Date   

Re: French research (Forbach) #general

BasGinger@...
 

Leah and all,

I have a few questions regarding research in France.

My objective is to determine the birth town of a relative that was born
in Poland and moved to France sometime after WWII. All I have are the
name, birth and death dates and the name of the town where he lived
(Forbach).
This is quite a fair information. To begin with, here is the answer: he was
born in Siedliszcze (but there are three towns with that name, see JewishGen
ShtetlSeeker).
The method I used is a CDROM with an index to the French naturalizations
between 1900 and 1950. He was naturalized on 28/9/1946 as Lejba LIBERMAN,
with his minor son Abraham, born on 7/4/1931. Most probably he settled in
France before the war, because if he did not the delay for getting the
naturalization would have been too short.

If by some lucky chance I can find information about his parent that
would be a bonus.
You should try writing to Mairie de Forbach
service de l'etat civil
57600 Forbach
and requesting a copy of the death certificate ("copie de l'acte de deces"):
they have it if he died in Forbach, or elsewhere but was living in Forbach
before his death.
If they have not this death certificate, we could help you consult his
naturalization file, which usually comprises much information.
There is no information available via the Internet.

Finally just in case, I am including the information I have. The relative
I am researching is Leon NIDERMAN born 10/09/1904, died 23/12/1994,
married to Esther NAJIEBORN, lived in Forbach.
It seems he had no wife when he applied for naturalization. Maybe his
(second?) wife's name was NAJGIEBURN (according to similar names in the
index for naturalizations).

Basile Ginger, CGJ
(Cercle de Genealogie Juive, International JGS in Paris)
http://www.genealoj.org

Searching for: GINGER (Yavorov, Brody, Kishinev), BLUMENFELD (Lublin,
Kishinev), PRISMAN (Kretinga, Liepaja), GRINFELD (Brody, Kishinev),
HIRSCHBERG (Jelgava), KLEIN (only >from Odessa).


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: French research (Forbach) #general

BasGinger@...
 

Leah and all,

I have a few questions regarding research in France.

My objective is to determine the birth town of a relative that was born
in Poland and moved to France sometime after WWII. All I have are the
name, birth and death dates and the name of the town where he lived
(Forbach).
This is quite a fair information. To begin with, here is the answer: he was
born in Siedliszcze (but there are three towns with that name, see JewishGen
ShtetlSeeker).
The method I used is a CDROM with an index to the French naturalizations
between 1900 and 1950. He was naturalized on 28/9/1946 as Lejba LIBERMAN,
with his minor son Abraham, born on 7/4/1931. Most probably he settled in
France before the war, because if he did not the delay for getting the
naturalization would have been too short.

If by some lucky chance I can find information about his parent that
would be a bonus.
You should try writing to Mairie de Forbach
service de l'etat civil
57600 Forbach
and requesting a copy of the death certificate ("copie de l'acte de deces"):
they have it if he died in Forbach, or elsewhere but was living in Forbach
before his death.
If they have not this death certificate, we could help you consult his
naturalization file, which usually comprises much information.
There is no information available via the Internet.

Finally just in case, I am including the information I have. The relative
I am researching is Leon NIDERMAN born 10/09/1904, died 23/12/1994,
married to Esther NAJIEBORN, lived in Forbach.
It seems he had no wife when he applied for naturalization. Maybe his
(second?) wife's name was NAJGIEBURN (according to similar names in the
index for naturalizations).

Basile Ginger, CGJ
(Cercle de Genealogie Juive, International JGS in Paris)
http://www.genealoj.org

Searching for: GINGER (Yavorov, Brody, Kishinev), BLUMENFELD (Lublin,
Kishinev), PRISMAN (Kretinga, Liepaja), GRINFELD (Brody, Kishinev),
HIRSCHBERG (Jelgava), KLEIN (only >from Odessa).


Mt. Nebo Cemetery, Miami, Florida #general

Ann Rabinowitz <annrab@...>
 

Dear JewishGenners:

As I do every year about this time, I write down a few family names of those
who are buried near my parents in the Mt. Nebo Cemetery in Miami, Florida.
The following are the names I copied this year and you may contact me for
the full citation on the tombstone if you are related:

Amsterdam, Jules
Brener, Jose
Brener, Rykla
Brizel, Clara
Brizel, Frances
Brizel, Jacob
Brizel, Joseph
Duvdivany, Murray
Duvdivany, Rachel
Lapides, Abraham
Lapides, Sarah
Lapides, Sidney S.
Pascul, Isadore
Pascul, Lena
Pascul, Norman Edward
Schonberger, David
Shponka, Benjamin
Suchman, Ella
Suchman, Samuel
Taran, Barry L.
Taran, Samuel H.
Zoltowski, Pincus

Ann Rabinowitz
annrab@bellsouth.net


Re: Details on Newark Evening News name index? #general

Marty <marty@...>
 

The indices are in the local history room at the Newark Public
Library. They are hand written (!) and are only available there.
There are many of these books, each covering a period
of time for some segment of the alphabet. They are a bit tedious
to use. I have gone there and used them once.

I am not sure which years are covered but you could call the library
to find out. Also, you could check your the Newark Public Library's
web site as a start.

http://www.npl.org/Pages/Collections/njic.html

Good luck.

--
Marty Meyers
<meyers01@comcast.net>


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Mt. Nebo Cemetery, Miami, Florida #general

Ann Rabinowitz <annrab@...>
 

Dear JewishGenners:

As I do every year about this time, I write down a few family names of those
who are buried near my parents in the Mt. Nebo Cemetery in Miami, Florida.
The following are the names I copied this year and you may contact me for
the full citation on the tombstone if you are related:

Amsterdam, Jules
Brener, Jose
Brener, Rykla
Brizel, Clara
Brizel, Frances
Brizel, Jacob
Brizel, Joseph
Duvdivany, Murray
Duvdivany, Rachel
Lapides, Abraham
Lapides, Sarah
Lapides, Sidney S.
Pascul, Isadore
Pascul, Lena
Pascul, Norman Edward
Schonberger, David
Shponka, Benjamin
Suchman, Ella
Suchman, Samuel
Taran, Barry L.
Taran, Samuel H.
Zoltowski, Pincus

Ann Rabinowitz
annrab@bellsouth.net


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Details on Newark Evening News name index? #general

Marty <marty@...>
 

The indices are in the local history room at the Newark Public
Library. They are hand written (!) and are only available there.
There are many of these books, each covering a period
of time for some segment of the alphabet. They are a bit tedious
to use. I have gone there and used them once.

I am not sure which years are covered but you could call the library
to find out. Also, you could check your the Newark Public Library's
web site as a start.

http://www.npl.org/Pages/Collections/njic.html

Good luck.

--
Marty Meyers
<meyers01@comcast.net>


Re: Assistance with EIDB #general

FREYAB@...
 

Marcia wrote in part:
Also the ship listed, Etruria >from Hamburg also appears
inaccurate. I do not know if it is the ship name or the port,
and definitely the date is not accurate.
How to find the dates the Etruria sailed and >from where;
how to get destination names/addresses >from the manifests....

"The Morton Allen Directory of Passenger
Steamship Arrivals" has been republished.
Check to see if you can purchase a copy
thru the JewishGen Mall.
(If not, try a Google search)
The following site also has some useful
information about passenger ships -
<A HREF="http://home.att.net/~arnielang/ship07.html">
Guide to Immigration Records and Ship's Passenger Lists-Section 7.0</A>
Cyndi's list, (first selection) has very good info.

MODERATOR NOTE: The JewishGen Mall does indeed have the Morton Allan
Directory for sale, and all items in the Mall are currently being offered at
a 10% discount! Go to <www.jewishgenmall.org> and search for "Morton".


Re: Assistance needed with Ellis Island Database, pls #general

sallybru <sallybru@...>
 

I'm not sure what you are asking, as you seem to have the ship, etc.
information but want to see it. If you cannot find the information on-line,
and want the search through the various passenger lists, you can order them
from a FHL or NARA.
Of course, it is possible that the person you seek came through Boston or
Philadelphia or Canada or elsewhere-and he isn't in the Ellis Island records
at all.

If his name was changed, it was probably changed after he arrived in the US.
Most (but certainly not all) people had their 'European' name until after
they arrived and someone said "Sam is more American or Cohen is easier to
spell" than whatever it was. Unfortunately that means searching in the US
until you find more information.

Sally Bruckheimer
Albany, NY


Re: Trepman VS Trejbman - your opinion #general

sallybru <sallybru@...>
 

When looking for ancestors, one of the things to keep in mind was that
clerks spelled names by 'how they sounded' in many instances. If a Polish
or Russian clerk had to write a Yiddish name, the same thing happened as
when an Ellis Island clerk or a US census taker heard an unfamiliar name.
So my gr grandmother, Rachel Lowenstein, was listed as Rachel Livingston on
her daughter's birth record in New York. And Trejbman could easily become
Trepman.

It is, however, not necessarily the same person or the same family. If I
didn't have other information about my grandmother's family, I wouldn't know
for sure that I had the right birth record, and you can't know that any
Trepman is necessarily 'your' Trejbman. You need other information to make
that decision.

Sally Bruckheimer
Albany, NY


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Assistance with EIDB #general

FREYAB@...
 

Marcia wrote in part:
Also the ship listed, Etruria >from Hamburg also appears
inaccurate. I do not know if it is the ship name or the port,
and definitely the date is not accurate.
How to find the dates the Etruria sailed and >from where;
how to get destination names/addresses >from the manifests....

"The Morton Allen Directory of Passenger
Steamship Arrivals" has been republished.
Check to see if you can purchase a copy
thru the JewishGen Mall.
(If not, try a Google search)
The following site also has some useful
information about passenger ships -
<A HREF="http://home.att.net/~arnielang/ship07.html">
Guide to Immigration Records and Ship's Passenger Lists-Section 7.0</A>
Cyndi's list, (first selection) has very good info.

MODERATOR NOTE: The JewishGen Mall does indeed have the Morton Allan
Directory for sale, and all items in the Mall are currently being offered at
a 10% discount! Go to <www.jewishgenmall.org> and search for "Morton".


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Assistance needed with Ellis Island Database, pls #general

sallybru <sallybru@...>
 

I'm not sure what you are asking, as you seem to have the ship, etc.
information but want to see it. If you cannot find the information on-line,
and want the search through the various passenger lists, you can order them
from a FHL or NARA.
Of course, it is possible that the person you seek came through Boston or
Philadelphia or Canada or elsewhere-and he isn't in the Ellis Island records
at all.

If his name was changed, it was probably changed after he arrived in the US.
Most (but certainly not all) people had their 'European' name until after
they arrived and someone said "Sam is more American or Cohen is easier to
spell" than whatever it was. Unfortunately that means searching in the US
until you find more information.

Sally Bruckheimer
Albany, NY


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Trepman VS Trejbman - your opinion #general

sallybru <sallybru@...>
 

When looking for ancestors, one of the things to keep in mind was that
clerks spelled names by 'how they sounded' in many instances. If a Polish
or Russian clerk had to write a Yiddish name, the same thing happened as
when an Ellis Island clerk or a US census taker heard an unfamiliar name.
So my gr grandmother, Rachel Lowenstein, was listed as Rachel Livingston on
her daughter's birth record in New York. And Trejbman could easily become
Trepman.

It is, however, not necessarily the same person or the same family. If I
didn't have other information about my grandmother's family, I wouldn't know
for sure that I had the right birth record, and you can't know that any
Trepman is necessarily 'your' Trejbman. You need other information to make
that decision.

Sally Bruckheimer
Albany, NY


Re: Chassidic dress #general

R <ruthien@...>
 

Robert Israel wrote:
Bernard Rosinsky wrote:
I have pictures of family members at the turn of the 20th century
(some end of 19th century). I know that it is possible to categorize a
tradiional jew by his clothing: Is he a Chassid or a Mitnaged and if a
Chassid, what group he belonged to. Is there a reference book that can
help me determine where I should categorize my ancestor?
Can I deduce more facts >from just a picture?
In general, you can deduce little >from such a picture. Traditional dress
in Russia, for instance, was virtually identical among both chasidim and
misnagdim. And in Lithuania, the dress was somewhat different >from in
Russia, but there again, chassidim and traditional misnagdim dressed
nearly alike. Ditto for Poland, and for Galicia, Hungary, etc.
The one thing I have heard is that chassidic men generally button their
coats right-over-left (for kabbalistic reasons) while misnagdim most
commonly do it left-over-right.
Yes, I had forgotten that. And while there are exceptions on both
sides, for the most part this is correct.

But unless some written or printed material appears in the
photograph, or some other visual clue as to right/left
orientation, it is hard to tell whether right and left are
correctly represented in an old photo, or whether the negative
was printed with the emulsion side away >from the paper, resulting
in an image with right/left reversed.

There is a famous photograph of a person wh appears to be the
Lubavitcher Rebbe in his youth conversing with an elderly
gentelman on a street somewhere, and the Rebbe's coat is buttoned
left over right, which would be incorrect for a chassid.. Careful
examination of a computer-enhanced image reveals a sign in a
store front, in which the lettering in reversed. Thus, a correct
rendering of the image would have the Rebbe's coat buttoned right
over left.

Moshe Siechmach
Fine Art and Linoleum


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Chassidic dress #general

R <ruthien@...>
 

Robert Israel wrote:
Bernard Rosinsky wrote:
I have pictures of family members at the turn of the 20th century
(some end of 19th century). I know that it is possible to categorize a
tradiional jew by his clothing: Is he a Chassid or a Mitnaged and if a
Chassid, what group he belonged to. Is there a reference book that can
help me determine where I should categorize my ancestor?
Can I deduce more facts >from just a picture?
In general, you can deduce little >from such a picture. Traditional dress
in Russia, for instance, was virtually identical among both chasidim and
misnagdim. And in Lithuania, the dress was somewhat different >from in
Russia, but there again, chassidim and traditional misnagdim dressed
nearly alike. Ditto for Poland, and for Galicia, Hungary, etc.
The one thing I have heard is that chassidic men generally button their
coats right-over-left (for kabbalistic reasons) while misnagdim most
commonly do it left-over-right.
Yes, I had forgotten that. And while there are exceptions on both
sides, for the most part this is correct.

But unless some written or printed material appears in the
photograph, or some other visual clue as to right/left
orientation, it is hard to tell whether right and left are
correctly represented in an old photo, or whether the negative
was printed with the emulsion side away >from the paper, resulting
in an image with right/left reversed.

There is a famous photograph of a person wh appears to be the
Lubavitcher Rebbe in his youth conversing with an elderly
gentelman on a street somewhere, and the Rebbe's coat is buttoned
left over right, which would be incorrect for a chassid.. Careful
examination of a computer-enhanced image reveals a sign in a
store front, in which the lettering in reversed. Thus, a correct
rendering of the image would have the Rebbe's coat buttoned right
over left.

Moshe Siechmach
Fine Art and Linoleum


Re: Sephardic surnames? #general

Leon Taranto
 

The massacres and forced conversions of at least tens of thousands of Jews
of Spain in 1391, starting in Seville and sweeping across Spain, did not
mark the last years for Jews in Spain. The process of Christian
victimization of the Jews of Spain had started long before, and continued
also for the next century. The year 1391 was a watershed event because it
split Spanish Jewry into two communities that evolved quite differently.
The many thousands who were forcibly converted to Christianity in 1391, and
their descendants, were known as New Christians, or as Conversos. Many,
many of them practiced Judaism secretly, or at least continued various
Judiac practices. Very often, they were related by blood and marriage to
families who survived the horrors of 1391, rejected attempts at conversion,
and remained Jewish afterwards. Also, conversionary pressures, which had
persisted for centuries, intensified in the early 1400's and many thousands
of Spanish Jews joined the New Christians of 1391.

There was no Inquisition in Spain until 1480's. As a result, it was
possible for many New Chrisitians or 'Anusim' (forced ones) to outwardly
appear as Christians and yet inwardly retains aspects of their Judiasm,
their firm belief in one G-d, and the observance of Jewish religious
practices. At the same time, while the Christian rulers of the Spanish
kingdoms of Aragon and Castille, and the Church, continued to victimize the
Jews and subject them to oppressive restrictions and confiscatory taxes, New
Christians or Conversos were permitted to prosper. In time, there was much
jealousy among Old Christians and the Conversos became targets of violence
-- just as Jews had been earlier.

In January 1492, the Christian monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and his wife
Isabella of Castille conquered Granada, the last Moorish outpost in Spain.
Seeing Spain unified as a Christian kingdom, Ferdinand, Isabella, at
prompting of the Church (through its holy office of the Inquisition and its
grand inquisitor Torquemada), issued a declaration expelling all Jews >from
Spain (except for Navarre, which they did not control, and >from which the
Jews were expelled in 1498 at their urging). The purported purpose of the
Expulsion was to extinquish the contacts between Conversos and Jews that
supposedly had prevented many Conversos >from becoming faithful Christians.

In the aftermath of the explusion of the Spanish Jews in 1492, the
Inquisition continued to function with exceptional savagery as it claimed to
look for Jewish practices among the Conversos. Much of this same history
was later repeated in Portugal, where the Jews were forcibly converted en
masse in around 1497, and then subjected to the Inquisition that was adopted
about 40 years later.

As has been noted, many name changes occurred. In time, many of the
Conversos of Portugal left for other places and openly declared their
Judaism, Along with them they brought their Spanish and Portuguese
surnames. I might guess, for example, that my great-great-grandmother,
Catherine Hererra (who lived in Antalya, Turkey around the early 1800's)
came >from one of those families of Spanish Conversos.

I hope that this provides some light as to the mystery of the Jewish roots
for many who live in Spain (and Portugal too). There is some much valuable
literature on this subject. If you would like a few good references, please
let us know.

Leon Taranto
Rockville, Maryland

MODERATOR NOTE: Responses related to genealogy will be considered for
posting. Any other communications on the Spanish Inquisition and related
historical topics should be sent privately.


Point of Depature Passenger Records #general

JANICE GOLDMAN <jg2333@...>
 

Dear Jewishgenners:
I have heard that passenger point of departure records may be available in
some cases, and may hold valuable information.
- Do you know if passenger departure records >from the following
ports/ships/dates are available and, if so, how they can be accessed?
* Havre, France/LaBretagne/1907
* Treiste/Laura/1908
- Do you know if Ellis Island has any photos or documents that can be
researched onsite, categorized by ship or individual? If medical records for
the arrivees exist and may be accessed?
Shana Tovah to all.
Janice Goldman
jg2333@msn.com
Chicago, IL USA

GOLDMAN:Russia/Turkey
GOLDBERG/GOLDEMBERG: Romania/Turkey
KLEIN/KLINE/or similar: Russia
MARCOVICI/MARCU/MARCUS: Romania


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Re: Sephardic surnames? #general

Leon Taranto
 

The massacres and forced conversions of at least tens of thousands of Jews
of Spain in 1391, starting in Seville and sweeping across Spain, did not
mark the last years for Jews in Spain. The process of Christian
victimization of the Jews of Spain had started long before, and continued
also for the next century. The year 1391 was a watershed event because it
split Spanish Jewry into two communities that evolved quite differently.
The many thousands who were forcibly converted to Christianity in 1391, and
their descendants, were known as New Christians, or as Conversos. Many,
many of them practiced Judaism secretly, or at least continued various
Judiac practices. Very often, they were related by blood and marriage to
families who survived the horrors of 1391, rejected attempts at conversion,
and remained Jewish afterwards. Also, conversionary pressures, which had
persisted for centuries, intensified in the early 1400's and many thousands
of Spanish Jews joined the New Christians of 1391.

There was no Inquisition in Spain until 1480's. As a result, it was
possible for many New Chrisitians or 'Anusim' (forced ones) to outwardly
appear as Christians and yet inwardly retains aspects of their Judiasm,
their firm belief in one G-d, and the observance of Jewish religious
practices. At the same time, while the Christian rulers of the Spanish
kingdoms of Aragon and Castille, and the Church, continued to victimize the
Jews and subject them to oppressive restrictions and confiscatory taxes, New
Christians or Conversos were permitted to prosper. In time, there was much
jealousy among Old Christians and the Conversos became targets of violence
-- just as Jews had been earlier.

In January 1492, the Christian monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and his wife
Isabella of Castille conquered Granada, the last Moorish outpost in Spain.
Seeing Spain unified as a Christian kingdom, Ferdinand, Isabella, at
prompting of the Church (through its holy office of the Inquisition and its
grand inquisitor Torquemada), issued a declaration expelling all Jews >from
Spain (except for Navarre, which they did not control, and >from which the
Jews were expelled in 1498 at their urging). The purported purpose of the
Expulsion was to extinquish the contacts between Conversos and Jews that
supposedly had prevented many Conversos >from becoming faithful Christians.

In the aftermath of the explusion of the Spanish Jews in 1492, the
Inquisition continued to function with exceptional savagery as it claimed to
look for Jewish practices among the Conversos. Much of this same history
was later repeated in Portugal, where the Jews were forcibly converted en
masse in around 1497, and then subjected to the Inquisition that was adopted
about 40 years later.

As has been noted, many name changes occurred. In time, many of the
Conversos of Portugal left for other places and openly declared their
Judaism, Along with them they brought their Spanish and Portuguese
surnames. I might guess, for example, that my great-great-grandmother,
Catherine Hererra (who lived in Antalya, Turkey around the early 1800's)
came >from one of those families of Spanish Conversos.

I hope that this provides some light as to the mystery of the Jewish roots
for many who live in Spain (and Portugal too). There is some much valuable
literature on this subject. If you would like a few good references, please
let us know.

Leon Taranto
Rockville, Maryland

MODERATOR NOTE: Responses related to genealogy will be considered for
posting. Any other communications on the Spanish Inquisition and related
historical topics should be sent privately.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Point of Depature Passenger Records #general

JANICE GOLDMAN <jg2333@...>
 

Dear Jewishgenners:
I have heard that passenger point of departure records may be available in
some cases, and may hold valuable information.
- Do you know if passenger departure records >from the following
ports/ships/dates are available and, if so, how they can be accessed?
* Havre, France/LaBretagne/1907
* Treiste/Laura/1908
- Do you know if Ellis Island has any photos or documents that can be
researched onsite, categorized by ship or individual? If medical records for
the arrivees exist and may be accessed?
Shana Tovah to all.
Janice Goldman
jg2333@msn.com
Chicago, IL USA

GOLDMAN:Russia/Turkey
GOLDBERG/GOLDEMBERG: Romania/Turkey
KLEIN/KLINE/or similar: Russia
MARCOVICI/MARCU/MARCUS: Romania


Hebrew cursive script #general

Tom Venetianer <tom.vene@...>
 

An excellent article about the Hebrew alphabet can be found at:
<http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=1308&letter=A>
The link below depicts the evolution of the Hebrew script:
<http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/img_template.jsp?volume1/V01p453001.jpg&volume=volume1&imgid=169>
According to that table and the article, seemingly the Ashkenazic
Hebrew cursive script evolved in Germany.
Tom

Subject: "modern cursive" Hebrew--German or Polish in origin?
From: MBernet@aol.com
Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 23:14:04 EDT
X-Message-Number: 3

Can anyone tell me whether the current formalized cursive script that's
used in Israel was developed in Germany or in Eastern Europe?
I'm trying to trace some documents to their geographic origin.
Michael Bernet, New York mBernet@aol.com
--
Tom Venetianer <mailto:tom.vene@uol.com.br>
Sao Paulo - Brazil

MODERATOR NOTE: If the second URL above appears on two lines, it may be
necessary to copy and paste both lines into your browser.


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Hebrew cursive script #general

Tom Venetianer <tom.vene@...>
 

An excellent article about the Hebrew alphabet can be found at:
<http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=1308&letter=A>
The link below depicts the evolution of the Hebrew script:
<http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/img_template.jsp?volume1/V01p453001.jpg&volume=volume1&imgid=169>
According to that table and the article, seemingly the Ashkenazic
Hebrew cursive script evolved in Germany.
Tom

Subject: "modern cursive" Hebrew--German or Polish in origin?
From: MBernet@aol.com
Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 23:14:04 EDT
X-Message-Number: 3

Can anyone tell me whether the current formalized cursive script that's
used in Israel was developed in Germany or in Eastern Europe?
I'm trying to trace some documents to their geographic origin.
Michael Bernet, New York mBernet@aol.com
--
Tom Venetianer <mailto:tom.vene@uol.com.br>
Sao Paulo - Brazil

MODERATOR NOTE: If the second URL above appears on two lines, it may be
necessary to copy and paste both lines into your browser.