Date   

Re: Galicia Jewish Museum #galicia

Sylvia Furshman Nusinov
 

Joan,
Thank you for informing us of the opening of the Galicia Jewish Museum in
Krakow and their website.
The photographic tour was a moving and interesting vicarious visit.

I clicked on the English Language version and the link to "THE ATRIUM, a
clearinghouse of information..which will keep you informed of the new
projects."
Clicking SEARCH, I typed in Genealogy, but there isn't anything currently
available in that category.
One may subscribe to their Newsletter [which I have done] and watch for that
category to be available to us.

Sylvia
Sylvia Furshman Nusinov
President Emerita, JGSPBCI, FL
USA
Researching: ABELMAN, AWNER, DOROGOI, EHRENPREIS, FRIEDHOFFER, FRUCHT,
FURSHMAN, FURSTMAN, MELC, NUSINOV, LENT, SCHEINKEROVICH, WECHSLER.
Lithuania/Poland, Russia/Ukraine, Austria/Poland/Galicia, Israel, France,
England

----- Original Message -----
From: "Joan and Neiel Baronberg" <njbaron@frii.com>
To: "JewishGen Discussion Group" <jewishgen@lyris.jewishgen.org>
Sent: Tuesday, October 05, 2004 9:58 AM
Subject: Galicia Jewish Museum


**********************************************************************
Some of you may already know about the newly opened "Galicia Jewish
Museum"
in Krakov. (If not, see their home page and also their listing of events-
at
http://www.galiciajewishmuseum.org/en/index.html)

I wrote to the Director and asked for their definition of Galicia. He
replied that all of Galicia is within their domain, although the current
photo exhibit covers only those parts of Galicia within current Polish
borders.

I am wondering if anyone has visited this museum and if so, what pertinent
genealogical information can be found there. I consider "pertinent" to
include lifestyles of our ancestors.


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia Re: Galicia Jewish Museum #galicia

Sylvia Furshman Nusinov
 

Joan,
Thank you for informing us of the opening of the Galicia Jewish Museum in
Krakow and their website.
The photographic tour was a moving and interesting vicarious visit.

I clicked on the English Language version and the link to "THE ATRIUM, a
clearinghouse of information..which will keep you informed of the new
projects."
Clicking SEARCH, I typed in Genealogy, but there isn't anything currently
available in that category.
One may subscribe to their Newsletter [which I have done] and watch for that
category to be available to us.

Sylvia
Sylvia Furshman Nusinov
President Emerita, JGSPBCI, FL
USA
Researching: ABELMAN, AWNER, DOROGOI, EHRENPREIS, FRIEDHOFFER, FRUCHT,
FURSHMAN, FURSTMAN, MELC, NUSINOV, LENT, SCHEINKEROVICH, WECHSLER.
Lithuania/Poland, Russia/Ukraine, Austria/Poland/Galicia, Israel, France,
England

----- Original Message -----
From: "Joan and Neiel Baronberg" <njbaron@frii.com>
To: "JewishGen Discussion Group" <jewishgen@lyris.jewishgen.org>
Sent: Tuesday, October 05, 2004 9:58 AM
Subject: Galicia Jewish Museum


**********************************************************************
Some of you may already know about the newly opened "Galicia Jewish
Museum"
in Krakov. (If not, see their home page and also their listing of events-
at
http://www.galiciajewishmuseum.org/en/index.html)

I wrote to the Director and asked for their definition of Galicia. He
replied that all of Galicia is within their domain, although the current
photo exhibit covers only those parts of Galicia within current Polish
borders.

I am wondering if anyone has visited this museum and if so, what pertinent
genealogical information can be found there. I consider "pertinent" to
include lifestyles of our ancestors.


September 2004 update for Yizkor Book Project #galicia

Joyce Field
 

A Happy and Healthy New Year to all. It is always surprising that we
are able to add new material in a busy month with preparations for
Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur and then Succot, but we seem always to do
it. In September we added four new entries and eight updates.

New entries:

-Pinkas HaKehillot Lita

-Baisogola, Lithuania
-Teverai, Lithuania
-Zemaiciu Kalvariaya, Lithuania

-Bukowina, Geschichte der Juden in der Bukowina : "Jewish Sport in
Bukovina" >from volume 1, pages 167 to 172

Updates:

-Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland
-Derechin, Belarus
-Druzhkopol, Ukraine
-Holocaust in Belarus
-Marghita, Romania
-Radzyn, Poland
-Rejowiec, Poland
-Ropczyce, Poland

Thanks again to all our contributors, who took the time during a busy
month to submit translations and to our wonderful staff who worked on
these materials during the holiday month.

All our translations can be accessed at
http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/translations.html. The yizkor book
database, http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/database.html, has a
variety of information for researchers. When you search for a
particular book you will get a description of the yizkor books for
that location, a list of major libraries that have these books, and
links to translations on the yizkor book project website.

Joyce Field
Yizkor Book Project Manager
jfield@jewishgen.org


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia September 2004 update for Yizkor Book Project #galicia

Joyce Field
 

A Happy and Healthy New Year to all. It is always surprising that we
are able to add new material in a busy month with preparations for
Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur and then Succot, but we seem always to do
it. In September we added four new entries and eight updates.

New entries:

-Pinkas HaKehillot Lita

-Baisogola, Lithuania
-Teverai, Lithuania
-Zemaiciu Kalvariaya, Lithuania

-Bukowina, Geschichte der Juden in der Bukowina : "Jewish Sport in
Bukovina" >from volume 1, pages 167 to 172

Updates:

-Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland
-Derechin, Belarus
-Druzhkopol, Ukraine
-Holocaust in Belarus
-Marghita, Romania
-Radzyn, Poland
-Rejowiec, Poland
-Ropczyce, Poland

Thanks again to all our contributors, who took the time during a busy
month to submit translations and to our wonderful staff who worked on
these materials during the holiday month.

All our translations can be accessed at
http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/translations.html. The yizkor book
database, http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/database.html, has a
variety of information for researchers. When you search for a
particular book you will get a description of the yizkor books for
that location, a list of major libraries that have these books, and
links to translations on the yizkor book project website.

Joyce Field
Yizkor Book Project Manager
jfield@jewishgen.org


Fridman #general

Sy & Cyndie <sypearlman@...>
 

I am searching for phone and e-mail address of Eliahu Fridman who
lives, I think, in Rishon Le Zion. Please send your information to Sy
Pearlman


Lois FISCH in Minnesota #general

Robert Dodell <RADodell@...>
 

Recently discovered a great grand uncle in the US. His granddaughter may be
Lois FISCH in St. Paul, Minnesota, born 1941. Husband is Dick Fisch. I
have been unable to track down a telephone number for them. Anyone in St.
Paul know them?
Please respond privately

Robert Dodell
E-mail: RADodell@Worldnet.att.net


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Fridman #general

Sy & Cyndie <sypearlman@...>
 

I am searching for phone and e-mail address of Eliahu Fridman who
lives, I think, in Rishon Le Zion. Please send your information to Sy
Pearlman


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Lois FISCH in Minnesota #general

Robert Dodell <RADodell@...>
 

Recently discovered a great grand uncle in the US. His granddaughter may be
Lois FISCH in St. Paul, Minnesota, born 1941. Husband is Dick Fisch. I
have been unable to track down a telephone number for them. Anyone in St.
Paul know them?
Please respond privately

Robert Dodell
E-mail: RADodell@Worldnet.att.net


GUSBERG #general

Peter Mc Cue <peter19252000@...>
 

Seeking any info on my grandfather: Bernard (or Benj.) GUSBERG. Who
arrived >from Russia-Poland in the U.S. about 1892 +/- and settled in
Newark, N.J. His wife, Dina (nee Fuchs) arrived in 1895 with their four
children:
David, Morris, Bessie ( became Mrs. Morris Gerber) and Pauline (Mrs. Sam
Gottlober). The Gusbergs later had a daughter (my mother) Clara born in
Newark in June 1896 but Dina died in Jan. 1897. A year later Bernard
married widow Rose (or nee Rachel Kusis) Gelfand who had three daughters:
Pauline, Minnia and Lena. Bernard died in 1926.
Peter McCue
peter19252000@optonline.net


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen GUSBERG #general

Peter Mc Cue <peter19252000@...>
 

Seeking any info on my grandfather: Bernard (or Benj.) GUSBERG. Who
arrived >from Russia-Poland in the U.S. about 1892 +/- and settled in
Newark, N.J. His wife, Dina (nee Fuchs) arrived in 1895 with their four
children:
David, Morris, Bessie ( became Mrs. Morris Gerber) and Pauline (Mrs. Sam
Gottlober). The Gusbergs later had a daughter (my mother) Clara born in
Newark in June 1896 but Dina died in Jan. 1897. A year later Bernard
married widow Rose (or nee Rachel Kusis) Gelfand who had three daughters:
Pauline, Minnia and Lena. Bernard died in 1926.
Peter McCue
peter19252000@optonline.net


Marriage Index for NYC online! #general

Phyllis Kramer <phylliskramer1@...>
 

Yes, they've done it again. The italian genealogical society has put on
their web site an index to grooms in nyc for 1908-1936!! and it works! There
are additional indices for marriage and death and naturalization.
The web site is www.italiangen.org
just click on databases.....
then, equipped with the certificate# you can send for the certificate for
only $6...first step: get the application on line at
http://www.nyc.gov/html/records/html/vitalrecords/home.shtml

Happy hunting!
Phyllis Kramer (phylliskramer1@att.net) searching:
KRAMER,WISNER, BEIM >from Jasienica Rosielna (galicia)
STECHER, TRACHMAN, FEIR >from Zmigrod (galicia)
LINDNER, MAUER, BERLIN, EICHEL >from Rohatyn (galicia) & Jassy (Roumania)
SCHEINER, KANDEL, SCHIMMEL >from Strzyzow & Dubiecko (galicia)
GUMBRECHT, ZIEGLER >from Germany


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Marriage Index for NYC online! #general

Phyllis Kramer <phylliskramer1@...>
 

Yes, they've done it again. The italian genealogical society has put on
their web site an index to grooms in nyc for 1908-1936!! and it works! There
are additional indices for marriage and death and naturalization.
The web site is www.italiangen.org
just click on databases.....
then, equipped with the certificate# you can send for the certificate for
only $6...first step: get the application on line at
http://www.nyc.gov/html/records/html/vitalrecords/home.shtml

Happy hunting!
Phyllis Kramer (phylliskramer1@att.net) searching:
KRAMER,WISNER, BEIM >from Jasienica Rosielna (galicia)
STECHER, TRACHMAN, FEIR >from Zmigrod (galicia)
LINDNER, MAUER, BERLIN, EICHEL >from Rohatyn (galicia) & Jassy (Roumania)
SCHEINER, KANDEL, SCHIMMEL >from Strzyzow & Dubiecko (galicia)
GUMBRECHT, ZIEGLER >from Germany


Yiddish Obituaries #general

Mervin
 

I do not know about any Jewish Newspapers policy re Obituaries except for
Winnipeg, Canada. They published a great # of Obits. and they are indexed
in English, although the actual obit. is in Yiddish. I even found a paid
obit. about my GGF who died in Poland in the mid thirties complete with his
picture. Needless to say I was in tears seeing that. This can be accessed
through the Jewish Heritage Centre of Western Canada. Their web site is
www.jhcwc.org and their Email is heritage@jhcwc.org If anyone wants more
detail on the process, I can post that information.
Merv Glow
Palm Springs
mglow@dc.rr.com


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Yiddish Obituaries #general

Mervin
 

I do not know about any Jewish Newspapers policy re Obituaries except for
Winnipeg, Canada. They published a great # of Obits. and they are indexed
in English, although the actual obit. is in Yiddish. I even found a paid
obit. about my GGF who died in Poland in the mid thirties complete with his
picture. Needless to say I was in tears seeing that. This can be accessed
through the Jewish Heritage Centre of Western Canada. Their web site is
www.jhcwc.org and their Email is heritage@jhcwc.org If anyone wants more
detail on the process, I can post that information.
Merv Glow
Palm Springs
mglow@dc.rr.com


Re: Galicia Jewish Museum #galicia

Gershon bi-Kroke <gershon_gp@...>
 

Dear Joan,

according to my knowledge, there are no genealogical references in the
Museum Galicia. It is rather a photo gallery than a real museum. They
also have a bookshop with a vast amount of books on Jewish subjects both
in Polish and English, and a cafe with a small shop, offering Kosher
food items.

Best regards,

Some of you may already know about the newly opened "Galicia Jewish Museum"
in Krakov. (If not, see their home page and also their listing of events- at
http://www.galiciajewishmuseum.org/en/index.html)

I wrote to the Director and asked for their definition of Galicia. He
replied that all of Galicia is within their domain, although the current
photo exhibit covers only those parts of Galicia within current Polish
borders.

I am wondering if anyone has visited this museum and if so, what pertinent
genealogical information can be found there. I consider "pertinent" to
include lifestyles of our ancestors.

Thank you,
Joan Baronberg, Denver, CO
--
G. Gembala
Krakow, Poland

Researching Gleich, Pillersdorf, Kletzel,
Eskreis, Janczer, Leinwand, Reis (Galicia), Simson (U.S.)


BERNSHTAM reply #general

sbloom@...
 

regarding whether/when you should include new found information in a
geneaology...

My opinion is that you should only include this new found information on
possible ancestors if you have other documentation that would show "your"
Avrom Leib Bernshtam of age X in 1858 really is likely to be the same
person in those Lithuanian records. Otherwise, all you have is a name. Of
course, you should carefully record all the information anyway. You should
certainly dare to be speculative, I just wouldnt go adopting that as your
"confirmed" ancestry just yet.

In any case, as long as you clearly state the source of your information,
you could probably adopt whatever information
you so choose, and then let others be the judge of whether it is flimsy or
not. But, its generally better to err on the side of being methodical, and
having confirmation of information when possible.

Steve Bloom


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Galicia Jewish Museum #general

Gershon bi-Kroke <gershon_gp@...>
 

Dear Joan,

according to my knowledge, there are no genealogical references in the
Museum Galicia. It is rather a photo gallery than a real museum. They
also have a bookshop with a vast amount of books on Jewish subjects both
in Polish and English, and a cafe with a small shop, offering Kosher
food items.

Best regards,

Some of you may already know about the newly opened "Galicia Jewish Museum"
in Krakov. (If not, see their home page and also their listing of events- at
http://www.galiciajewishmuseum.org/en/index.html)

I wrote to the Director and asked for their definition of Galicia. He
replied that all of Galicia is within their domain, although the current
photo exhibit covers only those parts of Galicia within current Polish
borders.

I am wondering if anyone has visited this museum and if so, what pertinent
genealogical information can be found there. I consider "pertinent" to
include lifestyles of our ancestors.

Thank you,
Joan Baronberg, Denver, CO
--
G. Gembala
Krakow, Poland

Researching Gleich, Pillersdorf, Kletzel,
Eskreis, Janczer, Leinwand, Reis (Galicia), Simson (U.S.)


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen BERNSHTAM reply #general

sbloom@...
 

regarding whether/when you should include new found information in a
geneaology...

My opinion is that you should only include this new found information on
possible ancestors if you have other documentation that would show "your"
Avrom Leib Bernshtam of age X in 1858 really is likely to be the same
person in those Lithuanian records. Otherwise, all you have is a name. Of
course, you should carefully record all the information anyway. You should
certainly dare to be speculative, I just wouldnt go adopting that as your
"confirmed" ancestry just yet.

In any case, as long as you clearly state the source of your information,
you could probably adopt whatever information
you so choose, and then let others be the judge of whether it is flimsy or
not. But, its generally better to err on the side of being methodical, and
having confirmation of information when possible.

Steve Bloom


Re: Martuzans' comments re Freeze's book and women's education, etc. #general

NFatouros@...
 

Before posting a reply to Bruno Martzans' message of Oct. 5, 2004, I
visited his interesting website at:

www.roots-saknes.lv/Ethnicities/Jews/Pales/Pales.htm

and read hurriedly through some of its pages including the one about
marriage. Mr. Matuzans has done valuable work in creating his site.(I have no
genealogical interest in Latvia, although I'd like to know more about the Jews
who lived there just to expand my knowledge of Jewish history, I intend to learn
about Latvian Jews whenever I can find the time and energy.)

I must counter Mr. Matuzans' remark that "more credible information" than
that which is contained in ChaeRan Y.Freeze's book on "Jewish Marriage and
Divorce in Tsarist Russia," Professor Freeze's research was based on her found
evidence of disputes in Russian Rabbinic Law and on Tsarist Law (which was
often ignored or not enforced, or variously interpreted, and applied), but on
her findings of cases in Ukrainian and Lithuanian provinces. She was able to
study previously inaccessible records in various central and district archives
in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkiv, Lviv, Zhitomir, Odessa, and Vilnius
and she consulted with a number of named and unnamed archivists "who
cheerfully and expeditiously located and delivered huge quantities of unpublished
materials." Has Mr. Matuzans had comparable opportunities for research in Latvia
to show that his opinions are more credible than Freeze's?

In her book, Professor Freeze describes a number of cases regarding the
problems arising between the marriages and divorces between converts,
non-converts and non-Jews and "foreigners." Although she doesn't not specifically
indicate the particular type of the several Christian religions to which some
Jews converted, she does assert, as does Mr.Matuzans, that the Russian church
did not recognize the validity of non-(Russian)Orthodox marriages. Nevertheless,
interfaith marriages did occur. If a convert was male, his remarriage "required
no Jewish divorce, leaving his wife in the unenviable position of an agunah."
If a baptized Jew chose not to divorce, neither he nor his wife could keep
permanent residency outside the Pale. In a late instance, 1904, the Senate
granted to an interfaith couple the right of residence in Moscow. The Senate
also permitted two wives in their respective interfaith marriages to be
registered and reside in their husbands' towns of residence, provided they
could prove that they actually resided with their spouses. Before those late
rulings, Jewish women could lose their residency rights as a result of divorce.
Contrary to Mr.Matuzan's statement that "the divorce could not affect her
education" if a woman was divorced and lost her residency rights, her divorce
could most certainly prevent her >from pursuing her education if, after her
divorce, she were not permitted to stay in the city or town where she wanted
to enroll in an educational institution to improve her chances of improving
herself and of becoming self-supporting, or if she had been attending school
there during her marriage.

Mr. Matuzans also asserted that "married or divorced women were not
enrolled in universities of Russia at all, whatever was their religion."

Neither Freeze nor some other scholars discuss in depth the rights of
married or divorced women to attend schools of higher education. Although I
can't comment now on "the married or divorced" part of Mr. Matzuzans' assertion,
the rest of it can be disproved by a number of cases cited not only in Freeze'
book but other scholarly works mention or discuss the issue of women in higher
education in Russia."

Early on in her book, in a paragraph about the matriculation of Jewish
women >from affluent families, Professor Freeze relates briefly Shmuel Leib
Tstiron's recollection of a daugher who fled her parents' home in Minsk, "on the
eve of her marriage, taking all of her trousseau and jewels with her and vanished
without out a trace...Twas not for love," Tsitron went on, "that the runaways
had fled. No! The fugitive virgins were sitting and studying in schools for
midwives in Mogilev or attending schools of dentristy in Kharkov." Freeze
concludes this paragraph with a quotation >from the paper "Russii Evrei" which
says that ten young Jewish women ">from the most prosperous and religious families
in Mogilev" had gone to St. Petersburg to enroll in higher courses for women.
(I interpose here that sometimes women, whether Jewish or non-Jewish, were
not allowed to register with the schools of their choosing but could only audit
the courses offered. Sometimes, some Jewish males, like the sculptor Marc
Antokolsky, could also not be officially registered in the schools they attended
although they did receive an education in them. The Russian eductional quota
system which severely hampered many able Jews prompted them, both male and
female, to seek higher education in Switzerland and Germany and elsewhere in
Western Europe.)

In his book "Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial
Russia," Benjamin Nathans writes that, as it was for all Russian women, higher
education for Jewish women was rare until the 1870's. But >from then on, Jewish
women strove to obtain an education. Nathans quotes a Russian female student as
saying that in poor Jewish families, "a gymnasium diploma served as a kind of
dowry." Occasionally, people would voice the opinion that "kursistki" (women
who took higher educational courses), were just out to "catch" a good husband.
(I have always thought that one reason my parents wanted me to go to college
was to find a suitable mate, when I had wanted to do after my high school
graduation was to rent a loft in Greenwich Village or the Lower East Side and
become a (great?)painter and maybe live a "bohemian" life. My mother thought that
a college education would help me in conversing with my educated husband and
in representing him favorably before his associates, which ultimately it did.)

Nathans goes on to say that as early as 1968, Vaarvara A. Kashevarova,an
orphan of Jewish descent, was the first woman in Russia to receive a medical
degree. Furthermore, by the 1880's, "Jewish women accounted for 16 percent of
the students enrolled in the Kiev High Courses in Moscow and the Liubianskie
courses in Moscow...17 percent at the elite Bestuzhevski Course in Petersburg,
and 34 percent at (Petersburg's) Women's Medical Center." But again, he does
not say if any of these women were married or divorced.

Naomi Fatouros (nee FELDMAN)
Bloomington, Indiana
NFatouros@aol.com
BELKOWSKY,BIELKOWSKY, BILKOWSKI, Odessa,St. Petersburg,Berdichev,
Kiev;ROTHSTEIN, Kremenchug;FRASCH,Kiev;LIBERMAN,Moscow;FELDMAN, Pinsk;
SCHUTZ, RETTIG, WAHL, Shcherets;LEVY, WEIL, Mulhouse; SAS/SASS,Podwolochisk;
RAPOPORT, Tarnopol, Podwolochisk, RADOMYSL?; BEHAM, Salok, Kharkov;
WOLPIANSKY, Ostryna.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Martuzans' comments re Freeze's book and women's education, etc. #general

NFatouros@...
 

Before posting a reply to Bruno Martzans' message of Oct. 5, 2004, I
visited his interesting website at:

www.roots-saknes.lv/Ethnicities/Jews/Pales/Pales.htm

and read hurriedly through some of its pages including the one about
marriage. Mr. Matuzans has done valuable work in creating his site.(I have no
genealogical interest in Latvia, although I'd like to know more about the Jews
who lived there just to expand my knowledge of Jewish history, I intend to learn
about Latvian Jews whenever I can find the time and energy.)

I must counter Mr. Matuzans' remark that "more credible information" than
that which is contained in ChaeRan Y.Freeze's book on "Jewish Marriage and
Divorce in Tsarist Russia," Professor Freeze's research was based on her found
evidence of disputes in Russian Rabbinic Law and on Tsarist Law (which was
often ignored or not enforced, or variously interpreted, and applied), but on
her findings of cases in Ukrainian and Lithuanian provinces. She was able to
study previously inaccessible records in various central and district archives
in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkiv, Lviv, Zhitomir, Odessa, and Vilnius
and she consulted with a number of named and unnamed archivists "who
cheerfully and expeditiously located and delivered huge quantities of unpublished
materials." Has Mr. Matuzans had comparable opportunities for research in Latvia
to show that his opinions are more credible than Freeze's?

In her book, Professor Freeze describes a number of cases regarding the
problems arising between the marriages and divorces between converts,
non-converts and non-Jews and "foreigners." Although she doesn't not specifically
indicate the particular type of the several Christian religions to which some
Jews converted, she does assert, as does Mr.Matuzans, that the Russian church
did not recognize the validity of non-(Russian)Orthodox marriages. Nevertheless,
interfaith marriages did occur. If a convert was male, his remarriage "required
no Jewish divorce, leaving his wife in the unenviable position of an agunah."
If a baptized Jew chose not to divorce, neither he nor his wife could keep
permanent residency outside the Pale. In a late instance, 1904, the Senate
granted to an interfaith couple the right of residence in Moscow. The Senate
also permitted two wives in their respective interfaith marriages to be
registered and reside in their husbands' towns of residence, provided they
could prove that they actually resided with their spouses. Before those late
rulings, Jewish women could lose their residency rights as a result of divorce.
Contrary to Mr.Matuzan's statement that "the divorce could not affect her
education" if a woman was divorced and lost her residency rights, her divorce
could most certainly prevent her >from pursuing her education if, after her
divorce, she were not permitted to stay in the city or town where she wanted
to enroll in an educational institution to improve her chances of improving
herself and of becoming self-supporting, or if she had been attending school
there during her marriage.

Mr. Matuzans also asserted that "married or divorced women were not
enrolled in universities of Russia at all, whatever was their religion."

Neither Freeze nor some other scholars discuss in depth the rights of
married or divorced women to attend schools of higher education. Although I
can't comment now on "the married or divorced" part of Mr. Matzuzans' assertion,
the rest of it can be disproved by a number of cases cited not only in Freeze'
book but other scholarly works mention or discuss the issue of women in higher
education in Russia."

Early on in her book, in a paragraph about the matriculation of Jewish
women >from affluent families, Professor Freeze relates briefly Shmuel Leib
Tstiron's recollection of a daugher who fled her parents' home in Minsk, "on the
eve of her marriage, taking all of her trousseau and jewels with her and vanished
without out a trace...Twas not for love," Tsitron went on, "that the runaways
had fled. No! The fugitive virgins were sitting and studying in schools for
midwives in Mogilev or attending schools of dentristy in Kharkov." Freeze
concludes this paragraph with a quotation >from the paper "Russii Evrei" which
says that ten young Jewish women ">from the most prosperous and religious families
in Mogilev" had gone to St. Petersburg to enroll in higher courses for women.
(I interpose here that sometimes women, whether Jewish or non-Jewish, were
not allowed to register with the schools of their choosing but could only audit
the courses offered. Sometimes, some Jewish males, like the sculptor Marc
Antokolsky, could also not be officially registered in the schools they attended
although they did receive an education in them. The Russian eductional quota
system which severely hampered many able Jews prompted them, both male and
female, to seek higher education in Switzerland and Germany and elsewhere in
Western Europe.)

In his book "Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial
Russia," Benjamin Nathans writes that, as it was for all Russian women, higher
education for Jewish women was rare until the 1870's. But >from then on, Jewish
women strove to obtain an education. Nathans quotes a Russian female student as
saying that in poor Jewish families, "a gymnasium diploma served as a kind of
dowry." Occasionally, people would voice the opinion that "kursistki" (women
who took higher educational courses), were just out to "catch" a good husband.
(I have always thought that one reason my parents wanted me to go to college
was to find a suitable mate, when I had wanted to do after my high school
graduation was to rent a loft in Greenwich Village or the Lower East Side and
become a (great?)painter and maybe live a "bohemian" life. My mother thought that
a college education would help me in conversing with my educated husband and
in representing him favorably before his associates, which ultimately it did.)

Nathans goes on to say that as early as 1968, Vaarvara A. Kashevarova,an
orphan of Jewish descent, was the first woman in Russia to receive a medical
degree. Furthermore, by the 1880's, "Jewish women accounted for 16 percent of
the students enrolled in the Kiev High Courses in Moscow and the Liubianskie
courses in Moscow...17 percent at the elite Bestuzhevski Course in Petersburg,
and 34 percent at (Petersburg's) Women's Medical Center." But again, he does
not say if any of these women were married or divorced.

Naomi Fatouros (nee FELDMAN)
Bloomington, Indiana
NFatouros@aol.com
BELKOWSKY,BIELKOWSKY, BILKOWSKI, Odessa,St. Petersburg,Berdichev,
Kiev;ROTHSTEIN, Kremenchug;FRASCH,Kiev;LIBERMAN,Moscow;FELDMAN, Pinsk;
SCHUTZ, RETTIG, WAHL, Shcherets;LEVY, WEIL, Mulhouse; SAS/SASS,Podwolochisk;
RAPOPORT, Tarnopol, Podwolochisk, RADOMYSL?; BEHAM, Salok, Kharkov;
WOLPIANSKY, Ostryna.