Date   

Re: The Lack of Common Courtesy and how it affects the Usefulness #general

Barry Finkel <b19141@...>
 

I send answers to questions with a "request read receipt". then I know for
sure that they received it. (This is found under Tools when using Outlook
and Outlook Express).
While many mailers honor this "return-receipt-requested" flag, it is not
part of any mail standard. Its use varies, depending on the mail system
and mail user agent. Some mailers will send the return receipt when
the mail has been placed in the recipient's mailbox. Some will send
the receipt when the recipient has opened the mail. Some will not send
if the recipient opens the mail but then deletes it. Some do not
honor the request. Don't rely on this feature with 100% accuracy.
--Barry S. Finkel
Chicago, IL, USA


common courtesy #romania

jschwart@...
 

My experience has been uniformly positive. Anytime that I replied to
a request for information I have received an appropriate reply.

Jonathan Schwartz, Nashville.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: The Lack of Common Courtesy and how it affects the Usefulness #general

Barry Finkel <b19141@...>
 

I send answers to questions with a "request read receipt". then I know for
sure that they received it. (This is found under Tools when using Outlook
and Outlook Express).
While many mailers honor this "return-receipt-requested" flag, it is not
part of any mail standard. Its use varies, depending on the mail system
and mail user agent. Some mailers will send the return receipt when
the mail has been placed in the recipient's mailbox. Some will send
the receipt when the recipient has opened the mail. Some will not send
if the recipient opens the mail but then deletes it. Some do not
honor the request. Don't rely on this feature with 100% accuracy.
--Barry S. Finkel
Chicago, IL, USA


Romania SIG #Romania common courtesy #romania

jschwart@...
 

My experience has been uniformly positive. Anytime that I replied to
a request for information I have received an appropriate reply.

Jonathan Schwartz, Nashville.


Research in Romanian archives #romania

Andras Koltai <kolamcg@...>
 

Dear Genners,

This is my first trip >from the HGIS to foreign
territories :)

I am looking for trustworthy locals in Romania, who
would help me with researching in Western-Romanian
archives.

If you know such person, please respond privately.

Thank you.

Best regards,

Andras Koltai
Budapest


Re: introducing a new member #romania

Bruce Reisch <bir1@...>
 

Dear Dan:

First of all, welcome to the group! If you haven't already found
some of the following web sites, you'll soon see that there some
valuable resources regarding Bukovina.

History of the Jews in the Bukowina:
http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Bukowinabook/Bukowina.html
in particular, see chapters on Radauti, Dornesti, and Czernowitz.

Bukovina and Suceava web site:
http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/suceava/suceava.htm

ShtetLinks web site for Radauti:
http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/radauti/radautz.html

Czernowitz History and Genealogy:
http://members.shaw.ca/Czernowitz/


In 1792, Jews in the Austrian Empire were required to adopt surnames;
Bukovina had become a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1774. At
that time the official language was German, though there were many
languages spoken by the various groups that lived there. So
naturally, German surnames were adopted. It is my understanding that
until that time, most Jews did not have surnames - each person was
simply known in Jewish tradition as the [given name] son or daughter
of [father's given name]. For instance: "Moshe son of David" or
"Ruchel daughter of Eliezer".

Bruce Reisch
Geneva, New York


Subject: introducing a new member
From: "Dan Kraft" <dan@kraft.adv.br>
Date: Thu, 19 May 2005 09:13:48 -0300
snip


I am not sure
about the family's name before the Romanian treaty with the Austrian empire,
that obliged jewish families to adopt German surnames. I am curious about
that

snip

Dan Markus Kraft, Esq.
Belo Horizonte, Brazil


Romania SIG #Romania Research in Romanian archives #romania

Andras Koltai <kolamcg@...>
 

Dear Genners,

This is my first trip >from the HGIS to foreign
territories :)

I am looking for trustworthy locals in Romania, who
would help me with researching in Western-Romanian
archives.

If you know such person, please respond privately.

Thank you.

Best regards,

Andras Koltai
Budapest


Romania SIG #Romania Re: introducing a new member #romania

Bruce Reisch <bir1@...>
 

Dear Dan:

First of all, welcome to the group! If you haven't already found
some of the following web sites, you'll soon see that there some
valuable resources regarding Bukovina.

History of the Jews in the Bukowina:
http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Bukowinabook/Bukowina.html
in particular, see chapters on Radauti, Dornesti, and Czernowitz.

Bukovina and Suceava web site:
http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/suceava/suceava.htm

ShtetLinks web site for Radauti:
http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/radauti/radautz.html

Czernowitz History and Genealogy:
http://members.shaw.ca/Czernowitz/


In 1792, Jews in the Austrian Empire were required to adopt surnames;
Bukovina had become a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1774. At
that time the official language was German, though there were many
languages spoken by the various groups that lived there. So
naturally, German surnames were adopted. It is my understanding that
until that time, most Jews did not have surnames - each person was
simply known in Jewish tradition as the [given name] son or daughter
of [father's given name]. For instance: "Moshe son of David" or
"Ruchel daughter of Eliezer".

Bruce Reisch
Geneva, New York


Subject: introducing a new member
From: "Dan Kraft" <dan@kraft.adv.br>
Date: Thu, 19 May 2005 09:13:48 -0300
snip


I am not sure
about the family's name before the Romanian treaty with the Austrian empire,
that obliged jewish families to adopt German surnames. I am curious about
that

snip

Dan Markus Kraft, Esq.
Belo Horizonte, Brazil


"Jewish Families in Galicia" - Conversions #general

Pamela Weisberger <pweisberger@...>
 

I recently received a fascinating file, entitled: “Judische Familien In
Galizien” (Jewish Families in Galicia), >from Manfred Daum who works with
“Galizien German Descendants” -- a special interest group devoted to family
history research of the German descendants >from the Austrian province of
Galicia. (http://www.galiziengermandescendants.org/)

This document is a compilation of Jewish men, women and entire families,
either born in or residing at some point in Galicia, who converted to
Christianity: Greek or Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Evangelical/Evangelical
Reformed. In some cases these conversions were a results of “mixed
marriages,” but in others, entire Jewish families converted. There are many
interrelated families.

Mr. Daum’s sources were primarily church records >from which he extracted
this information, using parish registers, christening documents, church
marriage and death records, and some personal family notes. The dates of
these events run >from the late 1700s unti 1941, and include a few people who
were murdered in the concentration camps. Detailed occupations are listed,
house numbers, name variations, the maiden names of the women, movement >from
village to village over time, and other personal details. The towns
represented cover all of Galicia, including Kolomea, Lvov, Krakow,
Stanislau, Tarnopol, Tarnow, Drohobycz, Brody, Rzeszow, Stryj, Kamionka
Strumilowa, Tarnow, Brzezany, and then expand to Ukraine, Germany and other
countries where these people eventually settled or had moved from.

Although there are only 72 entries, most listings contain information on
several family members, and the intriguing possibility exists that some
researchers might discover that missing link in a family tree, due to a
conversion long ago.

Although written in German, Mr. Daum has provided a legend—standard in
European genealogical research--that makes deciphering the contents somewhat
easy to follow once you get the hang of it. Below are some very loose
translations to give you a sampling of the details:

Nusen SCHEIB, Jew, leasing a pub/restaurant in Josefsberg (Korosnica),
married to Liebe KESTENBLATT SCHEIB, Jew, and their son, Chaim SCHEIB, born
1869 in Josefsberg, Jew, converted to Evangelical Reformed Church in 1869.

Emanuel FINKLER, Jew, >from Czernovitz, married to Diorri GOLDENTHAL, born in
Brzezany, in 1849. In 1867 ran a pub in the Lemberg-Czernowitzer Train
Station in Lemberg. Daughter: Hedwig (Betti) FINKLER b. 1849 in
Czernowitz, baptized in 1867 in Lemberg.

Rosalia SCHWARZ, Jew, born in Jaroslau, 1824, died in House number 98 in
Stryj, converted to Roman Catholicism and baptized in 1847

Rachmil FLACHS, Jew, died in 1914 in Ugartsberg (Wypucki) House Number 14,
was a cattle salesman in Ugartsberg. Married in 1890 to Chaje KAMMERMAN,
Jew, born in Ugartsberg in 1875, died in 1914 in House number 14. Children:
Abraham, b. 1890, Laja, b. 1894- married. GRAF, Schaindl, b,1897,
Wilhelmine B. 1898

Wilhelm RASCH, Jew, lawyer in Kolomea, married to Adelheid (Pineles)
RASCH, Jew, and Children: Ernestina, b. 1860, Roberta, b. 1862, Leonia, B.
1866, converted to Roman Catholicism in 1880.

Samuel ROSENTHAL, Jew, Salesman in Brody, married in 1820 to Deborah REIS,
Jew, and their daughter, Ernestine Adele ROSENTHAL (married to STEINSBERG)
born in 1820, baptized in Lemberg in 1842.

Phillip KOHLI, Lutheran, murdered 1941 in a concentration camp in
Sapiezanka, married to Helen EHRLICHER KOHLI, Jew, children: Edmund, Sophie,
& Christine KOHLI. The Notes read: “Because he didn’t want to get a divorce
from his Jewish wife.”
Here is the list of the surnames contained in this file:

BAUER/BERCK/ BERNACKI//BERNSTEIN/BORONSTEIN/CUZEK/DIETRICH/ EHRLICHER/
EICHHOLZ /FINKLER//FISCHER/
FORYBER/FÜRST/FLACHS/FRANK//GEIL/GLASER/GOLDENTHAL/GOLDSTEIN/GRAF/
GRÜNBERG /GUTTMANN/ GOLDENTHAL / HAFER/ HAPERIN/HAUER/HEIM HOLPERING/
HUVEN/ KAMMERMANN KAMMERMANN /KATZ/ KESTENBLATT/ KLIPPEL, KOHMANN, KOPACZ/
/KOSTICZ/ KÖHLI/LICHTENSTADT/ LIFSCHÜTZ/LIPINER, LÖWENBERG/ /MAYER
MIKULAS/MOLDAUER/OCHSENHAUER/PASSOWER/PATIN/POLLAK/PINELES/RASCH/RECHEN/REIS
/ROSENBERG/ROSENTHAL/ RUPP/ SACHS/ SANTRUCEK/SAX /SCHEIB/
SCHWARZ/SCHULMAN/SELVER /SENZER/SOBEL/ SPIEGEL/
SPINDLER/STEINER/STEIN/STEINSBERG/STERN/STORCH/
UNTERSCHÜTZ/WACHSMANN/WITTLIN/ZADORA/ZAUSNER/ZIELINSKI/ZINNER.

Although Gesher Galicia hopes to make this information available on their
website at some point in the future, if you are interested in receiving the
30 page PDF file >from me now, please contact me privately. Certainly, this
document shows that details about the Jews of Galicia are present in church
records, and even though these deal solely with conversions they may prove
helpful to a few researchers. If you can provide insights into the nature
or reason for these conversions, or know of personal stories handed down by
families involving conversions, please feel free to share that with the
group.

Thanks to Manfred Daum for so generously agreeing to share the fruits of his
labor with us.

Pamela Weisberger
Santa Monica, CA
Research Coordinator, Gesher Galicia
pweisberger@hotmail.com

MODERATOR NOTE: Mr Daum has given permission for these examples to be
posted here.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen "Jewish Families in Galicia" - Conversions #general

Pamela Weisberger <pweisberger@...>
 

I recently received a fascinating file, entitled: “Judische Familien In
Galizien” (Jewish Families in Galicia), >from Manfred Daum who works with
“Galizien German Descendants” -- a special interest group devoted to family
history research of the German descendants >from the Austrian province of
Galicia. (http://www.galiziengermandescendants.org/)

This document is a compilation of Jewish men, women and entire families,
either born in or residing at some point in Galicia, who converted to
Christianity: Greek or Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Evangelical/Evangelical
Reformed. In some cases these conversions were a results of “mixed
marriages,” but in others, entire Jewish families converted. There are many
interrelated families.

Mr. Daum’s sources were primarily church records >from which he extracted
this information, using parish registers, christening documents, church
marriage and death records, and some personal family notes. The dates of
these events run >from the late 1700s unti 1941, and include a few people who
were murdered in the concentration camps. Detailed occupations are listed,
house numbers, name variations, the maiden names of the women, movement >from
village to village over time, and other personal details. The towns
represented cover all of Galicia, including Kolomea, Lvov, Krakow,
Stanislau, Tarnopol, Tarnow, Drohobycz, Brody, Rzeszow, Stryj, Kamionka
Strumilowa, Tarnow, Brzezany, and then expand to Ukraine, Germany and other
countries where these people eventually settled or had moved from.

Although there are only 72 entries, most listings contain information on
several family members, and the intriguing possibility exists that some
researchers might discover that missing link in a family tree, due to a
conversion long ago.

Although written in German, Mr. Daum has provided a legend—standard in
European genealogical research--that makes deciphering the contents somewhat
easy to follow once you get the hang of it. Below are some very loose
translations to give you a sampling of the details:

Nusen SCHEIB, Jew, leasing a pub/restaurant in Josefsberg (Korosnica),
married to Liebe KESTENBLATT SCHEIB, Jew, and their son, Chaim SCHEIB, born
1869 in Josefsberg, Jew, converted to Evangelical Reformed Church in 1869.

Emanuel FINKLER, Jew, >from Czernovitz, married to Diorri GOLDENTHAL, born in
Brzezany, in 1849. In 1867 ran a pub in the Lemberg-Czernowitzer Train
Station in Lemberg. Daughter: Hedwig (Betti) FINKLER b. 1849 in
Czernowitz, baptized in 1867 in Lemberg.

Rosalia SCHWARZ, Jew, born in Jaroslau, 1824, died in House number 98 in
Stryj, converted to Roman Catholicism and baptized in 1847

Rachmil FLACHS, Jew, died in 1914 in Ugartsberg (Wypucki) House Number 14,
was a cattle salesman in Ugartsberg. Married in 1890 to Chaje KAMMERMAN,
Jew, born in Ugartsberg in 1875, died in 1914 in House number 14. Children:
Abraham, b. 1890, Laja, b. 1894- married. GRAF, Schaindl, b,1897,
Wilhelmine B. 1898

Wilhelm RASCH, Jew, lawyer in Kolomea, married to Adelheid (Pineles)
RASCH, Jew, and Children: Ernestina, b. 1860, Roberta, b. 1862, Leonia, B.
1866, converted to Roman Catholicism in 1880.

Samuel ROSENTHAL, Jew, Salesman in Brody, married in 1820 to Deborah REIS,
Jew, and their daughter, Ernestine Adele ROSENTHAL (married to STEINSBERG)
born in 1820, baptized in Lemberg in 1842.

Phillip KOHLI, Lutheran, murdered 1941 in a concentration camp in
Sapiezanka, married to Helen EHRLICHER KOHLI, Jew, children: Edmund, Sophie,
& Christine KOHLI. The Notes read: “Because he didn’t want to get a divorce
from his Jewish wife.”
Here is the list of the surnames contained in this file:

BAUER/BERCK/ BERNACKI//BERNSTEIN/BORONSTEIN/CUZEK/DIETRICH/ EHRLICHER/
EICHHOLZ /FINKLER//FISCHER/
FORYBER/FÜRST/FLACHS/FRANK//GEIL/GLASER/GOLDENTHAL/GOLDSTEIN/GRAF/
GRÜNBERG /GUTTMANN/ GOLDENTHAL / HAFER/ HAPERIN/HAUER/HEIM HOLPERING/
HUVEN/ KAMMERMANN KAMMERMANN /KATZ/ KESTENBLATT/ KLIPPEL, KOHMANN, KOPACZ/
/KOSTICZ/ KÖHLI/LICHTENSTADT/ LIFSCHÜTZ/LIPINER, LÖWENBERG/ /MAYER
MIKULAS/MOLDAUER/OCHSENHAUER/PASSOWER/PATIN/POLLAK/PINELES/RASCH/RECHEN/REIS
/ROSENBERG/ROSENTHAL/ RUPP/ SACHS/ SANTRUCEK/SAX /SCHEIB/
SCHWARZ/SCHULMAN/SELVER /SENZER/SOBEL/ SPIEGEL/
SPINDLER/STEINER/STEIN/STEINSBERG/STERN/STORCH/
UNTERSCHÜTZ/WACHSMANN/WITTLIN/ZADORA/ZAUSNER/ZIELINSKI/ZINNER.

Although Gesher Galicia hopes to make this information available on their
website at some point in the future, if you are interested in receiving the
30 page PDF file >from me now, please contact me privately. Certainly, this
document shows that details about the Jews of Galicia are present in church
records, and even though these deal solely with conversions they may prove
helpful to a few researchers. If you can provide insights into the nature
or reason for these conversions, or know of personal stories handed down by
families involving conversions, please feel free to share that with the
group.

Thanks to Manfred Daum for so generously agreeing to share the fruits of his
labor with us.

Pamela Weisberger
Santa Monica, CA
Research Coordinator, Gesher Galicia
pweisberger@hotmail.com

MODERATOR NOTE: Mr Daum has given permission for these examples to be
posted here.


Family from Chelm #poland

Ester Meyer <emeyer555@...>
 

My name is Ester Meyer!
I live in Brazil and my Grand Parents Ahron Meyer and L.Feldman Meyer
came >from Chelm in the beginning of the Twenties! Some of their relatives,
parents, brothers,cousins...stayed there ....

I would like to have information about my family that didn't leave Poland!
Thanks!!!
Ester.

MODERATOR'S NOTE: On the JRI-Poland home page at www.jri-poland.org
you will find a link to the 1929 Polish Business Directory. Use the
town index to find the page for Chelm and see if you can find listings
for other family members.


JRI Poland #Poland Family from Chelm #poland

Ester Meyer <emeyer555@...>
 

My name is Ester Meyer!
I live in Brazil and my Grand Parents Ahron Meyer and L.Feldman Meyer
came >from Chelm in the beginning of the Twenties! Some of their relatives,
parents, brothers,cousins...stayed there ....

I would like to have information about my family that didn't leave Poland!
Thanks!!!
Ester.

MODERATOR'S NOTE: On the JRI-Poland home page at www.jri-poland.org
you will find a link to the 1929 Polish Business Directory. Use the
town index to find the page for Chelm and see if you can find listings
for other family members.


The Lack of Common Courtesy and how it affects the Usefulness of this Forum #general

drgoldin90@...
 

Hello All

I am most dismayed by the comments posted today. It has always been my
impression, as well as my personal experience with fellow genners on this
discussion group that people are more than happy to assist in every way and I have
often seen public thank yous and notes of appreciation. We all know how great
it feels to get "unstuck" and learn something new about our ancestors. I
sincerely hope the lack of appreciation is rare and that if you are (one of the
few) who are guilty of not thanking someone who has helped that you will
rectify this right away.

Marge Goldin
Dix Hills, NY

Researching:
AUSTRIAN (Radom, Poland); MEISELMAN (Korolovke, Galicia); BREGMAN (Slutsk,
Belarus); BREAKSTONE (Minsk, Belarus); FISHER (Kutno, Poland and London
England); ELBERT (Budapest and Sobotiste, Hungary); GOLDIN (Dvin, Belarus);
PRESSNER (Galicia)


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen The Lack of Common Courtesy and how it affects the Usefulness of this Forum #general

drgoldin90@...
 

Hello All

I am most dismayed by the comments posted today. It has always been my
impression, as well as my personal experience with fellow genners on this
discussion group that people are more than happy to assist in every way and I have
often seen public thank yous and notes of appreciation. We all know how great
it feels to get "unstuck" and learn something new about our ancestors. I
sincerely hope the lack of appreciation is rare and that if you are (one of the
few) who are guilty of not thanking someone who has helped that you will
rectify this right away.

Marge Goldin
Dix Hills, NY

Researching:
AUSTRIAN (Radom, Poland); MEISELMAN (Korolovke, Galicia); BREGMAN (Slutsk,
Belarus); BREAKSTONE (Minsk, Belarus); FISHER (Kutno, Poland and London
England); ELBERT (Budapest and Sobotiste, Hungary); GOLDIN (Dvin, Belarus);
PRESSNER (Galicia)


Re: R' David "Karliner" FRIEDMAN #rabbinic

Moshe & Esther Davis <davis@...>
 

On 2005.05.19, Shlomo Katz <SKATZ@ebglaw.com> wrote:

I have a vague recollection that someone on the list was interested
in a picture of R' David "Karliner" FRIEDMAN. A recently published
biography of R' Baruch Ber Leibowitz entitled "Harav Hadomeh
Lemalach" has such a picture on page 198.
If someone is indeed interested in this picture, the author of the
recently published "Harav Hadomeh Lemalach" is a neighbor of mine.

Moshe Davis
Jerusalem

[Moderator's Note: Please respond privately.]


Rabbinic Genealogy SIG #Rabbinic Re: R' David "Karliner" FRIEDMAN #rabbinic

Moshe & Esther Davis <davis@...>
 

On 2005.05.19, Shlomo Katz <SKATZ@ebglaw.com> wrote:

I have a vague recollection that someone on the list was interested
in a picture of R' David "Karliner" FRIEDMAN. A recently published
biography of R' Baruch Ber Leibowitz entitled "Harav Hadomeh
Lemalach" has such a picture on page 198.
If someone is indeed interested in this picture, the author of the
recently published "Harav Hadomeh Lemalach" is a neighbor of mine.

Moshe Davis
Jerusalem

[Moderator's Note: Please respond privately.]


Double dates on Vital Records written in Russian #general

R Gerber <beccamd@...>
 

I just wanted to know if there is a way to let everyone know why there are
two dates listed on some Vital Records, perhaps in a FAQ on JewishGen
somewhere. I have been translating Russian records for people on ViewMate,
and I often get asked why there are two dates.

The reason is because of the switch >from the Julian to Gregorian calendars.

The Gregorian Calendar was adopted immediately upon the promulgation of Pope
Gregory's decree in the Catholic countries of Italy, Spain, Portugal and
Poland, and shortly thereafter in France and Luxembourg. During the next
year or two most Catholic regions of Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and the
Netherlands came on board. Hungary followed in 1587. The rest of the
Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland made the change during 1699 to
1701. By the time the British were ready to go along with the rest of
Europe, the old calendar had drifted off by one more day, requiring a
correction of eleven days, rather than ten. The Gregorian Calendar was
adopted in Britain (and in the British colonies) in 1752, with (Wednesday)
September 2, 1752, being followed immediately by (Thursday) September 14, 1752.
In many countries the Julian Calendar was used by the general population
long after the official introduction of the Gregorian Calendar. Thus events
were recorded in the 16th to 18th Centuries with various dates, depending on
which calendar was used.

To complicate matters further New Year's Day, the first day of the new year,
was celebrated in different countries, and sometimes by different groups of
people within the same country, on either January 1, March 1, March 25 or
December 25. January 1 seems to have been the usual date but there was no
standard observed. With the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar in
Britain and the colonies New Year's Day was generally observed on January 1.
Previously in the colonies it was common for March 24 of one year to be
followed by March 25 of the next year. This explains why, with the
calendrical reform and the shift of New Year's Day >from March 25 back to
January 1, the year of George Washington's birth changed >from 1731 to 1732.
In the Julian Calendar his birthdate is 1731-02-11 but in the Gregorian
Calendar it is 1732-02-22.

Sweden adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1753, Japan in 1873, Egypt in 1875,
Eastern Europe during 1912 to 1919 and Turkey in 1927. Following the
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia it was decreed that thirteen days would be
omitted >from the calendar, the day following January 31, 1918, O.S. becoming
February 14, 1918, N.S. (Further information can be found in The Perpetual
Calendar -- http://www.norbyhus.dk/calendar.html.)

In 1923 the Eastern Orthodox Churches adopted a modified form of the
Gregorian Calendar in an attempt to render the calendar more accurate (see
below). October 1, 1923, in the Julian Calendar became October 14, 1923, in
the Eastern Orthodox calendar.

-credit to various websites on the switch >from Julian to Gregorian calendar
system

-Rebecca Gerber

Glenview, IL
USA


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Double dates on Vital Records written in Russian #general

R Gerber <beccamd@...>
 

I just wanted to know if there is a way to let everyone know why there are
two dates listed on some Vital Records, perhaps in a FAQ on JewishGen
somewhere. I have been translating Russian records for people on ViewMate,
and I often get asked why there are two dates.

The reason is because of the switch >from the Julian to Gregorian calendars.

The Gregorian Calendar was adopted immediately upon the promulgation of Pope
Gregory's decree in the Catholic countries of Italy, Spain, Portugal and
Poland, and shortly thereafter in France and Luxembourg. During the next
year or two most Catholic regions of Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and the
Netherlands came on board. Hungary followed in 1587. The rest of the
Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland made the change during 1699 to
1701. By the time the British were ready to go along with the rest of
Europe, the old calendar had drifted off by one more day, requiring a
correction of eleven days, rather than ten. The Gregorian Calendar was
adopted in Britain (and in the British colonies) in 1752, with (Wednesday)
September 2, 1752, being followed immediately by (Thursday) September 14, 1752.
In many countries the Julian Calendar was used by the general population
long after the official introduction of the Gregorian Calendar. Thus events
were recorded in the 16th to 18th Centuries with various dates, depending on
which calendar was used.

To complicate matters further New Year's Day, the first day of the new year,
was celebrated in different countries, and sometimes by different groups of
people within the same country, on either January 1, March 1, March 25 or
December 25. January 1 seems to have been the usual date but there was no
standard observed. With the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar in
Britain and the colonies New Year's Day was generally observed on January 1.
Previously in the colonies it was common for March 24 of one year to be
followed by March 25 of the next year. This explains why, with the
calendrical reform and the shift of New Year's Day >from March 25 back to
January 1, the year of George Washington's birth changed >from 1731 to 1732.
In the Julian Calendar his birthdate is 1731-02-11 but in the Gregorian
Calendar it is 1732-02-22.

Sweden adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1753, Japan in 1873, Egypt in 1875,
Eastern Europe during 1912 to 1919 and Turkey in 1927. Following the
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia it was decreed that thirteen days would be
omitted >from the calendar, the day following January 31, 1918, O.S. becoming
February 14, 1918, N.S. (Further information can be found in The Perpetual
Calendar -- http://www.norbyhus.dk/calendar.html.)

In 1923 the Eastern Orthodox Churches adopted a modified form of the
Gregorian Calendar in an attempt to render the calendar more accurate (see
below). October 1, 1923, in the Julian Calendar became October 14, 1923, in
the Eastern Orthodox calendar.

-credit to various websites on the switch >from Julian to Gregorian calendar
system

-Rebecca Gerber

Glenview, IL
USA


The Lack of Common Courtesy and how it affects the Usefulness of this #general

Merle Kastner <merlek@...>
 

Dear Dave,
I'm sorry to hear that your experiences have been
so disappointing, especially since my own have been
just the opposite.

Over the years, I've helped a lot of people, mostly
by replying privately, and have always heard back
from them with gratitude.
Unfortunately, it's that small minority with poor manners
who spoil things for those who have good ones. I hope
you are not too discouraged to try again and that your
future experiences are positive.

Best of luck,
Merle Kastner
Montreal, Canada
merlek@videotron.ca
Researching:
KASTNER & OSTFELD, Radauti, Bukovina;
NATHANSON & MENDELSSOHN, Piatra Neamt, Negulesti, Falticeni, Romania;
DENENBERG/DYNABURSKI & GARBARSKI/GOLDBERG, Sejny, Suwalki gubernia, Poland,
New York, NY;
KUSSNER, Bendery, Bessarabia/Moldova, Philadelphia, PA;
MILLER/SZCZUCZYNSKI, Lida, Vilnius, Lithuania/Belarus, Philadelphia, PA.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen The Lack of Common Courtesy and how it affects the Usefulness of this #general

Merle Kastner <merlek@...>
 

Dear Dave,
I'm sorry to hear that your experiences have been
so disappointing, especially since my own have been
just the opposite.

Over the years, I've helped a lot of people, mostly
by replying privately, and have always heard back
from them with gratitude.
Unfortunately, it's that small minority with poor manners
who spoil things for those who have good ones. I hope
you are not too discouraged to try again and that your
future experiences are positive.

Best of luck,
Merle Kastner
Montreal, Canada
merlek@videotron.ca
Researching:
KASTNER & OSTFELD, Radauti, Bukovina;
NATHANSON & MENDELSSOHN, Piatra Neamt, Negulesti, Falticeni, Romania;
DENENBERG/DYNABURSKI & GARBARSKI/GOLDBERG, Sejny, Suwalki gubernia, Poland,
New York, NY;
KUSSNER, Bendery, Bessarabia/Moldova, Philadelphia, PA;
MILLER/SZCZUCZYNSKI, Lida, Vilnius, Lithuania/Belarus, Philadelphia, PA.