Date   

HandBook on Jewish Genealogy in Ukraine #ukraine

Michelle Sandler
 

Is there a handbook on Jewish Genealogy in the Ukraine.? I just ordered a book called A Guide to Jewish Genealogy in Poland. I have A Guide to Jewish Genealogy in Lithuania. I am looking for Ukraine and Belarus.

Michelle Sandler
Librarian, Orange County Jewish Genealogy Society
Westminster California


Ukraine SIG #Ukraine HandBook on Jewish Genealogy in Ukraine #ukraine

Michelle Sandler
 

Is there a handbook on Jewish Genealogy in the Ukraine.? I just ordered a book called A Guide to Jewish Genealogy in Poland. I have A Guide to Jewish Genealogy in Lithuania. I am looking for Ukraine and Belarus.

Michelle Sandler
Librarian, Orange County Jewish Genealogy Society
Westminster California


Reflecting On The Work Of JewishGen #usa

Groll, Avraham
 

04/09/2018
24 Nissan 5778

Dear JewishGen Family,

This week presents meaningful opportunities to reflect on the significance
of JewishGen's purpose, work, and values.

Today marks 50 years since the funeral of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
the tireless champion for human rights. On December 11, 1966, Dr. King
delivered a powerful speech in support of the oppressed Jews of the Soviet
Union. His message bears remembering:
"... [Jews in the Soviet Union] may not be physically murdered as they were
in Nazi Germany, [but] they are facing every day a kind of spiritual and
cultural genocide. Individual Jews may be in the main physically and
economically secure in Russia, but the absence of opportunity to associate
as Jews in the enjoyment of Jewish culture and religious experience becomes
a severe limitation upon the individual.

"These deprivations are a part of a person's emotional and intellectual
life. They determine whether he is fulfilled as a human being ... When you
are written out of history as a people, when you are given no choice but to
accept the majority culture, you are denied an aspect of your own identity
... Ultimately, you suffer a corrosion of your self-understanding and your
self-respect."

(The entire speech can be read here: https://tinyurl.com/y964kncp)
[original URL: http://www.beliefnet.com/news/2000/01/negroes-can-well-understand-king-in-his-own-words.aspx#6iMcFUzK1A4XMBYW.99]

As you know, Yom HaShoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) begins at nightfall on
Wednesday evening, April 11. In the State of Israel (which will soon
celebrate its 70th birthday), a siren will be blown at nightfall and then
again the next morning -- uniting men, women and children in silent
reflection of the catastrophe which ended less than 75 years ago.

Here in NYC, the Museum of Jewish Heritage - A Living Memorial to the
Holocaust (of which JewishGen.org is an affiliate) hosts a series of
commemorations, and provides multiple opportunities for people of all ages,
from all walks of life, to internalize the loss, and to take meaningful
steps to preserve our collective Jewish history and legacy for the future.

Yesterday, nearly 3,000 people attended the Museum's Annual Gathering of
Remembrance. Speaking to a diverse audience, which included a large number
of Holocaust Survivors, Museum President & CEO Mr. Michael Glickman
articulated not only the reason for establishing the Museum, but also what
motivates its continued purpose. He stated, in part:
"Commemorations like the Annual Gathering of Remembrance are powerful
because they demand our presence, our attention, and most of all, our
togetherness. They challenge us to think of how we carry not only our
personal, individual histories, but also the history of our people. The
weight of this history can feel like a burden, but when the burden is
shared, it becomes an important lesson in what we mean to each other ...
When a survivor tells her story, she reasserts the very humanity and
dignity that the Nazis attempted to destroy."
(The entire speech can be viewed here: https://vimeo.com/263766364)

These thoughts and sentiments motivate the staff and volunteers at
JewishGen on a daily basis. We take heed of Dr. King's words so many
decades ago, and of Mr. Glickman's just yesterday. We are not content
merely connecting researchers with ancestral information -- our sacred
work revolves around our ability to transmit the legacy of the Jewish
people in a way that will ensure its preservation for future generations.

As we continue to participate in Holocaust Commemorative programming, I
thank you for being part of the JewishGen.org family, and for supporting
our critical work.

Avraham Groll, Director JewishGen.org


Early American SIG #USA Reflecting On The Work Of JewishGen #usa

Groll, Avraham
 

04/09/2018
24 Nissan 5778

Dear JewishGen Family,

This week presents meaningful opportunities to reflect on the significance
of JewishGen's purpose, work, and values.

Today marks 50 years since the funeral of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
the tireless champion for human rights. On December 11, 1966, Dr. King
delivered a powerful speech in support of the oppressed Jews of the Soviet
Union. His message bears remembering:
"... [Jews in the Soviet Union] may not be physically murdered as they were
in Nazi Germany, [but] they are facing every day a kind of spiritual and
cultural genocide. Individual Jews may be in the main physically and
economically secure in Russia, but the absence of opportunity to associate
as Jews in the enjoyment of Jewish culture and religious experience becomes
a severe limitation upon the individual.

"These deprivations are a part of a person's emotional and intellectual
life. They determine whether he is fulfilled as a human being ... When you
are written out of history as a people, when you are given no choice but to
accept the majority culture, you are denied an aspect of your own identity
... Ultimately, you suffer a corrosion of your self-understanding and your
self-respect."

(The entire speech can be read here: https://tinyurl.com/y964kncp)
[original URL: http://www.beliefnet.com/news/2000/01/negroes-can-well-understand-king-in-his-own-words.aspx#6iMcFUzK1A4XMBYW.99]

As you know, Yom HaShoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) begins at nightfall on
Wednesday evening, April 11. In the State of Israel (which will soon
celebrate its 70th birthday), a siren will be blown at nightfall and then
again the next morning -- uniting men, women and children in silent
reflection of the catastrophe which ended less than 75 years ago.

Here in NYC, the Museum of Jewish Heritage - A Living Memorial to the
Holocaust (of which JewishGen.org is an affiliate) hosts a series of
commemorations, and provides multiple opportunities for people of all ages,
from all walks of life, to internalize the loss, and to take meaningful
steps to preserve our collective Jewish history and legacy for the future.

Yesterday, nearly 3,000 people attended the Museum's Annual Gathering of
Remembrance. Speaking to a diverse audience, which included a large number
of Holocaust Survivors, Museum President & CEO Mr. Michael Glickman
articulated not only the reason for establishing the Museum, but also what
motivates its continued purpose. He stated, in part:
"Commemorations like the Annual Gathering of Remembrance are powerful
because they demand our presence, our attention, and most of all, our
togetherness. They challenge us to think of how we carry not only our
personal, individual histories, but also the history of our people. The
weight of this history can feel like a burden, but when the burden is
shared, it becomes an important lesson in what we mean to each other ...
When a survivor tells her story, she reasserts the very humanity and
dignity that the Nazis attempted to destroy."
(The entire speech can be viewed here: https://vimeo.com/263766364)

These thoughts and sentiments motivate the staff and volunteers at
JewishGen on a daily basis. We take heed of Dr. King's words so many
decades ago, and of Mr. Glickman's just yesterday. We are not content
merely connecting researchers with ancestral information -- our sacred
work revolves around our ability to transmit the legacy of the Jewish
people in a way that will ensure its preservation for future generations.

As we continue to participate in Holocaust Commemorative programming, I
thank you for being part of the JewishGen.org family, and for supporting
our critical work.

Avraham Groll, Director JewishGen.org


Re: The name Fischel [SITE CITE] #germany

Renee Steinig
 

Ellen Barnett Cleary <ellencleary@comcast.net> wrote:

<<I have read that the name Fischel is a variation of the name
Ephraim. I don't really see how they get Fischel >from Ephraim...>>

Each of the 12 tribes of Israel has a symbol -- in some cases an
animal. For example...

Benjamin - wolf
Issachar - bear
Joshua - falcon
Judah - lion
Naftali - deer

Men with those Hebrew names often had Yiddish secular names derived
from the symbols. So you'll see on Jewish graves such double names as
Issachar Ber, Yehoshua Falik, Yehuda Leib, and Naftali Herz.

Some of these associations are based on the patriarch Jacob's
blessings for his sons (Genesis 49 -
https://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0149.htm) and for his grandsons
Ephraim and Menasseh, sons of Joseph (Genesis 48 -
https://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0148.htm). Jacob's wish for the
grandsons was that they "grow into a multitude in the midst of the
earth." A fish became a symbol of that fertility.

Renee Stern Steinig, Dix Hills NY genmaven@gmail.com


Re: The name Fischel [linked to Ephriam] #germany

The Berkleys <berkley@...>
 

Genesis chapter 48 recounts how Jacob blessed his two grandsons Ephraim
and Menashe, the sons of Joseph.

The words of the blessing (verse 16) are "the angel who hath redeemed me
from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named in them, and the
name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude
in the midst of the earth"

The Hebrew word that was translated into "grow into a multitude" is
"veyidgu", whose root is "dag", meaning fish, or in Yiddish - fischel.
In other words, his blessing meant "may you multiply like the fish".
Thus Fischel became the kinnui for Ephraim.
(Menashe has a different kinnui - "Man")

Jonny Berkley, Bet Shemesh, Israel

Moderator Note: A "kinnui" (plural kinnuim) is the recognized legal
Yiddish version of a Hebrew given name. Name equivalents were codified.
See note below.

Ellen Barnett Cleary <ellencleary@comcast.net> wrote:
I have read that the name Fischel is a variation of the name Ephraim.
I don't really see how they get Fischel >from Ephraim. If someone can
help me understand that, I'd really appreciate it.

Moderator Note: >from THE GIVEN NAMES DATA BASES by Professor G. L. Esterson
https://www.jewishgen.org/databases/GivenNames/index.htm

"In European countries, the rabbis recognized *Primary-Subsidiary*
double given names (like Aleksander Ziskind or Yehuda Leyb) as the
legal names for recording women and men in Jewish legal documents
(Get, ketuva, and other Jewish contracts), and for calling a man
to the Torah for an aliya.
In addition to their Primary name, many Jews had a * Subsidiary *
(i.e., Yiddish or European secular) name which was commonly linked
to their Hebrew Primary name, like the Yiddish names
Yudl or Leyb, to Yehuda."

In June, 2007, Dr. Esterson replied to a question about the name
Fischel (and variations) in a SIG list message:

"The two Hebrew names Yerocham and Efrayim both have the Yiddish name
Fishl (and its variants) as legal Jewish kinuim (aliases). Thus, if
a man had either Yerocham or Efrayim as his Hebrew name, and he had
Fishl as the kinui, when called to the Tora in an aliya, or if he
obtained a divorce, his Jewish Legal name would be Yerocham/Efrayim
Fishl ben Ploni, where Ploni was his father's Jewish legal given
name. It was also common (for some purposes) for Jews to use the
given names Yerocham Fishl or Efrayim Fishl on other official or
non-official documents."


German SIG #Germany Re: The name Fischel [SITE CITE] #germany

Renee Steinig
 

Ellen Barnett Cleary <ellencleary@comcast.net> wrote:

<<I have read that the name Fischel is a variation of the name
Ephraim. I don't really see how they get Fischel >from Ephraim...>>

Each of the 12 tribes of Israel has a symbol -- in some cases an
animal. For example...

Benjamin - wolf
Issachar - bear
Joshua - falcon
Judah - lion
Naftali - deer

Men with those Hebrew names often had Yiddish secular names derived
from the symbols. So you'll see on Jewish graves such double names as
Issachar Ber, Yehoshua Falik, Yehuda Leib, and Naftali Herz.

Some of these associations are based on the patriarch Jacob's
blessings for his sons (Genesis 49 -
https://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0149.htm) and for his grandsons
Ephraim and Menasseh, sons of Joseph (Genesis 48 -
https://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0148.htm). Jacob's wish for the
grandsons was that they "grow into a multitude in the midst of the
earth." A fish became a symbol of that fertility.

Renee Stern Steinig, Dix Hills NY genmaven@gmail.com


German SIG #Germany RE: The name Fischel [linked to Ephriam] #germany

The Berkleys <berkley@...>
 

Genesis chapter 48 recounts how Jacob blessed his two grandsons Ephraim
and Menashe, the sons of Joseph.

The words of the blessing (verse 16) are "the angel who hath redeemed me
from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named in them, and the
name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude
in the midst of the earth"

The Hebrew word that was translated into "grow into a multitude" is
"veyidgu", whose root is "dag", meaning fish, or in Yiddish - fischel.
In other words, his blessing meant "may you multiply like the fish".
Thus Fischel became the kinnui for Ephraim.
(Menashe has a different kinnui - "Man")

Jonny Berkley, Bet Shemesh, Israel

Moderator Note: A "kinnui" (plural kinnuim) is the recognized legal
Yiddish version of a Hebrew given name. Name equivalents were codified.
See note below.

Ellen Barnett Cleary <ellencleary@comcast.net> wrote:
I have read that the name Fischel is a variation of the name Ephraim.
I don't really see how they get Fischel >from Ephraim. If someone can
help me understand that, I'd really appreciate it.

Moderator Note: >from THE GIVEN NAMES DATA BASES by Professor G. L. Esterson
https://www.jewishgen.org/databases/GivenNames/index.htm

"In European countries, the rabbis recognized *Primary-Subsidiary*
double given names (like Aleksander Ziskind or Yehuda Leyb) as the
legal names for recording women and men in Jewish legal documents
(Get, ketuva, and other Jewish contracts), and for calling a man
to the Torah for an aliya.
In addition to their Primary name, many Jews had a * Subsidiary *
(i.e., Yiddish or European secular) name which was commonly linked
to their Hebrew Primary name, like the Yiddish names
Yudl or Leyb, to Yehuda."

In June, 2007, Dr. Esterson replied to a question about the name
Fischel (and variations) in a SIG list message:

"The two Hebrew names Yerocham and Efrayim both have the Yiddish name
Fishl (and its variants) as legal Jewish kinuim (aliases). Thus, if
a man had either Yerocham or Efrayim as his Hebrew name, and he had
Fishl as the kinui, when called to the Tora in an aliya, or if he
obtained a divorce, his Jewish Legal name would be Yerocham/Efrayim
Fishl ben Ploni, where Ploni was his father's Jewish legal given
name. It was also common (for some purposes) for Jews to use the
given names Yerocham Fishl or Efrayim Fishl on other official or
non-official documents."


Polish translation request #general

Nomi Waksberg <nwaksberg@...>
 

Greetings,

I'd appreciate your help in confirming and translating the following
marriage vital record of Wolf, who I believe is a great great uncle.

Please note the date of event, names, ages and occupations of all
parties, including family names of wives, mothers, in-laws if noted.

http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM66205

Please respond using the online ViewMate form.
Thank you in advance for your valuable time and help.

Nomi Fiszenfeld Waksberg

Researching Family Names:
FISZENFLED, BRAUN, FRYDMAN, ZINGER, WOLKOWICZ,
WAKSBERG, ROZENBLAT, SLUPSKA, RYGIEL, KLAJNBART


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Polish translation request #general

Nomi Waksberg <nwaksberg@...>
 

Greetings,

I'd appreciate your help in confirming and translating the following
marriage vital record of Wolf, who I believe is a great great uncle.

Please note the date of event, names, ages and occupations of all
parties, including family names of wives, mothers, in-laws if noted.

http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM66205

Please respond using the online ViewMate form.
Thank you in advance for your valuable time and help.

Nomi Fiszenfeld Waksberg

Researching Family Names:
FISZENFLED, BRAUN, FRYDMAN, ZINGER, WOLKOWICZ,
WAKSBERG, ROZENBLAT, SLUPSKA, RYGIEL, KLAJNBART


Lists of Hungarian Jews during the Holocaust #hungary

iris.edit1@...
 

Shalom,
I am looking for lists of Hungarian Jews >from Budapest during the
Holocaust. I didn't find the names I am searching on the digitized
databases (Yad Vashem, Holocaust Museum in Washington, JewishGen).

Are there other digital databases to find them? Or do I have to go
myself to Yad VaShem and look there?

Specifically, I am searching for:
1. Inmates (men) in Mauthausen and Gunskirchen-lager.
2. Men in forced work labor work in Budapest at Breitfeld fur factory
and brick factory.
3. Families in the Budapest Ghetto.
4. Jewish women sent >from Budapest about December 1944 (maybe to
Lichtenworth, a sub-camp of Mauthausen).


Shabbat Shalom,
Iris Israeli
<snip>
iris.edit1@gmail.com

Moderator: Have you checked the JewishGen Holocaust database? It has thousands
of records of Hungarian Jews who were victims and/or survivors of the Holocaust
including several thousand Budapest Jews who received Wallenberg Passports. You
can find Mauthausen records in the Yad Vashem Central Database.


Hungary SIG #Hungary Lists of Hungarian Jews during the Holocaust #hungary

iris.edit1@...
 

Shalom,
I am looking for lists of Hungarian Jews >from Budapest during the
Holocaust. I didn't find the names I am searching on the digitized
databases (Yad Vashem, Holocaust Museum in Washington, JewishGen).

Are there other digital databases to find them? Or do I have to go
myself to Yad VaShem and look there?

Specifically, I am searching for:
1. Inmates (men) in Mauthausen and Gunskirchen-lager.
2. Men in forced work labor work in Budapest at Breitfeld fur factory
and brick factory.
3. Families in the Budapest Ghetto.
4. Jewish women sent >from Budapest about December 1944 (maybe to
Lichtenworth, a sub-camp of Mauthausen).


Shabbat Shalom,
Iris Israeli
<snip>
iris.edit1@gmail.com

Moderator: Have you checked the JewishGen Holocaust database? It has thousands
of records of Hungarian Jews who were victims and/or survivors of the Holocaust
including several thousand Budapest Jews who received Wallenberg Passports. You
can find Mauthausen records in the Yad Vashem Central Database.


April 29 Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois meeting features 2 programs by Gesher Galicia board member Zalewski #general

events@...
 

Gesher Galicia board member and author Andrew Zalewski will give two
talks at a special meeting of the Jewish Genealogical Society of
Illinois on Sunday, April 29, 2018, at Temple Beth-El, 3610 Dundee Road,
Northbrook, Ill. His first talk, "Gesher Galicia: What's New and What's
Coming Soon," will begin at 1 p.m. After a short break, his main talk,
"Galician Portraits: Jews, Gentiles, and Emperors," will be presented
beginning at about 2 p.m.

This event is free and open to the public. The JGSI library and help
desk will not be available for this special meeting. For more
information, see jgsi.org.
About the talks: The first talk, "Gesher Galicia: What's New and What's
Coming Soon," is an update about geshergalicia.org, its research and
resources, such as the All Galicia Database, Map Room, Inventories of
Records and more.

In his main talk, "Galician Portraits: Jews, Gentiles, and Emperors,"
Zalewski intertwines genealogical discoveries with a broader historical
context to bring to life the Jewish community of Galicia during the era
of Austrian rule. Galicia, annexed into the Habsburg Monarchy in 1772,
was home to a large Jewish community: Approximately 10% of the
population was Jewish.

Zalewski, author of two books on his Jewish roots in Galicia, explores
the impact of Habsburg rule and the "Jewish enlightenment." Habsburg
imperial edicts were both stifling and inspiring for the Jewish
community in Galicia -- the laws about Jewish marriages, surnames,
schools and military service brought dizzying changes but also
controversies.

>from inside the community emerged a wave of the Galician Enlightenment
(Haskalah). Local Jewish cultural rebels offered biting satires and
wrote poetry. Galicia's diverse community included pious traditionalists
and impatient reformers, laborers and professionals, dwellers of shetls
and cities. Among them, passionate arguments about language (German,
Hebrew, Yiddish and Polish), customs and loyalties easily erupted. But
even in difficult times, there were brave voices that spoke loudly
against prejudice.

Based on expanded research for the speaker's book "Galician Portraits:
In Search of Jewish Roots," the talk is of interest to general audiences
interested in Jewish genealogy and is illustrated by many pictures,
unique archival documents and old maps of Galicia.

About the speaker: Andrew Zalewski is a physician and former professor
of medicine at Jefferson University, Philadelphia. He serves on the
board of directors of Gesher Galicia Inc., a non-profit organization,
with a global membership, which has been dedicated to researching Jewish
genealogy in Galicia. He is also executive editor of the Galitzianer,
the organization's quarterly research journal.

Zalewski has been interested in the history of Austrian Galicia
(1772-1918) and its Jewish community. Several generations of his Jewish
and Christian ancestors traced their roots to this former province of
the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire.

He has published two historical books about Galicia: "Galician Trails:
The Forgotten Story of One Family" and "Galician Portraits: In Search of
Jewish Roots," which are available through amazon.com. Unique archival
records, population surveys, old newspapers and cadastral maps have all
provided important insights in Zalewski's research in regard to
governmental policies and the social fabric of Galician society at the
time.

He has been a frequent guest speaker for Jewish genealogical societies,
at various cultural institutions, and in academic institutions in the
U.S. and abroad. He and his wife, Margaret, live near Philadelphia. They
have two children and four grandchildren. His hobbies include travel and
unearthing old records concerning Galicia, as well as writing about
little known details about Galicia.

CALENDAR OR TEMPLE BULLETIN LISTING: "Galician Portraits: Jews,
Gentiles, and Emperors" and "Gesher Galicia: What's New and What's
Coming Soon" will be the topics of two talks by Gesher Galicia board
member and author Andrew Zalewski at the Sunday, April 29, 2018, meeting
of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois starting at 1 p.m. at
Temple Beth-El, 3610 Dundee Road, Northbrook, Ill. For more information,
see https://jgsi.org/event-2774541 or phone 312-666-0100.

Submitted by:
Martin Fischer
Vice President-Publicity
Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen April 29 Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois meeting features 2 programs by Gesher Galicia board member Zalewski #general

events@...
 

Gesher Galicia board member and author Andrew Zalewski will give two
talks at a special meeting of the Jewish Genealogical Society of
Illinois on Sunday, April 29, 2018, at Temple Beth-El, 3610 Dundee Road,
Northbrook, Ill. His first talk, "Gesher Galicia: What's New and What's
Coming Soon," will begin at 1 p.m. After a short break, his main talk,
"Galician Portraits: Jews, Gentiles, and Emperors," will be presented
beginning at about 2 p.m.

This event is free and open to the public. The JGSI library and help
desk will not be available for this special meeting. For more
information, see jgsi.org.
About the talks: The first talk, "Gesher Galicia: What's New and What's
Coming Soon," is an update about geshergalicia.org, its research and
resources, such as the All Galicia Database, Map Room, Inventories of
Records and more.

In his main talk, "Galician Portraits: Jews, Gentiles, and Emperors,"
Zalewski intertwines genealogical discoveries with a broader historical
context to bring to life the Jewish community of Galicia during the era
of Austrian rule. Galicia, annexed into the Habsburg Monarchy in 1772,
was home to a large Jewish community: Approximately 10% of the
population was Jewish.

Zalewski, author of two books on his Jewish roots in Galicia, explores
the impact of Habsburg rule and the "Jewish enlightenment." Habsburg
imperial edicts were both stifling and inspiring for the Jewish
community in Galicia -- the laws about Jewish marriages, surnames,
schools and military service brought dizzying changes but also
controversies.

>from inside the community emerged a wave of the Galician Enlightenment
(Haskalah). Local Jewish cultural rebels offered biting satires and
wrote poetry. Galicia's diverse community included pious traditionalists
and impatient reformers, laborers and professionals, dwellers of shetls
and cities. Among them, passionate arguments about language (German,
Hebrew, Yiddish and Polish), customs and loyalties easily erupted. But
even in difficult times, there were brave voices that spoke loudly
against prejudice.

Based on expanded research for the speaker's book "Galician Portraits:
In Search of Jewish Roots," the talk is of interest to general audiences
interested in Jewish genealogy and is illustrated by many pictures,
unique archival documents and old maps of Galicia.

About the speaker: Andrew Zalewski is a physician and former professor
of medicine at Jefferson University, Philadelphia. He serves on the
board of directors of Gesher Galicia Inc., a non-profit organization,
with a global membership, which has been dedicated to researching Jewish
genealogy in Galicia. He is also executive editor of the Galitzianer,
the organization's quarterly research journal.

Zalewski has been interested in the history of Austrian Galicia
(1772-1918) and its Jewish community. Several generations of his Jewish
and Christian ancestors traced their roots to this former province of
the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire.

He has published two historical books about Galicia: "Galician Trails:
The Forgotten Story of One Family" and "Galician Portraits: In Search of
Jewish Roots," which are available through amazon.com. Unique archival
records, population surveys, old newspapers and cadastral maps have all
provided important insights in Zalewski's research in regard to
governmental policies and the social fabric of Galician society at the
time.

He has been a frequent guest speaker for Jewish genealogical societies,
at various cultural institutions, and in academic institutions in the
U.S. and abroad. He and his wife, Margaret, live near Philadelphia. They
have two children and four grandchildren. His hobbies include travel and
unearthing old records concerning Galicia, as well as writing about
little known details about Galicia.

CALENDAR OR TEMPLE BULLETIN LISTING: "Galician Portraits: Jews,
Gentiles, and Emperors" and "Gesher Galicia: What's New and What's
Coming Soon" will be the topics of two talks by Gesher Galicia board
member and author Andrew Zalewski at the Sunday, April 29, 2018, meeting
of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois starting at 1 p.m. at
Temple Beth-El, 3610 Dundee Road, Northbrook, Ill. For more information,
see https://jgsi.org/event-2774541 or phone 312-666-0100.

Submitted by:
Martin Fischer
Vice President-Publicity
Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois


Looking For Vital Records in Bessarabia #bessarabia

Patricia Solomon <patw6njo@...>
 

I am looking for a birth record for Aaron SOLOMON, born 15 Feb 1875
and a marriage record for him with Seporah LEMPERT about 1900. I hope
to find this and also who his parents were.

Best regards,

Patricia SOLOMON

MODERATOT NOTE - When posting a message on our SIG Discussion
Group, we suggest that after your name, include the town and country
where you live and the family names (IN ALL CAPS) that you are researching,
along with the towns or cities where they might have lived


Bessarabia SIG #Bessarabia Looking For Vital Records in Bessarabia #bessarabia

Patricia Solomon <patw6njo@...>
 

I am looking for a birth record for Aaron SOLOMON, born 15 Feb 1875
and a marriage record for him with Seporah LEMPERT about 1900. I hope
to find this and also who his parents were.

Best regards,

Patricia SOLOMON

MODERATOT NOTE - When posting a message on our SIG Discussion
Group, we suggest that after your name, include the town and country
where you live and the family names (IN ALL CAPS) that you are researching,
along with the towns or cities where they might have lived


A loud echo. 115 years to the pogrom of Chisinau #bessarabia

Yefim Kogan
 

Hi JewishGeners,

this year is 115 years since infamous Kishinev Pogrom. I received a very interesting essay about it.

You can read in original Russian at https://lechaim.ru/events/kishinevskiy-pogrom/

I used Google translator to post it here (below).

Yefim Kogan

--------------------------

A loud echo. 115 years to the pogrom of Chisinau
Greta Ionkis
April 8, 2018

The prologue to the Holocaust, experienced by the people of the Book in the last century, was
Jewish pogroms in Russia at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. The twentieth century has gone,
we have entered a new millennium, but the memory of the Chisinau pogrom that occurred on the
Easter days of 1903 is alive. And in tsarist, and in Soviet Russia, they wanted to kill this memory. Lev
Tolstoy, professors of the Moscow University VIVernadsky and SN Trubetskoi, other figures of
Russian science and culture (over 300 signatures were collected under their appeals), indignantly
accusing the ruling elite of connivance with bloody villainy. Their voices tried to drown them. The
hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, John of Kronstadt, and Bishop Antony of Zhitomir
turned to the flock with the condemnation of the thugs, but the pamphlets with their sermons were
confiscated by the Chisinau authorities. The trial of the pogrom case (November 1903) was closed
and, according to the order of the Minister of the Interior, Plehve was not covered in the press.
Newspapers that violated the ban were strictly warned.

"Help". A compendium for the victims of the Chisinau pogrom. 1903 Title page with engraving and
dedication: "Killed in Chisinau". The artist E.-M. Lillien

Verbatim reports on the trial were published in the foreign press; they were conducted by lawyers
and close relatives of the victims. It is worth noting that the first small book "Chisinau pogrom,
Collection of documents and materials" appeared in 1903 in Stuttgart. Not in Russia. It was
published by the efforts of the former "legal Marxist" P. Struve. When Prince S. Urusov, who was
appointed after the pogrom to the governor of Bessarabia and was present at the trial, writes in
his memoirs "Essays on the Past" that the words "Chisinau pogrom" did not disappear >from the
pages of newspapers and were repeated everywhere as a reminder, then as a warning, that he
had in mind not a domestic, but a foreign press. Before the inhabitants of the West learned the
Russian word "satellite", they included the word "pogrom" in their lexicon.

In 1911 the poem "Poems and Poems" by Hai-ma-Nachman Bialik appeared in Russian in the
translations of V. Zha-botinsky with "Legend of the pogrom". The "Legend" had a great r
esonance, however, the First World War and the revolution pushed back the events of 1903 in
Chisinau. True, in revolutionary Petrograd in 1919 the first volume of "Materials on the History
of Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia" was published. But before the second volume was published,
it did not come about. Meanwhile, during the Civil War, Ukrainian Jews survived the pogroms
even more terrible. In Chisinau in 1930 - then it was Romania - there was a book of Doctor MB.
Slutsky, an eyewitness of the events, entitled "In Sorrowful Days. Kishinev pogrom in 1903 "Then
came the era of long silence, and behind it - the Holocaust.

During the period of perestroika and glasnost, Chisinau historians turned to the previously
forbidden topic. As a result, the archives "talked" - all these clippings, books, brochures, sheets
of the case. In April 1993, a scientific conference was held in Chisinau, the materials of which were
a compilation of articles "Chisinau pogrom", published with the help of the Joint. Two years earlier,
a thoroughly documented book, The Bloody Roundabout, by Semen Reznik, was published in
Moscow, in the center of which are two figures - the publisher of the newspaper Bessarabets, the
Black Hundred Pavel Krushev, the main ideological inspirer of the pogrom, and his opponent, the
writer Vladimir Korolenko, the most famous, as we would now said the human rights activist.
Nowadays, when the interest in documentary literature is very high, it might be worthwhile to tell
about these works, where even the figures cause horror: 49 killed, 586 wounded, more than 1,500
smashed Jewish houses ... However, the facts of history embodied in works of art, because I prefer
to address them.
Korolenko and Bialik arrived in Chisinau almost simultaneously, immediately after the pogrom. The
first - >from St. Petersburg, on the instructions of "Russian Wealth", the second - >from Odessa, on
behalf of the Jewish Historical Society, whose chairman was a prominent historian SM. Dubnov.
Korolenko for two weeks examined the places of monstrous events, where he failed to destroy the
traces of outrages, went to the dilapidated houses, talked with the surviving inhabitants (in
particular, with the residents of the house No. 13 on Asiatic street), visited the hospitals,
interviewed the wounded. He called his essay "House No. 13" without specifying the street and
thereby emphasizing the generalized meaning of the picture: after all, there was a house No. 13
on every street where the same thing happened or could happen.

The house is dead: he looks with empty eye sockets of broken windows, broken, broken frames
hang, like broken hands. The yard is covered with down, dotted with glass shards, fragments of
furniture, scraps of clothing. The sensation is as if the evil, savage bitterness has not subsided
yet. Korolenko did not see how the residents of the house number 13 were killed, but he spoke
with a lot of witnesses, including, with a little girl who saw everything. He transmits her story,
and as if at that moment the dull voice of an ever-frightened, dying child is heard. The story
makes an impression deeper than the most violent philippics against bandits.

What happened in Chisinau, by its nature, is contrary to human nature. Korolenko is tormented
by the questions he and the reader poses: how does one become an animal? Who is to blame
for this? Why is the crowd of Christian philistines giggling as they watch gangsters chase two
defenseless old men and a girl on the roof, while those who fall down do not break to death?
Who destroyed the human in these people? Perot Korolenko was not only a source of
indignation, he was ashamed, he was ashamed of the Russian Orthodox.

The same feelings - anger and shame, only repeatedly amplified (furious anger and burning
shame) permeate Bialik's poem "The Legend of the pogrom." At first Bialik was going to write a
chronicle. He kept a diary, wrote six notebooks, took 60 photographs, gathered a lot of evidence
about the inflammatory role of the press in Chisinau on the eve of the pogrom. But he did not
write any chronicles. In it, the artist began to speak, and he created a poem that brought him
worldwide recognition. And the materials of his archive, 85 years on the shelves, the efforts of
Dr. Jacob Goren were still published in Israel. "Legend of the pogrom" - a work of great artistic
power. Despite the small amount (Gorky, who considered, by the way, Bialik a genius poet,
generally called it a poem), the poem is inherent in both depth and scale. Spring Chisinau of
those terrible three days (the scent of blossoming acacias, the blinding southern sun, playing
on splinters of broken glass, the fluff of pillows laying yards and streets, the ruined, looted
houses, the dusty attic, the ice cellar, where women were raped, the Yam barn all in blood,
shed) is raised to the height of the symbol and to some extent devoid of signs of a specific
historical time. Of course, Bialik describes what happened exactly in these black times for
the Chisinau Jews, and recreates the exact details of the pogrom of 1903 ("Adjoined on
trunks and stones and fences / Chilled brain and blood with lumps"; "Filled with fluff >from
the ripped feather / Razoroty belly - and a nail in the nostril alive "), but at the same time
he is talking about something more than the brutality of the thugs and the torments of their
victims.

Bialik follows the Biblical tradition. It is not by chance that Gorky saw in the poem the
complaints of the long-suffering Job, the terrible voice of the prophet Isaiah. "The Legend
of the pogrom" - a monologue of Gd, addressed to the Poet as an intermediary between Him
and His people. And this fills the text with biblical prophetic pathos, gives it real power.
The plot of the poem is a journey through the "city of massacres". Gd himself leads the poet
and demands that he see everything, remember everything. Involuntarily, Pushkin's memory
comes to mind: "Arise, prophet, and see, and listen, be fulfilled by my will." "Stand up and
walk through the city of massacre" - commanded by the Lord to his companion at Byalik.
And further: Go on. Scramble to the roof of the attic: The darkness is still saturated with death
throat ... And look you into the ice cellar, Where the whole herd, in the darkness of the damp
vault, Shamed the wives of your people-Seven, seven with one. Look at the barn in the country
outside the garden -Come on there . You are in the temple of massacre.

Nevertheless, the poem evoked complex, conflicting feelings among the Jews, for it was not
only a requiem for innocently murdered people, but also a passionate accusation of Jewry. Not
that the Jews gave rise to the pogrom, as the defenders of the assassins claimed at the trial.
No, God did not count such sin for his people. He blamed the Jews for forgetting their heroic
history, changing the traditions of their great ancestors, failing to meet with dignity, not
defending the honor of every family, every person.

The descendants of those whose great-grandfather was Yehuda, Leo Maccabaeus - in the
midst of the abomination, In the mud, the cloaca with the garbage sat, Nested in every pit, in
every place-Seven, seven in one. The poem, in other words, is not filled with compassion alone:
"The grief is great, but the shame is enormous." And what's more, answer, son of man! "Gd's
reproaches are irresistible. His court is ruthless. The scenes of the pogrom are not yet the
finale of the poetic story. The author is interested in the further course of things. How will life
go after what happened? How will people behave? Hearing sobbing, moaning, tearful pleas,
Gd is indignant. He does not want mournful prayers. He wants to see his people ready for
revenge, awaits an effective protest, a rebellion, he is angered by weakness and resignation.
I cry for them, and these tears are unpleasant! Yes, shout to them that threats come. Against
me and the sky, and the earth-To respond to the torments of generations, the Wolves rose to
the hillside and stormed My throne!

In the mouth of Gd Bialik put his cherished thoughts about the impending awakening of his
fellow tribesmen, that an hour has come to rise >from their knees, straighten their backs and
fight for a worthy place in the world. Only with high spiritual aspirations, boundlessly devoted
to the idea of an independent Jewish state, the poet could throw a bitter, contemptuous
reproach in passivity, humility, and fawning in front of other nations for the sake of their
condescension. Pray, beggars, to the wind of all the kings of the mercy of the kings, about
the pity of the tribes-And gniyte, as a lift, and beg, like to this day! ..

Of course, one can not take the maximalism of the poet entirely, but his invectives are
unquestionably dictated by a demanding love for his people. "Legend" was not only crying.
Anger mobilized. Bialik brought up a new generation of Jewish youth: self-defense units
appeared in Russia, pre-embarked on-halutzim rode to Palestine to master the land of the
forefathers.

Other, however, today it seems that the scope of the Byalik poem does not correspond to the
scale of what happened in Chisinau in the spring of 1903. Only fifty Jews perished. Against the
background of the subsequent Holocaust, it is generally, they say, not figures. The prophetic
nature of the poem became especially clear forty years after its writing, when Bialik was no longer
alive. "Legend of the pogrom" was turned into a requiem and for the victims of the Holocaust,
the account of which was conducted in the millions.

Reading Alexander Solzhenitsyn's book "Two hundred years together", where there was a place
for assessing the Chisinau pogrom and its consequences for Russia, I felt indignant. Having cited
a number of exact figures and reliable facts, the author took up arms on "far >from these events
public opinion leaders," who, in his opinion, resorted to "inciting exaggeration." He does not
mention the name of Bialik, but speaks of one expressive detail of the poem: "... a nail in the
nostril alive." Solzhenitsyn refutes the poet: the nail, they say, was not, for there is no such detail
in the testimony of witnesses: "The relatives of the Jew hammered on the head ... did not
compose such inventions."

Solzhenitsyn is right when he writes that the Kishinev pogrom "has laid down a bit of a spot on
the whole of Russian history." But he is looking for the guilty among the Jews - those who, in his
opinion, "thickened" and "poisonous fakes" thickened and distorted the truth about the pogrom.
Chaim-Nahman Bialik was not in this case a historian, he was a poet. The poet has the right to
art exaggeration, and it is not considered a lie. When Bialik wrote his stanzas, he was concerned
about the fate of Jewry, and not the prestige of tsarist Russia, which Solzhenitsyn cares for. And
he, as time showed, was able to look far away, and his visionary vision saw the forthcoming tragedy
of a whole people.

"The Legend of the Pogrom" in its own way anticipated the Holocaust. Now, at the beginning of
the new millennium, the poem Byalik still sounds modern. In 1990, the journal Foreign Literature
published a new translation of her, entitled The City of Massacre, performed by Lev Berinsky. The
words of righteous anger again appeal to us. And again, probably, a lot of courage and inner
honesty are needed to recognize the poet's rightness. The novel-chronicle of Boris Sandler
"Life and dust" (1991) - the newest book about the Chisinau pogrom. Another echo of the past.
The novel is based on official documents obtained by the author in the archives opened. Now
B. Sandler is preparing his work for the reissue. There were no living witnesses of the Jewish
pogroms of the beginning of the twentieth century, but the memory of the tragedy does not really
die.
At the Jewish cemetery in Odessa, in its far corner, there is an unusual monument - a tall one, in
two human height, and a long concrete wall. Above is the star of David. On either side of the wall
adorn the columns. It is full of inscriptions in Hebrew. These are the names of the victims of the
Odessa pogroms of the late XIX - early XX centuries. My stepfather, whose name I bear, a
contemporary of the age, a pupil of the Jewish orphanage, brought me somehow to this Odessa
"wall of weeping". There appears the name of his father, a poor tailor, who was killed in 1905 only
because he was Jewish. There is no such wall in Chisinau. Being in Odessa, I always go to this
monument - listen to the Holocaust-reinforced echoes of ancient atrocities.
(Published in No. 131, March 2003)


Bessarabia SIG #Bessarabia A loud echo. 115 years to the pogrom of Chisinau #bessarabia

Yefim Kogan
 

Hi JewishGeners,

this year is 115 years since infamous Kishinev Pogrom. I received a very interesting essay about it.

You can read in original Russian at https://lechaim.ru/events/kishinevskiy-pogrom/

I used Google translator to post it here (below).

Yefim Kogan

--------------------------

A loud echo. 115 years to the pogrom of Chisinau
Greta Ionkis
April 8, 2018

The prologue to the Holocaust, experienced by the people of the Book in the last century, was
Jewish pogroms in Russia at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. The twentieth century has gone,
we have entered a new millennium, but the memory of the Chisinau pogrom that occurred on the
Easter days of 1903 is alive. And in tsarist, and in Soviet Russia, they wanted to kill this memory. Lev
Tolstoy, professors of the Moscow University VIVernadsky and SN Trubetskoi, other figures of
Russian science and culture (over 300 signatures were collected under their appeals), indignantly
accusing the ruling elite of connivance with bloody villainy. Their voices tried to drown them. The
hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, John of Kronstadt, and Bishop Antony of Zhitomir
turned to the flock with the condemnation of the thugs, but the pamphlets with their sermons were
confiscated by the Chisinau authorities. The trial of the pogrom case (November 1903) was closed
and, according to the order of the Minister of the Interior, Plehve was not covered in the press.
Newspapers that violated the ban were strictly warned.

"Help". A compendium for the victims of the Chisinau pogrom. 1903 Title page with engraving and
dedication: "Killed in Chisinau". The artist E.-M. Lillien

Verbatim reports on the trial were published in the foreign press; they were conducted by lawyers
and close relatives of the victims. It is worth noting that the first small book "Chisinau pogrom,
Collection of documents and materials" appeared in 1903 in Stuttgart. Not in Russia. It was
published by the efforts of the former "legal Marxist" P. Struve. When Prince S. Urusov, who was
appointed after the pogrom to the governor of Bessarabia and was present at the trial, writes in
his memoirs "Essays on the Past" that the words "Chisinau pogrom" did not disappear >from the
pages of newspapers and were repeated everywhere as a reminder, then as a warning, that he
had in mind not a domestic, but a foreign press. Before the inhabitants of the West learned the
Russian word "satellite", they included the word "pogrom" in their lexicon.

In 1911 the poem "Poems and Poems" by Hai-ma-Nachman Bialik appeared in Russian in the
translations of V. Zha-botinsky with "Legend of the pogrom". The "Legend" had a great r
esonance, however, the First World War and the revolution pushed back the events of 1903 in
Chisinau. True, in revolutionary Petrograd in 1919 the first volume of "Materials on the History
of Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia" was published. But before the second volume was published,
it did not come about. Meanwhile, during the Civil War, Ukrainian Jews survived the pogroms
even more terrible. In Chisinau in 1930 - then it was Romania - there was a book of Doctor MB.
Slutsky, an eyewitness of the events, entitled "In Sorrowful Days. Kishinev pogrom in 1903 "Then
came the era of long silence, and behind it - the Holocaust.

During the period of perestroika and glasnost, Chisinau historians turned to the previously
forbidden topic. As a result, the archives "talked" - all these clippings, books, brochures, sheets
of the case. In April 1993, a scientific conference was held in Chisinau, the materials of which were
a compilation of articles "Chisinau pogrom", published with the help of the Joint. Two years earlier,
a thoroughly documented book, The Bloody Roundabout, by Semen Reznik, was published in
Moscow, in the center of which are two figures - the publisher of the newspaper Bessarabets, the
Black Hundred Pavel Krushev, the main ideological inspirer of the pogrom, and his opponent, the
writer Vladimir Korolenko, the most famous, as we would now said the human rights activist.
Nowadays, when the interest in documentary literature is very high, it might be worthwhile to tell
about these works, where even the figures cause horror: 49 killed, 586 wounded, more than 1,500
smashed Jewish houses ... However, the facts of history embodied in works of art, because I prefer
to address them.
Korolenko and Bialik arrived in Chisinau almost simultaneously, immediately after the pogrom. The
first - >from St. Petersburg, on the instructions of "Russian Wealth", the second - >from Odessa, on
behalf of the Jewish Historical Society, whose chairman was a prominent historian SM. Dubnov.
Korolenko for two weeks examined the places of monstrous events, where he failed to destroy the
traces of outrages, went to the dilapidated houses, talked with the surviving inhabitants (in
particular, with the residents of the house No. 13 on Asiatic street), visited the hospitals,
interviewed the wounded. He called his essay "House No. 13" without specifying the street and
thereby emphasizing the generalized meaning of the picture: after all, there was a house No. 13
on every street where the same thing happened or could happen.

The house is dead: he looks with empty eye sockets of broken windows, broken, broken frames
hang, like broken hands. The yard is covered with down, dotted with glass shards, fragments of
furniture, scraps of clothing. The sensation is as if the evil, savage bitterness has not subsided
yet. Korolenko did not see how the residents of the house number 13 were killed, but he spoke
with a lot of witnesses, including, with a little girl who saw everything. He transmits her story,
and as if at that moment the dull voice of an ever-frightened, dying child is heard. The story
makes an impression deeper than the most violent philippics against bandits.

What happened in Chisinau, by its nature, is contrary to human nature. Korolenko is tormented
by the questions he and the reader poses: how does one become an animal? Who is to blame
for this? Why is the crowd of Christian philistines giggling as they watch gangsters chase two
defenseless old men and a girl on the roof, while those who fall down do not break to death?
Who destroyed the human in these people? Perot Korolenko was not only a source of
indignation, he was ashamed, he was ashamed of the Russian Orthodox.

The same feelings - anger and shame, only repeatedly amplified (furious anger and burning
shame) permeate Bialik's poem "The Legend of the pogrom." At first Bialik was going to write a
chronicle. He kept a diary, wrote six notebooks, took 60 photographs, gathered a lot of evidence
about the inflammatory role of the press in Chisinau on the eve of the pogrom. But he did not
write any chronicles. In it, the artist began to speak, and he created a poem that brought him
worldwide recognition. And the materials of his archive, 85 years on the shelves, the efforts of
Dr. Jacob Goren were still published in Israel. "Legend of the pogrom" - a work of great artistic
power. Despite the small amount (Gorky, who considered, by the way, Bialik a genius poet,
generally called it a poem), the poem is inherent in both depth and scale. Spring Chisinau of
those terrible three days (the scent of blossoming acacias, the blinding southern sun, playing
on splinters of broken glass, the fluff of pillows laying yards and streets, the ruined, looted
houses, the dusty attic, the ice cellar, where women were raped, the Yam barn all in blood,
shed) is raised to the height of the symbol and to some extent devoid of signs of a specific
historical time. Of course, Bialik describes what happened exactly in these black times for
the Chisinau Jews, and recreates the exact details of the pogrom of 1903 ("Adjoined on
trunks and stones and fences / Chilled brain and blood with lumps"; "Filled with fluff >from
the ripped feather / Razoroty belly - and a nail in the nostril alive "), but at the same time
he is talking about something more than the brutality of the thugs and the torments of their
victims.

Bialik follows the Biblical tradition. It is not by chance that Gorky saw in the poem the
complaints of the long-suffering Job, the terrible voice of the prophet Isaiah. "The Legend
of the pogrom" - a monologue of Gd, addressed to the Poet as an intermediary between Him
and His people. And this fills the text with biblical prophetic pathos, gives it real power.
The plot of the poem is a journey through the "city of massacres". Gd himself leads the poet
and demands that he see everything, remember everything. Involuntarily, Pushkin's memory
comes to mind: "Arise, prophet, and see, and listen, be fulfilled by my will." "Stand up and
walk through the city of massacre" - commanded by the Lord to his companion at Byalik.
And further: Go on. Scramble to the roof of the attic: The darkness is still saturated with death
throat ... And look you into the ice cellar, Where the whole herd, in the darkness of the damp
vault, Shamed the wives of your people-Seven, seven with one. Look at the barn in the country
outside the garden -Come on there . You are in the temple of massacre.

Nevertheless, the poem evoked complex, conflicting feelings among the Jews, for it was not
only a requiem for innocently murdered people, but also a passionate accusation of Jewry. Not
that the Jews gave rise to the pogrom, as the defenders of the assassins claimed at the trial.
No, God did not count such sin for his people. He blamed the Jews for forgetting their heroic
history, changing the traditions of their great ancestors, failing to meet with dignity, not
defending the honor of every family, every person.

The descendants of those whose great-grandfather was Yehuda, Leo Maccabaeus - in the
midst of the abomination, In the mud, the cloaca with the garbage sat, Nested in every pit, in
every place-Seven, seven in one. The poem, in other words, is not filled with compassion alone:
"The grief is great, but the shame is enormous." And what's more, answer, son of man! "Gd's
reproaches are irresistible. His court is ruthless. The scenes of the pogrom are not yet the
finale of the poetic story. The author is interested in the further course of things. How will life
go after what happened? How will people behave? Hearing sobbing, moaning, tearful pleas,
Gd is indignant. He does not want mournful prayers. He wants to see his people ready for
revenge, awaits an effective protest, a rebellion, he is angered by weakness and resignation.
I cry for them, and these tears are unpleasant! Yes, shout to them that threats come. Against
me and the sky, and the earth-To respond to the torments of generations, the Wolves rose to
the hillside and stormed My throne!

In the mouth of Gd Bialik put his cherished thoughts about the impending awakening of his
fellow tribesmen, that an hour has come to rise >from their knees, straighten their backs and
fight for a worthy place in the world. Only with high spiritual aspirations, boundlessly devoted
to the idea of an independent Jewish state, the poet could throw a bitter, contemptuous
reproach in passivity, humility, and fawning in front of other nations for the sake of their
condescension. Pray, beggars, to the wind of all the kings of the mercy of the kings, about
the pity of the tribes-And gniyte, as a lift, and beg, like to this day! ..

Of course, one can not take the maximalism of the poet entirely, but his invectives are
unquestionably dictated by a demanding love for his people. "Legend" was not only crying.
Anger mobilized. Bialik brought up a new generation of Jewish youth: self-defense units
appeared in Russia, pre-embarked on-halutzim rode to Palestine to master the land of the
forefathers.

Other, however, today it seems that the scope of the Byalik poem does not correspond to the
scale of what happened in Chisinau in the spring of 1903. Only fifty Jews perished. Against the
background of the subsequent Holocaust, it is generally, they say, not figures. The prophetic
nature of the poem became especially clear forty years after its writing, when Bialik was no longer
alive. "Legend of the pogrom" was turned into a requiem and for the victims of the Holocaust,
the account of which was conducted in the millions.

Reading Alexander Solzhenitsyn's book "Two hundred years together", where there was a place
for assessing the Chisinau pogrom and its consequences for Russia, I felt indignant. Having cited
a number of exact figures and reliable facts, the author took up arms on "far >from these events
public opinion leaders," who, in his opinion, resorted to "inciting exaggeration." He does not
mention the name of Bialik, but speaks of one expressive detail of the poem: "... a nail in the
nostril alive." Solzhenitsyn refutes the poet: the nail, they say, was not, for there is no such detail
in the testimony of witnesses: "The relatives of the Jew hammered on the head ... did not
compose such inventions."

Solzhenitsyn is right when he writes that the Kishinev pogrom "has laid down a bit of a spot on
the whole of Russian history." But he is looking for the guilty among the Jews - those who, in his
opinion, "thickened" and "poisonous fakes" thickened and distorted the truth about the pogrom.
Chaim-Nahman Bialik was not in this case a historian, he was a poet. The poet has the right to
art exaggeration, and it is not considered a lie. When Bialik wrote his stanzas, he was concerned
about the fate of Jewry, and not the prestige of tsarist Russia, which Solzhenitsyn cares for. And
he, as time showed, was able to look far away, and his visionary vision saw the forthcoming tragedy
of a whole people.

"The Legend of the Pogrom" in its own way anticipated the Holocaust. Now, at the beginning of
the new millennium, the poem Byalik still sounds modern. In 1990, the journal Foreign Literature
published a new translation of her, entitled The City of Massacre, performed by Lev Berinsky. The
words of righteous anger again appeal to us. And again, probably, a lot of courage and inner
honesty are needed to recognize the poet's rightness. The novel-chronicle of Boris Sandler
"Life and dust" (1991) - the newest book about the Chisinau pogrom. Another echo of the past.
The novel is based on official documents obtained by the author in the archives opened. Now
B. Sandler is preparing his work for the reissue. There were no living witnesses of the Jewish
pogroms of the beginning of the twentieth century, but the memory of the tragedy does not really
die.
At the Jewish cemetery in Odessa, in its far corner, there is an unusual monument - a tall one, in
two human height, and a long concrete wall. Above is the star of David. On either side of the wall
adorn the columns. It is full of inscriptions in Hebrew. These are the names of the victims of the
Odessa pogroms of the late XIX - early XX centuries. My stepfather, whose name I bear, a
contemporary of the age, a pupil of the Jewish orphanage, brought me somehow to this Odessa
"wall of weeping". There appears the name of his father, a poor tailor, who was killed in 1905 only
because he was Jewish. There is no such wall in Chisinau. Being in Odessa, I always go to this
monument - listen to the Holocaust-reinforced echoes of ancient atrocities.
(Published in No. 131, March 2003)


KRIEGER from PANEVEZYS #lithuania

mkaplan27
 

I am continuing to search for any information about Yakov KRIEGER who was
married to Muse. I believe that the family lived in Ramygala, or possibly
nearby Krekenava. Their children were Morris (born 1878), Ester (aka Bertha,
my maternal grandmother, born 1885), Harry (1890) and possibly Rosie (1895).
The children all came to New Jersey, USA early in the last century.

Michael Kaplan

MODERATOR'S NOTE: Please respond privately with family information.
Suggestions for research methods or resources may be shared with
the list.


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania KRIEGER from PANEVEZYS #lithuania

mkaplan27
 

I am continuing to search for any information about Yakov KRIEGER who was
married to Muse. I believe that the family lived in Ramygala, or possibly
nearby Krekenava. Their children were Morris (born 1878), Ester (aka Bertha,
my maternal grandmother, born 1885), Harry (1890) and possibly Rosie (1895).
The children all came to New Jersey, USA early in the last century.

Michael Kaplan

MODERATOR'S NOTE: Please respond privately with family information.
Suggestions for research methods or resources may be shared with
the list.

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