grandfather
and sent my father to rejoin his fatherin England.Rachel then married a
widower who already had three girls,his name is not known but I believe the
girls names to be Ryioka,Topiza and Mela. Ihave a photo of three girls with
those names.I don"t have any more information. IIdo know some of my family
came >from the Lodz area and atown called Krosniewice <is that the same
place as Krosnerty? Thank you for your assistance so far and also to the two
people who gave information on people called Tarlo which I willfollow up.


Re: town of "Kerchek" (???) in Ukraine #general

Alexander Sharon
 

Phyllis Forman wrote

I'm trying to figure out what town in the Ukraine
"Kerchek" might be. My aunt's grandfather (Jacob
KHROMOY - changed to GOLDSTEIN, upon arrival in the
USA - is supposed to have come >from "Kerchek", prior
to his marriage to Esther LINSKY (also seen spelled
as LENSKE) >from Slavuta. Prior to arriving in the
USA, they lived in Shepetovka; so I'm assuming that
"Kerchek" is probably in that area - but there are
so many possibilities, I'm not sure which it is.
Phyllis,

This is most probably town Korchik @ 5020 2708 located 10 miles distance
from Shepetovka.
Alexander Sharon
Calgary, Ab


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: town of "Kerchek" (???) in Ukraine #general

Alexander Sharon
 

Phyllis Forman wrote

I'm trying to figure out what town in the Ukraine
"Kerchek" might be. My aunt's grandfather (Jacob
KHROMOY - changed to GOLDSTEIN, upon arrival in the
USA - is supposed to have come >from "Kerchek", prior
to his marriage to Esther LINSKY (also seen spelled
as LENSKE) >from Slavuta. Prior to arriving in the
USA, they lived in Shepetovka; so I'm assuming that
"Kerchek" is probably in that area - but there are
so many possibilities, I'm not sure which it is.
Phyllis,

This is most probably town Korchik @ 5020 2708 located 10 miles distance
from Shepetovka.
Alexander Sharon
Calgary, Ab


Ports of Entry-- Arrivals from Cuba #general

Gladys Paulin <gp21603@...>
 

All,
Dan Kazez wrote:
Subject: Re: U.S. Ports of immigration most likely >from Cuba
There is a wonderful (and little-known) list showing arrivals to Florida,
Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, for 1890-1924. Allen County Public
Library has it (Fort Wayne, Indiana USA; 219-421-1200;
http://www.acpl.lib.in.us/). On these microfilms, I found 5 different
crossings for my ALHADEF family. All of this material is on a collection of
under 10 microfilms. <<

This collection sounds like National Archives microfilm publication T517,
Index to passenger Lists of vessels Arriving at Ports in Alabama, Florida,
Georgia and South Carolina,, 1890-1924.

This is at the National Archives in Washington and the Southeast Region and
at LDS Family History Library-- which means you can order the pertinent
index to your family history center for less than $4.00. You do not need to
travel to the Allen County Library, Washington or Atlanta.

Everyone searching for information on ports of entry should always check the
National ARchives web site <http://www.archives.gov> go to the research
room and the section on passenger arrivals. There you will find much
information on searching for the correct ship.

Also, for the past two years, the INS has been releasing information on many
additional ports of entry and depositing the microfilms at the National
Archives. These include many more water ports, Canadian border crossings,
Mexican border crossings (>from Cuba to Mexico to U.S.. was not unheard of)
than were available three years ago. The LDS is acquiring copies of these
as quickly as possible.

The most up-to-date list can be found in the Guide to Research in the
National Archives, which is on line at their web site (*not* the Passenger
Arrivals catalog which has not been updated in a number of years).

For a complete list of Ports of Entry of the Immigration service, go to the
INS web site <http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/history/index.htm>
and click on Ports of Entry.

And last, but not least-- ships >from Havana did sail directly to New York.
You will not find them in MOrton Allen, because that book only lists
European steamships. But New York is one of many possible entry points.

Re a previous posting, there are indexes for the Port of Galveston. The
Texas Seaport museum has also a searchable databas at
<http://www.tsm-elissa.org> for Galveston arrivals.

One of the best ways to find the port of entry is to first obtain the INS
file for anyone who later naturalized or registered under the Alien
Registration Act of 1940. (Information in Jewishgen FAQ)

Please check Jewishgen FAQ and info files as well as the National Archives
and INS web sites before asking me personally for more information. It is
always more exciting when you make your own discoveries -- and you will
know how to do it more efficiently the next time.
Gladys

Gladys Friedman Paulin, CGRS
Winter Springs, FL


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Ports of Entry-- Arrivals from Cuba #general

Gladys Paulin <gp21603@...>
 

All,
Dan Kazez wrote:
Subject: Re: U.S. Ports of immigration most likely >from Cuba
There is a wonderful (and little-known) list showing arrivals to Florida,
Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, for 1890-1924. Allen County Public
Library has it (Fort Wayne, Indiana USA; 219-421-1200;
http://www.acpl.lib.in.us/). On these microfilms, I found 5 different
crossings for my ALHADEF family. All of this material is on a collection of
under 10 microfilms. <<

This collection sounds like National Archives microfilm publication T517,
Index to passenger Lists of vessels Arriving at Ports in Alabama, Florida,
Georgia and South Carolina,, 1890-1924.

This is at the National Archives in Washington and the Southeast Region and
at LDS Family History Library-- which means you can order the pertinent
index to your family history center for less than $4.00. You do not need to
travel to the Allen County Library, Washington or Atlanta.

Everyone searching for information on ports of entry should always check the
National ARchives web site <http://www.archives.gov> go to the research
room and the section on passenger arrivals. There you will find much
information on searching for the correct ship.

Also, for the past two years, the INS has been releasing information on many
additional ports of entry and depositing the microfilms at the National
Archives. These include many more water ports, Canadian border crossings,
Mexican border crossings (>from Cuba to Mexico to U.S.. was not unheard of)
than were available three years ago. The LDS is acquiring copies of these
as quickly as possible.

The most up-to-date list can be found in the Guide to Research in the
National Archives, which is on line at their web site (*not* the Passenger
Arrivals catalog which has not been updated in a number of years).

For a complete list of Ports of Entry of the Immigration service, go to the
INS web site <http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/history/index.htm>
and click on Ports of Entry.

And last, but not least-- ships >from Havana did sail directly to New York.
You will not find them in MOrton Allen, because that book only lists
European steamships. But New York is one of many possible entry points.

Re a previous posting, there are indexes for the Port of Galveston. The
Texas Seaport museum has also a searchable databas at
<http://www.tsm-elissa.org> for Galveston arrivals.

One of the best ways to find the port of entry is to first obtain the INS
file for anyone who later naturalized or registered under the Alien
Registration Act of 1940. (Information in Jewishgen FAQ)

Please check Jewishgen FAQ and info files as well as the National Archives
and INS web sites before asking me personally for more information. It is
always more exciting when you make your own discoveries -- and you will
know how to do it more efficiently the next time.
Gladys

Gladys Friedman Paulin, CGRS
Winter Springs, FL


Re: INTRO - Seeking MANHEIM & HIRSCHLER #germany

Neill & Fran Luebke <nfluebke@...>
 

This is being posted to the full group because this inquiry about the
MANHEIM family of Ottensoos is another example of some of the indexing
problems on LDS films.

Another gersig member alerted us to these films and I found very important
information on them. FHL Microfilms 1190988 and 1190989, Judische
Gemeinde Ansbach, Mittelfranken, contain 1826 matrikel records of a number
of smaller communities not listed on the index. In the case of Ottensoos,
it was in the Landgericht (District Court) of Lauf so the index lists Lauf
but not the communities themselves. The Ottensoos records are on pages
615-727.
The ledger books were filmed in such a manner that the left side of
the page was filmed on 1190989 and the right side that contains names
of individuals on 1190988. Perhaps a search of the archives will
further elaborate on a complete listing of the communities on the
films.

Fran Loeb Luebke Brookfield, WI, USA <nfluebke@execpc.com>

Researching:
MANNHEIMER: Schopfloch, Wittelshofen, Dinkelsbuehl (Mittlefranken,
Germany) LINDENTHAL: Feuchtwangen (Mittlefranken, Germany) Vienna (Austria)
LOEB: Bechtheim, Abenheim (Rheinhessen, Germany), Chicago,
Philadelphia, New York


German SIG #Germany RE: INTRO - Seeking MANHEIM & HIRSCHLER #germany

Neill & Fran Luebke <nfluebke@...>
 

This is being posted to the full group because this inquiry about the
MANHEIM family of Ottensoos is another example of some of the indexing
problems on LDS films.

Another gersig member alerted us to these films and I found very important
information on them. FHL Microfilms 1190988 and 1190989, Judische
Gemeinde Ansbach, Mittelfranken, contain 1826 matrikel records of a number
of smaller communities not listed on the index. In the case of Ottensoos,
it was in the Landgericht (District Court) of Lauf so the index lists Lauf
but not the communities themselves. The Ottensoos records are on pages
615-727.
The ledger books were filmed in such a manner that the left side of
the page was filmed on 1190989 and the right side that contains names
of individuals on 1190988. Perhaps a search of the archives will
further elaborate on a complete listing of the communities on the
films.

Fran Loeb Luebke Brookfield, WI, USA <nfluebke@execpc.com>

Researching:
MANNHEIMER: Schopfloch, Wittelshofen, Dinkelsbuehl (Mittlefranken,
Germany) LINDENTHAL: Feuchtwangen (Mittlefranken, Germany) Vienna (Austria)
LOEB: Bechtheim, Abenheim (Rheinhessen, Germany), Chicago,
Philadelphia, New York


ARONADE - The family and the name #germany

Roger Lustig <trovato@...>
 

As far as I can tell, all people having the surname ARONADE are descended
from Isaac ARONADE, who died (probably in Loslau, Upper Silesia) some time
between 1812 and 1829. The only son of his that I know of is Benjamin
ARONADE, who had 15 children. Some of the ARONADEs lived in and around
Rybnik (the county seat of the county (Kreis) that also contained Loslau)
until at least the 1930's. (My father remembered Jonas ARONADE's hardware
store in Rybnik.)

Two questions:
--any guesses as to the derivation of the name?
--anyone know of any other ARONADEs? I've noted all that Google and the
SSDI have to offer--no more than a handful in this country.

Please reply privately to julierog@ix.netcom.com -- Thanks in advance!

Roger Lustig Princeton, NJ julierog@ix.netcom.com
Researching Upper Silesia


German SIG #Germany ARONADE - The family and the name #germany

Roger Lustig <trovato@...>
 

As far as I can tell, all people having the surname ARONADE are descended
from Isaac ARONADE, who died (probably in Loslau, Upper Silesia) some time
between 1812 and 1829. The only son of his that I know of is Benjamin
ARONADE, who had 15 children. Some of the ARONADEs lived in and around
Rybnik (the county seat of the county (Kreis) that also contained Loslau)
until at least the 1930's. (My father remembered Jonas ARONADE's hardware
store in Rybnik.)

Two questions:
--any guesses as to the derivation of the name?
--anyone know of any other ARONADEs? I've noted all that Google and the
SSDI have to offer--no more than a handful in this country.

Please reply privately to julierog@ix.netcom.com -- Thanks in advance!

Roger Lustig Princeton, NJ julierog@ix.netcom.com
Researching Upper Silesia


Shochet, Shchitah, Schlechten and Schachten #germany

MBernet@...
 

There is often confusion between two words, one German and one Jewish-
German, that are virtually identical;

Schlechten is German for slaughtering animals. The slaughterer is called
ein Schlechter.

The German-Jewish words are Schechten and Schechter. Same words, just a
dropped L?

Yes and no. The German-Jewish comes >from the Hebrew. Shochet is the man
who slaughters animals in the kosher manner, the act is called Shechitah.

It's fairly obvious how the two Hebrew words underwent change in the
course of centuries under the inflience of the German language. Yiddish
took over the same words.

A shochet was normally not a seller of meat. He was generally an officer
of the Jewish community ( in village communities often doubling as
teacher, cantor and expert on Jewish law and religion). SCH[A]ECHTER is a
fairly common Jewish surname among Ashkenazim; another one, rarer, is
SCHUB which is an acronym for SCHochet U-Bodek, a shochet who was
qualified also to determine whether an animal with doubtful internal
organs was fit to be kosher. The Schochet would mark major joints with a
lead seal (Plombe, >from the latin for lead) attached to the flesh through
wires, or with a purple-ink rubber stamp)

The man who sold meat was named Metzger or Fleischmann [meat-man]. His
store would often be supervised under rabbinic supervision to ensure all
meat was kosher.

Some Jewish Metzgers, though religious, sold only non-kosher meat, those
parts, including the hind quarters, that were not considered kosher or
could be prepared only with some difficulty. In Germany, the majority of
the cattle dealers until the early 20th century were Jewish.

Michael Bernet Suburban NYC mbernet@aol.com


Re: Naming after the living #general

Daniel Gee <DanielGee@...>
 

I hope I am allowed to post this to the group - as Lauren's email address
is rejecting my email when sent to her privately!

Dear Lauren,
I am no maven in these matters but, as I understand it.
It is traditional to name a baby after a deceased relative, but to
reconsider if a relation with that name is alive.
(This is the case for Ashkenazi Jews - the Sephardis do sometimes
name children after living relatives however!)
So it is possible that your great grandfather's second wife had a late
mother/aunt/grandmother called Sarah, whom the baby was being
named after - and, since the first wife was divorced and therefore
no longer a family member, it was not a problem to use the forname.
Of course... it could also have been done out of spite aimed at her!
(ie suggesting that she was as good as deceased in his eyes!)
Hope that helps!
Daniel Gleek in North London

My great grandfather was divorced >from his first wife, Sarah, and
re-married. When his first daughter with his new wife was born, she was
named Sarah, too.

Is this a rotten thing to do ? Is it not significant, as the baby wasn't a
blood relative, or is it a bit of a death-wish thing to do -
superstition-wise ! I don't know if wife-two had any ancestors called
Sarah that she was honouring.

Lauren Strauss-Jones, London
MODERATOR NOTE: Lauren Strauss-Jones's e-mail address included extra
letters in order to prevent it >from being read by automated "robots"
gathering addresses. This is sometimes called a "spam trap". In order to
reply to a mail with an address that has been altered in this way, you need
to remove the extra letters (in Lauren's case, "NO SPAM") before sending
your reply. We discourage the use of spam traps, and ask that those who use
them include directions for replying if the trap is not self-explanatory, in
order to prevent the problem Daniel Gleek experienced.


February issue of Sharsheret Hadorot #general

Yocheved Klausner
 

Jewish genealogy was recently enriched by the publication of an important
and many paged study: four hefty volumes by our member Rose Lerer-Cohen of
Jerusalem and her collaborator Saul Issroff of the Jewish Genealogical
Society of Great Britain. The work, The Holocaust in Lithuania 1941-1945 A
Book of Remembrance contains a wealth of information, painstakingly gathered
over more than five years. Its purpose is to record the names of the Jews of
Lithuania who perished in the Holocaust and includes additional material on
families, places and dates. Owing to the exceptional importance of this
opus, a special place has been allocated for the detailed review that
appears in this issue.

The articles directly dealing with genealogy or fields close to it are quite
diverse. Edward Gelles brings us the second half of his research, on his
father's family, after writing about his mother's side in our last issue.
Naftali Wertheim and Yonatan Mamlock discuss their research - Mamlock via a
detailed story about his family and its history and Wertheim by producing "A
New Ancestor" on the family tree. Rose Feldman gives us a glimpse of her
family through the window that she opened on the Internet. David Ferdinando
recounts how the Jews received the right to live in London again in the time
of Oliver Cromwell and Menasseh ben Israel. Professor Moshe Faraggi
concludes the articles with a learned overview on the origin of his family
name and on the variations found in diverse parts of the world at different
times in history.

In the context of the articles connected with the Israel Genealogical
Society, I would like to call attention to the article by Harriet Kasow on
what is new in our library. Yehuda Klausner provides us with another
installment on the subject of recording genealogical data and Jean-Pierre
Stroweis reports on the new, spacious location of the Central Archives for
the History of the Jewish People. Our regular features, book reviews and
abstracts >from foreign publications, appear as usual.

Last, but not least, the item A Historic Footnote: Seniority - Who Knows?
Who is Acquainted? by Dr. Hanan Rapaport, contains a real scoop. Don't miss
it.

With best wishes,
Yocheved Klausner, Editor
Sharsheret Hadorot
The Journal of the Israel Genealogical Society


German SIG #Germany Shochet, Shchitah, Schlechten and Schachten #germany

MBernet@...
 

There is often confusion between two words, one German and one Jewish-
German, that are virtually identical;

Schlechten is German for slaughtering animals. The slaughterer is called
ein Schlechter.

The German-Jewish words are Schechten and Schechter. Same words, just a
dropped L?

Yes and no. The German-Jewish comes >from the Hebrew. Shochet is the man
who slaughters animals in the kosher manner, the act is called Shechitah.

It's fairly obvious how the two Hebrew words underwent change in the
course of centuries under the inflience of the German language. Yiddish
took over the same words.

A shochet was normally not a seller of meat. He was generally an officer
of the Jewish community ( in village communities often doubling as
teacher, cantor and expert on Jewish law and religion). SCH[A]ECHTER is a
fairly common Jewish surname among Ashkenazim; another one, rarer, is
SCHUB which is an acronym for SCHochet U-Bodek, a shochet who was
qualified also to determine whether an animal with doubtful internal
organs was fit to be kosher. The Schochet would mark major joints with a
lead seal (Plombe, >from the latin for lead) attached to the flesh through
wires, or with a purple-ink rubber stamp)

The man who sold meat was named Metzger or Fleischmann [meat-man]. His
store would often be supervised under rabbinic supervision to ensure all
meat was kosher.

Some Jewish Metzgers, though religious, sold only non-kosher meat, those
parts, including the hind quarters, that were not considered kosher or
could be prepared only with some difficulty. In Germany, the majority of
the cattle dealers until the early 20th century were Jewish.

Michael Bernet Suburban NYC mbernet@aol.com