Date   

Re: Research guidance needed #galicia

Mark Halpern <willie46@...>
 

When Galitzianers are starting their "Old Country" research, they
should consult two websites.

1. Consult Miriam Weiner's Routes to Roots Foundation website at
www.rtrfoundation.org to look up your town(s) in the Archival
Database. This will tell you the records available and the
Archives where those records can be found.

2. Many towns within the current and former territories of Poland
(including all of Galicia) have had or will have Jewish vital
records indexed through Jewish Records Indexing - Poland. Go the
JRI-Poland website at www.jri-poland.org and search the Town
Index to see if a project is active. If so, search the database
at http://www.jri-poland.org/jriplweb.htm.

JRI-Poland will be indexing records for Rawa Ruska that are
housed at the AGAD Archives in Warsaw. This includes 1816-70,
1877-1901 births, 1844-70, 1877-1900 deaths.

Like all JRI-Poland projects, the Rawa Ruska project can only be
accomplished with the help of interested researchers. You can
check the status of the Rawa Ruska project online at
http://www.jri-poland.org/agad/agadtowns.html.

You can help ensure the indexing of Rawa Ruska records. Please
consider a contribution to the AGAD project. Information on
contributing is available at
<http://www.jri-poland.org/agad/agadcontrib.htm>;.

The AGAD record indices contained in the JRI-Poland database
would not be accessible to researchers without our host,
JewishGen. In addition to your contribution to the JRI-Poland
AGAD Project that supports indexing of the records, we hope you
will also give to JewishGen to help defray the cost of
maintaining these records. An easily accessible contribution form
is available at
<http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/AGAD.html>;.

Mark Halpern
AGAD Archive Coordinator
JRI-Poland

----- Original Message -----
Hello, need help to start my research of my 2 family sides

Town: Belz (or Beltz), Surname: Flasch
Town: Rava-Ruska, Surname: Feder

Any help will be greatly appreciated

Mauro Mowszowicz
femur@fastlink.com.uy


Western, MA Meeting #galicia

Jonathon Podolsky
 

The Western Massachusetts Jewish Genealogy Society is planning to host a
small gathering in March for those interested in Galicia. Please let me
know as soon as possible if you or anyone you know lives in the area and
would like to attend. Also, please let me know if you have ideas for how to
structure such a meeting, because we have never done something like this
before.

Thank you,
--
Jonathon Podolsky, Northampton, MA
Founder, Western Massachusetts Jewish Genealogy Society
http://www.wmjgs.org
http://www.Podolsky.cc
Phone/Fax: 413/585-9614

Researching surnames: ABEND, HARTMANN, SEIDEN, WASSERMAN, SHIMAN, KRAUT
from Wola Ranizowska near Kolbuszowa, Poland (Galicia region).
PODOLSKY, BAGUS, RUDERMAN, MASSARSKY, CARSON, KRICHEC >from Babruvy Kut,
Ukraine.

[MODERATOR NOTE: Please answer privately]


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia Re: Research guidance needed #galicia

Mark Halpern <willie46@...>
 

When Galitzianers are starting their "Old Country" research, they
should consult two websites.

1. Consult Miriam Weiner's Routes to Roots Foundation website at
www.rtrfoundation.org to look up your town(s) in the Archival
Database. This will tell you the records available and the
Archives where those records can be found.

2. Many towns within the current and former territories of Poland
(including all of Galicia) have had or will have Jewish vital
records indexed through Jewish Records Indexing - Poland. Go the
JRI-Poland website at www.jri-poland.org and search the Town
Index to see if a project is active. If so, search the database
at http://www.jri-poland.org/jriplweb.htm.

JRI-Poland will be indexing records for Rawa Ruska that are
housed at the AGAD Archives in Warsaw. This includes 1816-70,
1877-1901 births, 1844-70, 1877-1900 deaths.

Like all JRI-Poland projects, the Rawa Ruska project can only be
accomplished with the help of interested researchers. You can
check the status of the Rawa Ruska project online at
http://www.jri-poland.org/agad/agadtowns.html.

You can help ensure the indexing of Rawa Ruska records. Please
consider a contribution to the AGAD project. Information on
contributing is available at
<http://www.jri-poland.org/agad/agadcontrib.htm>;.

The AGAD record indices contained in the JRI-Poland database
would not be accessible to researchers without our host,
JewishGen. In addition to your contribution to the JRI-Poland
AGAD Project that supports indexing of the records, we hope you
will also give to JewishGen to help defray the cost of
maintaining these records. An easily accessible contribution form
is available at
<http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/AGAD.html>;.

Mark Halpern
AGAD Archive Coordinator
JRI-Poland

----- Original Message -----
Hello, need help to start my research of my 2 family sides

Town: Belz (or Beltz), Surname: Flasch
Town: Rava-Ruska, Surname: Feder

Any help will be greatly appreciated

Mauro Mowszowicz
femur@fastlink.com.uy


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia Western, MA Meeting #galicia

Jonathon Podolsky
 

The Western Massachusetts Jewish Genealogy Society is planning to host a
small gathering in March for those interested in Galicia. Please let me
know as soon as possible if you or anyone you know lives in the area and
would like to attend. Also, please let me know if you have ideas for how to
structure such a meeting, because we have never done something like this
before.

Thank you,
--
Jonathon Podolsky, Northampton, MA
Founder, Western Massachusetts Jewish Genealogy Society
http://www.wmjgs.org
http://www.Podolsky.cc
Phone/Fax: 413/585-9614

Researching surnames: ABEND, HARTMANN, SEIDEN, WASSERMAN, SHIMAN, KRAUT
from Wola Ranizowska near Kolbuszowa, Poland (Galicia region).
PODOLSKY, BAGUS, RUDERMAN, MASSARSKY, CARSON, KRICHEC >from Babruvy Kut,
Ukraine.

[MODERATOR NOTE: Please answer privately]


Re: Fw: Research guidance needed #galicia

NFatouros@...
 

In a message dated 1/8/04 1:53:38 AM, Mauro Mowszowicz
(femur@fastlink.com.uy) writes:

<< Hello, need help to start my research of my 2 family sides


Town: Belz (or Beltz), Surname: Flasch

Town: Rava-Ruska, Surname: Feder


Any help will be greatly appreciated >>

New subscribers to this Galicia group should go first to www.jewishgen's main
page where they can click on a list of "Infofiles." There are several written
especially for beginning family history investigators and these articles can
be read online and printed out for future reference.

If any of Mr. Mowszowicz's ancestors emigrated to the US he could try the
Ellis Island Database (EIDB).

He should also look for his surnames at the listings of extant and available
birth, marriage and death records Jewishgen affiliated JRI-PL project at:

www.jewishgen.org/jri-pl/

Mr. Mowszowicz should also check through the archives of Jewishgen's
Discussion Group messages for people who live in or have ancestors who settled in
Uruguay and write to some of them. They may be able to advise him.


Naomi Fatouros (nee FELDMAN)
Bloomington, Indiana
NFatouros@aol.com
Researching: BELKOWSKY and BIELKOWSKY, Odessa,St. Petersburg and
Berdichev;ROTHSTEIN, Kremenchug; FELDMAN, Pinsk; SCHUTZ, RETTIG, WAHL, Shcherets; LEVY,
WEIL, Mulhouse; SAS or SASS,Podwolochisk; RAPOPORT, Tarnopol, Podwolochisk,
Berdichev; BEHAM, Salok and Kharkov; WOLPIANSKY, Ostryna.


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia Re: Fw: Research guidance needed #galicia

NFatouros@...
 

In a message dated 1/8/04 1:53:38 AM, Mauro Mowszowicz
(femur@fastlink.com.uy) writes:

<< Hello, need help to start my research of my 2 family sides


Town: Belz (or Beltz), Surname: Flasch

Town: Rava-Ruska, Surname: Feder


Any help will be greatly appreciated >>

New subscribers to this Galicia group should go first to www.jewishgen's main
page where they can click on a list of "Infofiles." There are several written
especially for beginning family history investigators and these articles can
be read online and printed out for future reference.

If any of Mr. Mowszowicz's ancestors emigrated to the US he could try the
Ellis Island Database (EIDB).

He should also look for his surnames at the listings of extant and available
birth, marriage and death records Jewishgen affiliated JRI-PL project at:

www.jewishgen.org/jri-pl/

Mr. Mowszowicz should also check through the archives of Jewishgen's
Discussion Group messages for people who live in or have ancestors who settled in
Uruguay and write to some of them. They may be able to advise him.


Naomi Fatouros (nee FELDMAN)
Bloomington, Indiana
NFatouros@aol.com
Researching: BELKOWSKY and BIELKOWSKY, Odessa,St. Petersburg and
Berdichev;ROTHSTEIN, Kremenchug; FELDMAN, Pinsk; SCHUTZ, RETTIG, WAHL, Shcherets; LEVY,
WEIL, Mulhouse; SAS or SASS,Podwolochisk; RAPOPORT, Tarnopol, Podwolochisk,
Berdichev; BEHAM, Salok and Kharkov; WOLPIANSKY, Ostryna.


London City Directory 1920 #unitedkingdom

B Frederics <picturethisfilm@...>
 

Hi again,

I found microfilm in the LDS catalog for the London Directory 1920. There
are three separate films and it specifies that there are alphabetical
listings, street listings, business listings, etc. However, it does not say
which film has which segment. Would anyone know whether the alphabetical
listing is in the first, second or third film? If not, I'll just have to
order the three.

Thanks.

Regards,
Bonnie Frederics
Tucson, Arizona, USA
picturethisfilm@email.com

Seeking: ADELSON (Bethnal Green)


JCR-UK SIG #UnitedKingdom London City Directory 1920 #unitedkingdom

B Frederics <picturethisfilm@...>
 

Hi again,

I found microfilm in the LDS catalog for the London Directory 1920. There
are three separate films and it specifies that there are alphabetical
listings, street listings, business listings, etc. However, it does not say
which film has which segment. Would anyone know whether the alphabetical
listing is in the first, second or third film? If not, I'll just have to
order the three.

Thanks.

Regards,
Bonnie Frederics
Tucson, Arizona, USA
picturethisfilm@email.com

Seeking: ADELSON (Bethnal Green)


Re: town name - Jalsvilgrad??? #belarus

Ari Grinberg <ariggira@...>
 

It's Elisavetgrad. Follow the "Elisavetgrad" link on
http://capital.lk.net/~leonkoll/millman/

Ari Grinberg
SF, CA
-----------
I have a ship's manifest that shows several ancestors
having been born
and residing
in Jalsvilgrad. Does anyone recognize this name?
Based on other
(conflicting)
information I have, it could be near Kiev, Ukraine or
Minsk, Belarus. I
tried
shtetlseeker but no luck. Thanks for any help.

Sharon Klein
Acworth, GA

__________________________________
Do you Yahoo!?
Yahoo! Hotjobs: Enter the "Signing Bonus" Sweepstakes
http://hotjobs.sweepstakes.yahoo.com/signingbonus


Ukraine SIG #Ukraine Re: town name - Jalsvilgrad??? #ukraine

Ari Grinberg <ariggira@...>
 

It's Elisavetgrad. Follow the "Elisavetgrad" link on
http://capital.lk.net/~leonkoll/millman/

Ari Grinberg
SF, CA
-----------
I have a ship's manifest that shows several ancestors
having been born
and residing
in Jalsvilgrad. Does anyone recognize this name?
Based on other
(conflicting)
information I have, it could be near Kiev, Ukraine or
Minsk, Belarus. I
tried
shtetlseeker but no luck. Thanks for any help.

Sharon Klein
Acworth, GA

__________________________________
Do you Yahoo!?
Yahoo! Hotjobs: Enter the "Signing Bonus" Sweepstakes
http://hotjobs.sweepstakes.yahoo.com/signingbonus


telling the family story #general

avram miller <news@...>
 

For the last few years I have been doing my family history. I have almost
800 people in my data base but more importantly, I have several thousand old
photos and documents. I know the life history of all my great grandparents
(three sets of which ended up in San Francisco where I was born) and even
know a bit about a number of my great great grandparents as well as my
grandparents and parents. I even have film (now converted to digital) of the
40's with two of my great grandparents as well as grandparents and parents.

Now I am about to develop a way to communicate the stories of my family for
my children's generation , and future generations to come. I plan to
develop two methods. One will be based on web technologies and the other
will be a linear DVD with chapters. As part of this I want to also capture
a bit of the history and events the effected my family. For instance why did
they leave Galicia? What was it like for them when they arrive in San
Francisco around 1900.

I would appreciate it you could send me links to sites that you think have
dealt while with telling a family history or any other suggestions you might
make that would be helpful to me on this project.
Thanks.

avram


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen telling the family story #general

avram miller <news@...>
 

For the last few years I have been doing my family history. I have almost
800 people in my data base but more importantly, I have several thousand old
photos and documents. I know the life history of all my great grandparents
(three sets of which ended up in San Francisco where I was born) and even
know a bit about a number of my great great grandparents as well as my
grandparents and parents. I even have film (now converted to digital) of the
40's with two of my great grandparents as well as grandparents and parents.

Now I am about to develop a way to communicate the stories of my family for
my children's generation , and future generations to come. I plan to
develop two methods. One will be based on web technologies and the other
will be a linear DVD with chapters. As part of this I want to also capture
a bit of the history and events the effected my family. For instance why did
they leave Galicia? What was it like for them when they arrive in San
Francisco around 1900.

I would appreciate it you could send me links to sites that you think have
dealt while with telling a family history or any other suggestions you might
make that would be helpful to me on this project.
Thanks.

avram


Gertrude JOACHIM BRYSON #general

Eden Joachim <esjoachim@...>
 

Seeking descendants of Gertrude JOACHIM BRYSON, daughter of Harry and Ester
ROBINSON JOACHIM.

Gertrude was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1912, and died in December 1974,
probably in Brooklyn, Queens or Nassau counties, New York.

Please contact me privately if you have any information.

Thank you,
Eden Joachim
Pomona, New York
esjoachim@optonline.net


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Gertrude JOACHIM BRYSON #general

Eden Joachim <esjoachim@...>
 

Seeking descendants of Gertrude JOACHIM BRYSON, daughter of Harry and Ester
ROBINSON JOACHIM.

Gertrude was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1912, and died in December 1974,
probably in Brooklyn, Queens or Nassau counties, New York.

Please contact me privately if you have any information.

Thank you,
Eden Joachim
Pomona, New York
esjoachim@optonline.net


Martin CANN #general

Eden Joachim <esjoachim@...>
 

The death certificate for cousin Joseph JOACHIM, died San Leandro California
3/27/1985, lists his nephew Martin CANN as informant. At that time, Martin
lived in Wantagh, Long Island, New York.

Martin was the son of Bertha / Berte JOACHIM CANN. If anyone knows Martin,
or any member of that family, I would appreciate hearing >from you, privately
of course.

Thank you,
Eden Joachim
Pomona, New York
esjoachim@optonline.net


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Martin CANN #general

Eden Joachim <esjoachim@...>
 

The death certificate for cousin Joseph JOACHIM, died San Leandro California
3/27/1985, lists his nephew Martin CANN as informant. At that time, Martin
lived in Wantagh, Long Island, New York.

Martin was the son of Bertha / Berte JOACHIM CANN. If anyone knows Martin,
or any member of that family, I would appreciate hearing >from you, privately
of course.

Thank you,
Eden Joachim
Pomona, New York
esjoachim@optonline.net


addresses in Hannover #germany

Elizabeth Jackson
 

Dear Gersig members,

Two documents I have >from Minden Germany, where my
mother lived, indicate her residence as follows:

May-Sept. 1937, Hannover, Schellingstr.3

Dec. 26, 1937 - Oct. 29, 1938, Hannover, Raabestr. 4

Does anyone know how I might find who was residing at
these addresses at that time? I believe my mother was
working for the families at these addresses. Mother
remembers the families she worked for very well, but
does not recall names. We believe at Raabestr., she
was working as a nanny and recalls only the child's
name, "Poldi". This family was Jewish and was taken
away at the end of Oct. 1938 (at which time my mother
returned to Minden, only to find that her family also
had been taken away).

Any help anyone can provide will be most appreciated!
Please respond privately to: cattheater@yahoo.com Thank you!


German SIG #Germany addresses in Hannover #germany

Elizabeth Jackson
 

Dear Gersig members,

Two documents I have >from Minden Germany, where my
mother lived, indicate her residence as follows:

May-Sept. 1937, Hannover, Schellingstr.3

Dec. 26, 1937 - Oct. 29, 1938, Hannover, Raabestr. 4

Does anyone know how I might find who was residing at
these addresses at that time? I believe my mother was
working for the families at these addresses. Mother
remembers the families she worked for very well, but
does not recall names. We believe at Raabestr., she
was working as a nanny and recalls only the child's
name, "Poldi". This family was Jewish and was taken
away at the end of Oct. 1938 (at which time my mother
returned to Minden, only to find that her family also
had been taken away).

Any help anyone can provide will be most appreciated!
Please respond privately to: cattheater@yahoo.com Thank you!


Re: Yaakov and Koepel #ukraine

Prof. G. L. Esterson <jerry@...>
 

Mara Fein posted on Ukraine SIG as follows:

Could someone please clarify whether Kopel is or is not the diminutive for
Yaakov and also explain the term KINUI?
The Yiddish name Kopl/Kopil is NOT a diminutive of the Hebrew name Yaakov
-- it is a kinui for that name. A KINUI is an alternative Yiddish or
secular name (for certain secular names specified by the rabbis), which
was found by statistical analysis by the rabbis of the time to have been
used extensively by Jews in conjunction with one or more Hebrew names (such
as Yaakov). A number of kinuim are used for more than one Hebrew name,
although some (like Kopl/Kopil) are pretty much restricted to one Hebrew
name (Yaakov). Of course, this having been a _statistical_ analysis on the
part of the rabbis of the time, one may expect to find occasional examples
of exceptions to their findings.

Sometimes we can speculate as to why the Jews chose one Yiddish/secular
name or another when they had first chosen the Hebrew name for a male or
female newborn, and then wanted to choose a name by which to call him/her
in the warmth of the family. But frequently the "explanation" for the
statistical connection between these names is not at all apparent. In most
cases, such "explanations" are pure, unsupported speculations on the part
of modern analysts who are looking backward in time.

The main problem is that the rabbis really did not care about the
background reasons which Jews used in making this choice -- they were
interested only in the facts on the ground. Such explanations had no place
in Jewish law, which is what the rabbis were mainly concerned with. The
law books written to be used as guidelines by divorce rabbis were therefor
reflections of what actually had happened, not of why they happened. And
one finds very few discussions in these law books relating to the reasons
for the links they found.

Usually, newborn males and females were first given a Hebrew name(s),
followed by names of endearment and sometimes a Yiddish or secular kinui
name, but for women who did not have a pressing need for a Hebrew name
(because they would not be called to the Tora in an aliya), they were often
given only a Yiddish and/or secular name.

In the law books, the rabbis did specify how such kinuim must be combined
with the basic Hebrew name in order to produce a legal name (within Jewish
law) that must be used to identify the person in a Get (divorce contact) or
other Jewish legal document. Thus, in the case of Yaakov and its kinui
Kopl, the name had to be written as follows in Hebrew characters in the
Get: Yaakov haMechune Kopl. Meaning, "Yaakov who is called Kopl". If the
man had both names and one was missing, the Get could later be declared by
another rabbi to be faulty and cancelled. You can imagine the problems
this might cause in the case where one or both parties to the divorce
remarried and had additional children -- these children would probably be
declared to be "bastards" under Jewish law, with all the bad implications
of this situation. Including restrictions on who they could marry in the
future under Jewish law.

So, having the correct legal name written in a Get was of supreme
importance, and great care was taken by divorce rabbis to investigate what
names the man and woman had, how frequently these names were used by them
and by others acquainted with them, and numerous other criteria by which
the names were to be judged in terms of their legality in Jewish law. This
normally involved extensive discussions and investigations with the parties
to the divorce, their families, and their friends and acquaintances. The
JewishGen Given Names Data Base web site has extensive discussions of these
issues.

I suggest that those interested in pursuing this question in terms of
examples, visit the JewishGen Given Names Data Base web site at <
http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/GivenNames > and search for some Hebrew
names which normally did have kinuim. A short list of such names
is: Aharon, Aleksander, Avraham, Chana, Dawid, Efrayim, Menachem, Miryam,
Shlomo, Yaakov, Yisrael, and Yehoshua. All of these Hebrew names had a
number of different kinuim. I suggest that you might want to check these
Hebrew names in the Poland Given Names Data Base, since Poland had a much
larger set of kinuim for the Hebrew names popularly used locally, than
almost any other European country. In fact, the Jews of Poland (at one
point, the largest single concentration of Jews in any European country)
had a very rich and large selection of names of all sorts, including many
German and Polish secular names.

Most of the secular names adopted by Jews and authorized by the rabbis for
writing in a Get were those used by German Jews during the 18th and 19th
centuries. These secular German names (e.g., Adolf, Abraham, Adele, Agnes,
Albert, Albine, Harry, Dagobert, Daniel, Debora, Friderike, Fritz, Hugo,
John, Ladislaw, Lullu, Maximilian, Peppi, and numerous others) were quickly
adopted by Jews in other European countries, and were similarly legalized
there as well. In some cases, this adoption became so extant that many of
the names were subsequently thought to be LOCAL secular names for Jews. In
addition to these German secular names, however, a small number of local
secular names in other countries were also selected by Jews and widely used
(e.g., in Poland, Andrzej, Antoni, Achill, Boguslaw, Gusta, Halina, Hilary,
Kazimierz, and others).

Try searching in the Poland Given Names Data Base for some of these names,
to see what other secular nicknames were also used by Jews locally, and to
what other names they may also have been linked.

Sorry that this has turned out to be such a long discussion!

Shabbat shalom,

Professor G. L. Esterson, Ra'anana


Ukraine SIG #Ukraine Re:Yaakov and Koepel #ukraine

Prof. G. L. Esterson <jerry@...>
 

Mara Fein posted on Ukraine SIG as follows:

Could someone please clarify whether Kopel is or is not the diminutive for
Yaakov and also explain the term KINUI?
The Yiddish name Kopl/Kopil is NOT a diminutive of the Hebrew name Yaakov
-- it is a kinui for that name. A KINUI is an alternative Yiddish or
secular name (for certain secular names specified by the rabbis), which
was found by statistical analysis by the rabbis of the time to have been
used extensively by Jews in conjunction with one or more Hebrew names (such
as Yaakov). A number of kinuim are used for more than one Hebrew name,
although some (like Kopl/Kopil) are pretty much restricted to one Hebrew
name (Yaakov). Of course, this having been a _statistical_ analysis on the
part of the rabbis of the time, one may expect to find occasional examples
of exceptions to their findings.

Sometimes we can speculate as to why the Jews chose one Yiddish/secular
name or another when they had first chosen the Hebrew name for a male or
female newborn, and then wanted to choose a name by which to call him/her
in the warmth of the family. But frequently the "explanation" for the
statistical connection between these names is not at all apparent. In most
cases, such "explanations" are pure, unsupported speculations on the part
of modern analysts who are looking backward in time.

The main problem is that the rabbis really did not care about the
background reasons which Jews used in making this choice -- they were
interested only in the facts on the ground. Such explanations had no place
in Jewish law, which is what the rabbis were mainly concerned with. The
law books written to be used as guidelines by divorce rabbis were therefor
reflections of what actually had happened, not of why they happened. And
one finds very few discussions in these law books relating to the reasons
for the links they found.

Usually, newborn males and females were first given a Hebrew name(s),
followed by names of endearment and sometimes a Yiddish or secular kinui
name, but for women who did not have a pressing need for a Hebrew name
(because they would not be called to the Tora in an aliya), they were often
given only a Yiddish and/or secular name.

In the law books, the rabbis did specify how such kinuim must be combined
with the basic Hebrew name in order to produce a legal name (within Jewish
law) that must be used to identify the person in a Get (divorce contact) or
other Jewish legal document. Thus, in the case of Yaakov and its kinui
Kopl, the name had to be written as follows in Hebrew characters in the
Get: Yaakov haMechune Kopl. Meaning, "Yaakov who is called Kopl". If the
man had both names and one was missing, the Get could later be declared by
another rabbi to be faulty and cancelled. You can imagine the problems
this might cause in the case where one or both parties to the divorce
remarried and had additional children -- these children would probably be
declared to be "bastards" under Jewish law, with all the bad implications
of this situation. Including restrictions on who they could marry in the
future under Jewish law.

So, having the correct legal name written in a Get was of supreme
importance, and great care was taken by divorce rabbis to investigate what
names the man and woman had, how frequently these names were used by them
and by others acquainted with them, and numerous other criteria by which
the names were to be judged in terms of their legality in Jewish law. This
normally involved extensive discussions and investigations with the parties
to the divorce, their families, and their friends and acquaintances. The
JewishGen Given Names Data Base web site has extensive discussions of these
issues.

I suggest that those interested in pursuing this question in terms of
examples, visit the JewishGen Given Names Data Base web site at <
http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/GivenNames > and search for some Hebrew
names which normally did have kinuim. A short list of such names
is: Aharon, Aleksander, Avraham, Chana, Dawid, Efrayim, Menachem, Miryam,
Shlomo, Yaakov, Yisrael, and Yehoshua. All of these Hebrew names had a
number of different kinuim. I suggest that you might want to check these
Hebrew names in the Poland Given Names Data Base, since Poland had a much
larger set of kinuim for the Hebrew names popularly used locally, than
almost any other European country. In fact, the Jews of Poland (at one
point, the largest single concentration of Jews in any European country)
had a very rich and large selection of names of all sorts, including many
German and Polish secular names.

Most of the secular names adopted by Jews and authorized by the rabbis for
writing in a Get were those used by German Jews during the 18th and 19th
centuries. These secular German names (e.g., Adolf, Abraham, Adele, Agnes,
Albert, Albine, Harry, Dagobert, Daniel, Debora, Friderike, Fritz, Hugo,
John, Ladislaw, Lullu, Maximilian, Peppi, and numerous others) were quickly
adopted by Jews in other European countries, and were similarly legalized
there as well. In some cases, this adoption became so extant that many of
the names were subsequently thought to be LOCAL secular names for Jews. In
addition to these German secular names, however, a small number of local
secular names in other countries were also selected by Jews and widely used
(e.g., in Poland, Andrzej, Antoni, Achill, Boguslaw, Gusta, Halina, Hilary,
Kazimierz, and others).

Try searching in the Poland Given Names Data Base for some of these names,
to see what other secular nicknames were also used by Jews locally, and to
what other names they may also have been linked.

Sorry that this has turned out to be such a long discussion!

Shabbat shalom,

Professor G. L. Esterson, Ra'anana