Date   

Taxes, Festal Food Prohibitions and the Jewish Question in the Crown Lands #austria-czech

samorai <samorai@...>
 

Celia Male raises several interesting questions regarding the precarious
Jewish household economy in Bohemia and Moravia. Despite widespread use in
literature of all kinds of comparing prices in "X" currency at time "N" to
"Y" currency in time "N+1", I am personally sceptical about the worth of
this information for understanding the economic standing of families.
However, I believe a broader quantitative grasp of contemporary financial
circumstances on a comparative basis would be extremely helpful. To make my
point clearly, and to bring it into direct relation with pure genealogical
undertakings, it would be very helpful if members of the SIG who acquire
hard census data on their Moravian and Bohemian families provide data, when
supplied, of taxes paid by their familiants - as lessees, as pedlars, and so
forth. Even a trickling amount of information on expenses - especially the
"contribution" tax - should help in understanding how the tax burden was
spread.

To illustrate: A document, perhaps immediately before 1781 since their
patronymics rather than later chosen surnames are given, shows a Moses
Salomon (lessee) paying 60 Fl. while Markus Salomon (pedlar) paid 10 Fl.
They lived on neighbouring estates, both were Familianten, and they were
probably brothers or cousins.

These amounts, showing a healthy spread in taxation burden, can only begin
to take on meaning in a comparative perspective. But as Valenta notes in his
Judaica Bohemiae article (xxxix, 2003) on the Jew Cantor, the annual
"contribution" was often marked by steep annual fluctuations because of war,
famine, and estate economic condition. Thus, Cantor, one of the wealthiest
Jews in the realm, saw his "contribution" drop >from 800 fl to 450 fl. in the
space of three years (1784-1787). My family's "contributions" pale in
comparison but if I knew about tax liabilities of neighbors, I might begin
to obtain a picture of their situation. Having said that, I must confess
that the task is daunting since there are other taxes, rental fees, licenses
and privileges to take into account for each family's economic situation.

Celia notes food prohibitions for festive occasions. The fee charges for
alcoholic beverages are understandable in the context of law and order
(damage compensation), but cakes? coffee?. >from memory, I recall that the
first chapter of the book Penny Universities contains the story of the
introduction of coffee to England in the mid-17th c.and its subversive
implications. North African Jews were the purveyers of this so-called
"drug". Were prohibition considerations for coffee similar in Bohemia?

Paul King

KOENIG - Beraun kreis & Prague
KOHN - Saaz
WEIL - Beraun kreis & Prague
POLLAK - Lodenice/Bubowice (Beraun kreis) & Prague (tanner, industrialist)


Austria-Czech SIG #Austria-Czech Taxes, Festal Food Prohibitions and the Jewish Question in the Crown Lands #austria-czech

samorai <samorai@...>
 

Celia Male raises several interesting questions regarding the precarious
Jewish household economy in Bohemia and Moravia. Despite widespread use in
literature of all kinds of comparing prices in "X" currency at time "N" to
"Y" currency in time "N+1", I am personally sceptical about the worth of
this information for understanding the economic standing of families.
However, I believe a broader quantitative grasp of contemporary financial
circumstances on a comparative basis would be extremely helpful. To make my
point clearly, and to bring it into direct relation with pure genealogical
undertakings, it would be very helpful if members of the SIG who acquire
hard census data on their Moravian and Bohemian families provide data, when
supplied, of taxes paid by their familiants - as lessees, as pedlars, and so
forth. Even a trickling amount of information on expenses - especially the
"contribution" tax - should help in understanding how the tax burden was
spread.

To illustrate: A document, perhaps immediately before 1781 since their
patronymics rather than later chosen surnames are given, shows a Moses
Salomon (lessee) paying 60 Fl. while Markus Salomon (pedlar) paid 10 Fl.
They lived on neighbouring estates, both were Familianten, and they were
probably brothers or cousins.

These amounts, showing a healthy spread in taxation burden, can only begin
to take on meaning in a comparative perspective. But as Valenta notes in his
Judaica Bohemiae article (xxxix, 2003) on the Jew Cantor, the annual
"contribution" was often marked by steep annual fluctuations because of war,
famine, and estate economic condition. Thus, Cantor, one of the wealthiest
Jews in the realm, saw his "contribution" drop >from 800 fl to 450 fl. in the
space of three years (1784-1787). My family's "contributions" pale in
comparison but if I knew about tax liabilities of neighbors, I might begin
to obtain a picture of their situation. Having said that, I must confess
that the task is daunting since there are other taxes, rental fees, licenses
and privileges to take into account for each family's economic situation.

Celia notes food prohibitions for festive occasions. The fee charges for
alcoholic beverages are understandable in the context of law and order
(damage compensation), but cakes? coffee?. >from memory, I recall that the
first chapter of the book Penny Universities contains the story of the
introduction of coffee to England in the mid-17th c.and its subversive
implications. North African Jews were the purveyers of this so-called
"drug". Were prohibition considerations for coffee similar in Bohemia?

Paul King

KOENIG - Beraun kreis & Prague
KOHN - Saaz
WEIL - Beraun kreis & Prague
POLLAK - Lodenice/Bubowice (Beraun kreis) & Prague (tanner, industrialist)


Queries about census copies #general

dennis gries
 

Ilya:

May I make a suggestion: Don't bother with copies.

I have a very large project underway, now nearing 5,000 connected people (a
"non-Jewish" study). I merely make census transcriptions. There are format
sheets that you can download, print, and then fill in manually, or even type
into (as with a real typewriter). Or you may enter the data into a
spreadsheet/workbook format.

I have been in Philadelphia NARA and made a couple of copies. This is a
very trying exercise. The census registers after a point must have been
even larger than 11x17 inches. Remember that the census sheet is really not
that personal, and you will be copying sheets that you always will be able
to review (since you referred to sites xxxA and xxxB) which will add
immensely to your more personal genie paperwork. Most of the data really is
not that significant, and unless your target is in lines 1... or 51..., you
will be preserving lots of useless data about others.

As the saying goes, JMHO. Write me offline, and I believe that I have
"workbook" templates.

Dennis Gries
Sarasota, FL


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Queries about census copies #general

dennis gries
 

Ilya:

May I make a suggestion: Don't bother with copies.

I have a very large project underway, now nearing 5,000 connected people (a
"non-Jewish" study). I merely make census transcriptions. There are format
sheets that you can download, print, and then fill in manually, or even type
into (as with a real typewriter). Or you may enter the data into a
spreadsheet/workbook format.

I have been in Philadelphia NARA and made a couple of copies. This is a
very trying exercise. The census registers after a point must have been
even larger than 11x17 inches. Remember that the census sheet is really not
that personal, and you will be copying sheets that you always will be able
to review (since you referred to sites xxxA and xxxB) which will add
immensely to your more personal genie paperwork. Most of the data really is
not that significant, and unless your target is in lines 1... or 51..., you
will be preserving lots of useless data about others.

As the saying goes, JMHO. Write me offline, and I believe that I have
"workbook" templates.

Dennis Gries
Sarasota, FL


Re: Spelling of the name STAHL in Lithuania #general

Jules Levin
 

My great-great Uncle Mendl ORLIN >from Boguslaviskis (near Vilnius) changed
his surname to STAHL to avoid the draft. The story goes that he borrowed
the name >from a dead man, and that he always felt guilty about that. My
question is: how would the name STAHL be spelled in vicinity of
Vilnius? --Best, Steve Orlen
In the vicinity of Vilnius the following languages were spoken and written:
Yiddish, Polish, Russian, Lithuanian, German [there was a Lutheran church
and German cemetery in Vilnius. For those who have visited, the cemetery
is now a park next to the Soviet-era wedding palace. ], not to mention
Hebrew, Karaite Tatar, prosta mova (Belarusian), and perhaps more. There
were at least three alphabets used, each language having its own spelling
conventions within the given alphabet. So how to answer your question ??!
Jules Levin
Los Angeles


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Spelling of the name STAHL in Lithuania #general

Jules Levin
 

My great-great Uncle Mendl ORLIN >from Boguslaviskis (near Vilnius) changed
his surname to STAHL to avoid the draft. The story goes that he borrowed
the name >from a dead man, and that he always felt guilty about that. My
question is: how would the name STAHL be spelled in vicinity of
Vilnius? --Best, Steve Orlen
In the vicinity of Vilnius the following languages were spoken and written:
Yiddish, Polish, Russian, Lithuanian, German [there was a Lutheran church
and German cemetery in Vilnius. For those who have visited, the cemetery
is now a park next to the Soviet-era wedding palace. ], not to mention
Hebrew, Karaite Tatar, prosta mova (Belarusian), and perhaps more. There
were at least three alphabets used, each language having its own spelling
conventions within the given alphabet. So how to answer your question ??!
Jules Levin
Los Angeles


"universal" calendars #general

Barbara Mannlein <bsmannlein@...>
 

Last week I asked for assistance in determining the date a secular holiday
had been observed in 1918. I received many answers and suggestions..

Others may appreciate the same information about "universal" calendars.

Suggested were the following links:

http://www.timeanddate.com/

http://www.vpcalendar.net

http://www.calendarhome.com/tyc/original.html

http://www.clements.umich.edu/Webguides/HK/Index_HK/Kamp.ndx

http://collections.ic.gc.ca/naismith/james/chronicles/chapter25r.htm

http://my.inil.com/~jimvgill/wwipages/letter18/p181127c.html

Barbara S. Mannlein
Tucson, AZ


Re: Success with Yad Vashem and Bezeq #general

YASO <goaizicgo@...>
 

Shalom,

Sorry to spoil your fun, but I have been informed by Bezeq that they
stopped months ago (they were not willing to reveal how many
months ago ) feeding in new information on their online service.

Why? It seems that the online service has caused a serious
drop in their conventional method of dialing for a fee paying
query.

Aizic Sechter

from the Lone Star State of Israel


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen "universal" calendars #general

Barbara Mannlein <bsmannlein@...>
 

Last week I asked for assistance in determining the date a secular holiday
had been observed in 1918. I received many answers and suggestions..

Others may appreciate the same information about "universal" calendars.

Suggested were the following links:

http://www.timeanddate.com/

http://www.vpcalendar.net

http://www.calendarhome.com/tyc/original.html

http://www.clements.umich.edu/Webguides/HK/Index_HK/Kamp.ndx

http://collections.ic.gc.ca/naismith/james/chronicles/chapter25r.htm

http://my.inil.com/~jimvgill/wwipages/letter18/p181127c.html

Barbara S. Mannlein
Tucson, AZ


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Success with Yad Vashem and Bezeq #general

YASO <goaizicgo@...>
 

Shalom,

Sorry to spoil your fun, but I have been informed by Bezeq that they
stopped months ago (they were not willing to reveal how many
months ago ) feeding in new information on their online service.

Why? It seems that the online service has caused a serious
drop in their conventional method of dialing for a fee paying
query.

Aizic Sechter

from the Lone Star State of Israel


Help with Cyrillic ViewMate posting, residence of groom/father please. #general

Kirsten Gradel <kmgradel@...>
 

I have posted part of two Cyrillic documents, a M and a B record >from the
town Gorzkow, LU, Poland, abt. 45 km SSE of Lublin in Krasnystaw district.

The groom's hometown is rather a surprise so I need help - confirmation or
correction - of my reading. I am helping a new researcher who has waited
several years to find this evidence of her Gorzkow family, her mother the
only survivor of her family and reluctant to talk - so it is very
important I do not lead her astray.

A translation as such is not needed, just the geography, please.

1) A marriage >from 1897. I read the groom Dawid Wulf DYCHTWALD's hometown
to be Wodzislaw where he lives/lived with his parents. Correct? The bride
is a native of Gorzkow. The record is located at

http://data.jewishgen.org/viewmate/ALL/viewmateview.asp?key=6605

2) The second document is a birth record for Ester Blima DYCHTWALD >from
1900 - above couple's first(?) child Ester Blima. Here I read the father
to be now residing in Wladyslawow district(gmina), Konin ueyzda(county),
Kalisz Gubern.(province). This is quite a way >from Wodzislaw and even
longer >from Gorzkow but I can only read it that way. The records is
located at

http://data.jewishgen.org/viewmate/ALL/viewmateview.asp?key=6604

Thanks

Kirsten Gradel
Nyborg, Denmark
Zamosc Archives Project Coordinator
Jewish Records Indexing - Poland

e-mail: kmgradel@dadlnet.dk


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Help with Cyrillic ViewMate posting, residence of groom/father please. #general

Kirsten Gradel <kmgradel@...>
 

I have posted part of two Cyrillic documents, a M and a B record >from the
town Gorzkow, LU, Poland, abt. 45 km SSE of Lublin in Krasnystaw district.

The groom's hometown is rather a surprise so I need help - confirmation or
correction - of my reading. I am helping a new researcher who has waited
several years to find this evidence of her Gorzkow family, her mother the
only survivor of her family and reluctant to talk - so it is very
important I do not lead her astray.

A translation as such is not needed, just the geography, please.

1) A marriage >from 1897. I read the groom Dawid Wulf DYCHTWALD's hometown
to be Wodzislaw where he lives/lived with his parents. Correct? The bride
is a native of Gorzkow. The record is located at

http://data.jewishgen.org/viewmate/ALL/viewmateview.asp?key=6605

2) The second document is a birth record for Ester Blima DYCHTWALD >from
1900 - above couple's first(?) child Ester Blima. Here I read the father
to be now residing in Wladyslawow district(gmina), Konin ueyzda(county),
Kalisz Gubern.(province). This is quite a way >from Wodzislaw and even
longer >from Gorzkow but I can only read it that way. The records is
located at

http://data.jewishgen.org/viewmate/ALL/viewmateview.asp?key=6604

Thanks

Kirsten Gradel
Nyborg, Denmark
Zamosc Archives Project Coordinator
Jewish Records Indexing - Poland

e-mail: kmgradel@dadlnet.dk


The Name "Yekhiel" #general

Stan Golembe <ocstan@...>
 

Dear Genners

I received over 25 replies to my inquiry concerning the name Yekhiel. I want
to thank all those who responded and helped me decide on how to treat this
problem. You are a great group. Only one reply drew a connection, based on a
family member's name, between Yechiel and Isaac. All the others pointed to
references that this is a historically "stand alone" name. In light of this
overwhelming response, I will not assume Yechiel to be another name for one
of my proven family members, but will assume he is another previously
unknown son and continue to search for information on him.

Incidentally, for those of you who are working with old Russian and
Belarussian documents such as censuses, draft lists, etc, be very wary of
names you encounter. I have found people spelled different ways in different
documents quite often.

Stan Golembe
Canton, MA

Searching for GALEMBA, GOLEMBE, GALEMBE, (Other variants on this),
Lyachovichi, Lachwa, Nobel


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen The Name "Yekhiel" #general

Stan Golembe <ocstan@...>
 

Dear Genners

I received over 25 replies to my inquiry concerning the name Yekhiel. I want
to thank all those who responded and helped me decide on how to treat this
problem. You are a great group. Only one reply drew a connection, based on a
family member's name, between Yechiel and Isaac. All the others pointed to
references that this is a historically "stand alone" name. In light of this
overwhelming response, I will not assume Yechiel to be another name for one
of my proven family members, but will assume he is another previously
unknown son and continue to search for information on him.

Incidentally, for those of you who are working with old Russian and
Belarussian documents such as censuses, draft lists, etc, be very wary of
names you encounter. I have found people spelled different ways in different
documents quite often.

Stan Golembe
Canton, MA

Searching for GALEMBA, GOLEMBE, GALEMBE, (Other variants on this),
Lyachovichi, Lachwa, Nobel


Re: Understanding a phrase on a tombstone #general

Stan Goodman <SPAM_FOILER@...>
 

On Sun, 7 Aug 2005 04:42:11 UTC, IsraelP@pikholz.org (Israel P)
opined:

I am a Hebrew speaker, but I am having trouble with a line on a tombstone at
http://www.pikholz.org/ZH/Graves/AharonShelomo.jpg which is my wife's g-g-
gf's grave.

I cannot figure out the context of "tam ruach" in the the third line. Or
is tam perhaps a verb in this case?

Israel Pickholtz
Hi, Israel...

I must not understand the problem. This line looks very much in
keeping with the usual headstone inscriptions. The evident goal in
such inscriptions is to get as many conventional formulae in as
possible. As in any poetry, it possible to argue with literal
translations of individual words. I read the line thus:

"A man of many works, pure of spirit, an innocent and honest man".


--
Stan Goodman, Qiryat Tiv'on, Israel

Searching:
NEACHOWICZ/NOACHOWICZ, NEJMAN/NAJMAN, SURALSKI: >from Lomza Gubernia
ISMACH: >from Lomza Gubernia, Galicia, and Ukraina
HERTANU, ABRAMOVICI, LAUER: >from Dorohoi District, Romania
GRISARU, VATARU: >from Iasi, Dorohoi, and Mileanca, Romania

See my interactive family tree (requires Java 1.1.6 or better). the
URL is:
http://www.hashkedim.com

For reasons connected with anti-spam/junk security, the return address
is
not valid. To communicate with me, please visit my website (see the
URL
above -- no Java required for this purpose) and fill in the email form

there.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Understanding a phrase on a tombstone #general

Stan Goodman <SPAM_FOILER@...>
 

On Sun, 7 Aug 2005 04:42:11 UTC, IsraelP@pikholz.org (Israel P)
opined:

I am a Hebrew speaker, but I am having trouble with a line on a tombstone at
http://www.pikholz.org/ZH/Graves/AharonShelomo.jpg which is my wife's g-g-
gf's grave.

I cannot figure out the context of "tam ruach" in the the third line. Or
is tam perhaps a verb in this case?

Israel Pickholtz
Hi, Israel...

I must not understand the problem. This line looks very much in
keeping with the usual headstone inscriptions. The evident goal in
such inscriptions is to get as many conventional formulae in as
possible. As in any poetry, it possible to argue with literal
translations of individual words. I read the line thus:

"A man of many works, pure of spirit, an innocent and honest man".


--
Stan Goodman, Qiryat Tiv'on, Israel

Searching:
NEACHOWICZ/NOACHOWICZ, NEJMAN/NAJMAN, SURALSKI: >from Lomza Gubernia
ISMACH: >from Lomza Gubernia, Galicia, and Ukraina
HERTANU, ABRAMOVICI, LAUER: >from Dorohoi District, Romania
GRISARU, VATARU: >from Iasi, Dorohoi, and Mileanca, Romania

See my interactive family tree (requires Java 1.1.6 or better). the
URL is:
http://www.hashkedim.com

For reasons connected with anti-spam/junk security, the return address
is
not valid. To communicate with me, please visit my website (see the
URL
above -- no Java required for this purpose) and fill in the email form

there.


Re: Can't find Dolhinif, Russia #general

Jules Levin
 

At 05:27 AM 8/6/2005, you wrote:

I retreived my uncle's Petition for Citizenship - on it is "I was born
in Dolhinif, Russia on March 9, 1905".

Can not find town, village, city or anything about this?
Arnold,

This is Dolginovo (ex Dolginuv, Dolginov, or Dolhinow) located near the
larger town Vileyka in Belarus at 5439 2729.
I concur with Alexander Sharon. The spelling and the actual name reveal
that we cannot allow ourselves to be too influenced by formal spelling
rules of contemporary Slavic languages. Although spelled with a Cyrillic
'g', in the local dialect, now called Belarusan, but more likely known to
the locals in 1905 as simply "prosta mova"--the simple tongue, to
distinguish it >from Lithuanian, this would have been pronounced like a
voiced velar fricative, like the 'g' in agua in some Spanishes, and no
doubt represented in English by 'h'. Not only was this the normal
pronunciation of 'hard' 'g' in Belarus, but also in vast areas of Southern
Russia, extending North quite close to the southern reaches of Moscow. The
spelling -if at the end is not a bad rendering of the unstressed final
syllable.
Jules Levin
Professor of Russian and Linguistics, Emeritus
UCLA, UCR
Los Angeles


Re: Understanding a phrase on a tombstone #general

MBernet@...
 

In a message dated 8/7/2005 12:37:48 A.M. Eastern Standard Time,
IsraelP@pikholz.org writes:

< I am having trouble with a line on a tombstone at
_http://www.pikholz.org/ZH/Graves/AharonShelomo.jpg_ (http://www.pikholz.org/
ZH/Graves/AharonShelomo.jpg)
which is my wife's g-g-gf's grave. >
I cannot figure out the context of "tam ruach" in the the third line. >

==I consider "tam" generally as best translated "unpretentious." Tam ru'ach
could be an expression meaning "unpretentious style," or "calm personality,"
or "easygoing."

==After all, the mason had to fill eight acrostic and rhyming lines with
about seven words a line. Some of those phrases were statistically necessary to
be less precise or felicitous than others.

Michael Bernet, New York


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Can't find Dolhinif, Russia #general

Jules Levin
 

At 05:27 AM 8/6/2005, you wrote:

I retreived my uncle's Petition for Citizenship - on it is "I was born
in Dolhinif, Russia on March 9, 1905".

Can not find town, village, city or anything about this?
Arnold,

This is Dolginovo (ex Dolginuv, Dolginov, or Dolhinow) located near the
larger town Vileyka in Belarus at 5439 2729.
I concur with Alexander Sharon. The spelling and the actual name reveal
that we cannot allow ourselves to be too influenced by formal spelling
rules of contemporary Slavic languages. Although spelled with a Cyrillic
'g', in the local dialect, now called Belarusan, but more likely known to
the locals in 1905 as simply "prosta mova"--the simple tongue, to
distinguish it >from Lithuanian, this would have been pronounced like a
voiced velar fricative, like the 'g' in agua in some Spanishes, and no
doubt represented in English by 'h'. Not only was this the normal
pronunciation of 'hard' 'g' in Belarus, but also in vast areas of Southern
Russia, extending North quite close to the southern reaches of Moscow. The
spelling -if at the end is not a bad rendering of the unstressed final
syllable.
Jules Levin
Professor of Russian and Linguistics, Emeritus
UCLA, UCR
Los Angeles


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Understanding a phrase on a tombstone #general

MBernet@...
 

In a message dated 8/7/2005 12:37:48 A.M. Eastern Standard Time,
IsraelP@pikholz.org writes:

< I am having trouble with a line on a tombstone at
_http://www.pikholz.org/ZH/Graves/AharonShelomo.jpg_ (http://www.pikholz.org/
ZH/Graves/AharonShelomo.jpg)
which is my wife's g-g-gf's grave. >
I cannot figure out the context of "tam ruach" in the the third line. >

==I consider "tam" generally as best translated "unpretentious." Tam ru'ach
could be an expression meaning "unpretentious style," or "calm personality,"
or "easygoing."

==After all, the mason had to fill eight acrostic and rhyming lines with
about seven words a line. Some of those phrases were statistically necessary to
be less precise or felicitous than others.

Michael Bernet, New York