Date   

Re: Information re: KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS (Lithuania); formerly NEUSTADT, East ... #lithuania

DBH12345
 

<< In response to my earlier posting re: NEUSTADT, a kind cousin forwarded the
name and location of the town. It is now called KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS, and is
located 54 46/22 53, between KOVNO and KALININGRAD (formerly Konigsberg). I'm
wondering if anyone else in litvaksig has roots in this town or region, and/or
information to share about them.

Thank you for your attention!

Matt Singer
Philadelphia
msinger@philamuseum.org >>

Dear Matt,

There is a shtetl research group for this town coordinated by Ben Lesin
<LithHands@aol.com>. Ben's family left in 1939 and he has a great deal of
information.

David Hoffman
Co-Coordinator, LitvakSIG


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Re: Information re: KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS (Lithuania); formerly NEUSTADT, East ... #lithuania

DBH12345
 

<< In response to my earlier posting re: NEUSTADT, a kind cousin forwarded the
name and location of the town. It is now called KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS, and is
located 54 46/22 53, between KOVNO and KALININGRAD (formerly Konigsberg). I'm
wondering if anyone else in litvaksig has roots in this town or region, and/or
information to share about them.

Thank you for your attention!

Matt Singer
Philadelphia
msinger@philamuseum.org >>

Dear Matt,

There is a shtetl research group for this town coordinated by Ben Lesin
<LithHands@aol.com>. Ben's family left in 1939 and he has a great deal of
information.

David Hoffman
Co-Coordinator, LitvakSIG


Donations to h-sig projects #hungary

Louis Schonfeld <lmagyar@...>
 

According to the most recent accounting given to me by Jewishgen here are
the funds in our various h-sig projects:

H-sig general fund $60.00
Memoria- Hungarian Jewish Genealogy Society $125.00
Uzhgorod cemetery $50.00
Vranov cemetery $50.00

The Jewishgen American Express Account will be available to transfer these
funds by the end of this month.
The amounts shown do not include the matching funds I pledged for specific
projects which will be included at the time of transfer. A previous attempt
that I had made several years ago at sending money by personal check did not
work well since the banks in Hungary and Slovakia charge high fees for
cashing many types of checks. A more recent attempt that I also made to send
cash also ended in "disaster" so the only method I recommend is via
Jewishgen's Amex account whereby the recipient/vendor receives payment at a
local American Express office and signs a receipt.
To view the various h-sig projects and make a tax-deductible contribution
the URL is:
http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/hungary.html

Best wishes to all
Louis Schonfeld




Please visit our website at:
http://www.jewishgen.org/Hungary/


More Yizkor book excerpts #lithuania

A.W.Cassel <awcassel@...>
 

Many thanks for Monty Starr for translating the story of the Doctor and the
Town Chief. (Would it be accurate to call that fellow a Police Chief, or
Constable, Monty? I suppose the most suitable English term might depend on
whether your orientation was to British or American officialdom ... )

At any rate, here's yet another of the Yizkor book articles; this one
appears on page 92. It was translated into English by Chaim Charutz of
Israel. I think a "progymnasium" would be roughly equivalent to a middle or
junior-high school ...

Best to all,

Andy


-------------------------------------------------------------------------



Dr. Mordechai Suchin (Minneapolis)

Reminiscences of the Progymnasium in Keidan

The progymnasium was established in 1921. During its first year, about 40
students, aged approximately 13, were registered. They all studied in one
class. The teacher and first principal was Reb Yisrael Magentza. He was a
young man, a bachelor, charismatic, with eminent knowledge in the social
sciences generally and in Jewish studies in particular. However, he was
mainly an "emissary" par excellence, devoted to his work, with a
national-pioneering disposition, who knew what was ahead of him and who
overcame all difficulties.
In his first year, he stayed in the house of a German pastor at the edge
of the city. This house was furnished as a school for teaching his
community. The Pastor, by the way, was also the German teacher. The students
suffered >from him, because he beat them with his hand, which had a heavy
ring on one of its fingers. At one time, the students rebelled and refused
to return to the class after the break.
The subjects taught in the first year were Hebrew language and
literature, Jewish and general history, geography and Bible. Most of the
subjects did not have textbooks. The teacher used to prepare stencils in his
own handwriting and the students used to come to his room to help him make
copies.
During its second year, the progymnasium moved to the city center, to a
two-story building with classrooms and a staff room. Mathematics, nature
studies and Lithuanian were added as subjects. For mathematics, we used the
book of Sh. Kapit, hand-written and printed by offset. The history text was
written by Luboshitsky. For literature, we used "Chistomathia" (by K.
Shulman) and the Hebrew syntax of N. Lidsky.
The first teacher, Mr. Magentza, had a strong influence on his students
both within and outside the classroom. I remember that he took the students
to Plednegi, about seven miles >from the city. It had a training farm for
pioneers preparing for Aliya to Palestine. It is possible to imagine the
impression that this made on the young students. On this visit, they saw the
Zionist idea being actualized before their very eyes, and hinting at the way
of realization. He helped the students to set up a Hebrew library. They
ordered books >from the "Dvir" and "Shtibel" publishers, and they filled
their bellies with a selection of general literature translated into Hebrew,
and of Modern Hebrew literature. They organized "literary trials". One of
these, on Samuel and Saul, was publicly presented and created anger amongst
the ultra-Orthodox because of the non-traditional interpretations expressed
by some of the students.
Most of the students belonged to the "Hebrew Scouts", which later became
affiliated to "Hashomer Hatsair". Its attitude regarding Zionism undoubtedly
indirectly influenced the decision of the management to change the
non-nationalist Scouts Federation to one of Scouts with a clear Zionist
orientation.
When Magentza left Keidan, the school decided to replace him with a
principal with a formal degree. The aim was to ratify the institution in the
eyes of the government, with respect to the granting of rights to a
high-school matriculation certificate. Because it was difficult to find such
a man in Lithuania, they brought him >from Germany. His name was Dr. Meyer
Kashinsky, a religious Jew who had difficulty speaking Hebrew, and taught
history in German. Apart >from him, we had a humanities teacher called
Klatschko, and a Mr. Bloch to teach physical science. We also had a good
teacher of Lithuanian, the wife of an army officer who lived in the area.
Attention was also paid to physical training. The gymnastics teacher used to
march us through the city streets to the gymnastics hall, where we would
participate in various complicated physical exercises.
After Dr. Kashinsky came Dr. Richman. He was an elderly man, pleasant and
easygoing. In his days, the school was managed peacefully and quietly. One
of his projects involved establishing a natural history museum. He used to
bring snakes, butterflies, etc., and display them within a glass cupboard.
After four years of study, those students who wished to continue their
studies used to transfer to the Hebrew gymnasium in Kovno. I remember that
we had a group of about ten students who sat for examinations in 1925 at the
"Schwabe Gymnasium" in Kovno, and nearly all of them were received for the
sixth form.
Those were good days for the Jews of Lithuania. There was an atmosphere
of freedom, and we were able to develop education and the community
autonomously according to the spirit and traditions of our nation. However,
this period did not last long. The Lithuanians undermined this freedom with
all sorts of restrictions. Many of the nation's youth foresaw that the
Golden Age in Lithuania would not last long, and they emigrated to
Palestine. Many of our school's students are living now in Israel, in
Kibbutzim and towns. It's a pity that so many stayed behind and were
entrapped in the Holocaust.


Hungary SIG #Hungary Donations to h-sig projects #hungary

Louis Schonfeld <lmagyar@...>
 

According to the most recent accounting given to me by Jewishgen here are
the funds in our various h-sig projects:

H-sig general fund $60.00
Memoria- Hungarian Jewish Genealogy Society $125.00
Uzhgorod cemetery $50.00
Vranov cemetery $50.00

The Jewishgen American Express Account will be available to transfer these
funds by the end of this month.
The amounts shown do not include the matching funds I pledged for specific
projects which will be included at the time of transfer. A previous attempt
that I had made several years ago at sending money by personal check did not
work well since the banks in Hungary and Slovakia charge high fees for
cashing many types of checks. A more recent attempt that I also made to send
cash also ended in "disaster" so the only method I recommend is via
Jewishgen's Amex account whereby the recipient/vendor receives payment at a
local American Express office and signs a receipt.
To view the various h-sig projects and make a tax-deductible contribution
the URL is:
http://www.jewishgen.org/JewishGen-erosity/hungary.html

Best wishes to all
Louis Schonfeld




Please visit our website at:
http://www.jewishgen.org/Hungary/


Keidan Jews #Keidan #Lithuania More Yizkor book excerpts #lithuania

A.W.Cassel <awcassel@...>
 

Many thanks for Monty Starr for translating the story of the Doctor and the
Town Chief. (Would it be accurate to call that fellow a Police Chief, or
Constable, Monty? I suppose the most suitable English term might depend on
whether your orientation was to British or American officialdom ... )

At any rate, here's yet another of the Yizkor book articles; this one
appears on page 92. It was translated into English by Chaim Charutz of
Israel. I think a "progymnasium" would be roughly equivalent to a middle or
junior-high school ...

Best to all,

Andy


-------------------------------------------------------------------------



Dr. Mordechai Suchin (Minneapolis)

Reminiscences of the Progymnasium in Keidan

The progymnasium was established in 1921. During its first year, about 40
students, aged approximately 13, were registered. They all studied in one
class. The teacher and first principal was Reb Yisrael Magentza. He was a
young man, a bachelor, charismatic, with eminent knowledge in the social
sciences generally and in Jewish studies in particular. However, he was
mainly an "emissary" par excellence, devoted to his work, with a
national-pioneering disposition, who knew what was ahead of him and who
overcame all difficulties.
In his first year, he stayed in the house of a German pastor at the edge
of the city. This house was furnished as a school for teaching his
community. The Pastor, by the way, was also the German teacher. The students
suffered >from him, because he beat them with his hand, which had a heavy
ring on one of its fingers. At one time, the students rebelled and refused
to return to the class after the break.
The subjects taught in the first year were Hebrew language and
literature, Jewish and general history, geography and Bible. Most of the
subjects did not have textbooks. The teacher used to prepare stencils in his
own handwriting and the students used to come to his room to help him make
copies.
During its second year, the progymnasium moved to the city center, to a
two-story building with classrooms and a staff room. Mathematics, nature
studies and Lithuanian were added as subjects. For mathematics, we used the
book of Sh. Kapit, hand-written and printed by offset. The history text was
written by Luboshitsky. For literature, we used "Chistomathia" (by K.
Shulman) and the Hebrew syntax of N. Lidsky.
The first teacher, Mr. Magentza, had a strong influence on his students
both within and outside the classroom. I remember that he took the students
to Plednegi, about seven miles >from the city. It had a training farm for
pioneers preparing for Aliya to Palestine. It is possible to imagine the
impression that this made on the young students. On this visit, they saw the
Zionist idea being actualized before their very eyes, and hinting at the way
of realization. He helped the students to set up a Hebrew library. They
ordered books >from the "Dvir" and "Shtibel" publishers, and they filled
their bellies with a selection of general literature translated into Hebrew,
and of Modern Hebrew literature. They organized "literary trials". One of
these, on Samuel and Saul, was publicly presented and created anger amongst
the ultra-Orthodox because of the non-traditional interpretations expressed
by some of the students.
Most of the students belonged to the "Hebrew Scouts", which later became
affiliated to "Hashomer Hatsair". Its attitude regarding Zionism undoubtedly
indirectly influenced the decision of the management to change the
non-nationalist Scouts Federation to one of Scouts with a clear Zionist
orientation.
When Magentza left Keidan, the school decided to replace him with a
principal with a formal degree. The aim was to ratify the institution in the
eyes of the government, with respect to the granting of rights to a
high-school matriculation certificate. Because it was difficult to find such
a man in Lithuania, they brought him >from Germany. His name was Dr. Meyer
Kashinsky, a religious Jew who had difficulty speaking Hebrew, and taught
history in German. Apart >from him, we had a humanities teacher called
Klatschko, and a Mr. Bloch to teach physical science. We also had a good
teacher of Lithuanian, the wife of an army officer who lived in the area.
Attention was also paid to physical training. The gymnastics teacher used to
march us through the city streets to the gymnastics hall, where we would
participate in various complicated physical exercises.
After Dr. Kashinsky came Dr. Richman. He was an elderly man, pleasant and
easygoing. In his days, the school was managed peacefully and quietly. One
of his projects involved establishing a natural history museum. He used to
bring snakes, butterflies, etc., and display them within a glass cupboard.
After four years of study, those students who wished to continue their
studies used to transfer to the Hebrew gymnasium in Kovno. I remember that
we had a group of about ten students who sat for examinations in 1925 at the
"Schwabe Gymnasium" in Kovno, and nearly all of them were received for the
sixth form.
Those were good days for the Jews of Lithuania. There was an atmosphere
of freedom, and we were able to develop education and the community
autonomously according to the spirit and traditions of our nation. However,
this period did not last long. The Lithuanians undermined this freedom with
all sorts of restrictions. Many of the nation's youth foresaw that the
Golden Age in Lithuania would not last long, and they emigrated to
Palestine. Many of our school's students are living now in Israel, in
Kibbutzim and towns. It's a pity that so many stayed behind and were
entrapped in the Holocaust.


Re: Social Security Records #belarus

Maria Krane
 

Hello Folks,
Please keep in mind that not all deaths are recorded on the index
either. I was unable to find my husband's grandfather in the index, as well
as other family members. I assumed he might not have applied for social
security. I found his SS# on his death certificate. I had forgotten it was
there. I sent away for the application at that point. If you don't have the
SS# they will do a search for you but it is more (about $14). In other words,
don't give up because the information isn't easily available.
Regards,

Maria Krane
Pembroke Pines, Florida
MariaKrane@aol.com

searching: HOFFMAN/RACHMAN in Svir, Belarus, HOFFMAN/KATZ/REMER in
Salakas, Lithuania and KREYN/OKIN/SCHULDNER in Vegery, Lithuania


Belarus SIG #Belarus RE: Social Security Records #belarus

Maria Krane
 

Hello Folks,
Please keep in mind that not all deaths are recorded on the index
either. I was unable to find my husband's grandfather in the index, as well
as other family members. I assumed he might not have applied for social
security. I found his SS# on his death certificate. I had forgotten it was
there. I sent away for the application at that point. If you don't have the
SS# they will do a search for you but it is more (about $14). In other words,
don't give up because the information isn't easily available.
Regards,

Maria Krane
Pembroke Pines, Florida
MariaKrane@aol.com

searching: HOFFMAN/RACHMAN in Svir, Belarus, HOFFMAN/KATZ/REMER in
Salakas, Lithuania and KREYN/OKIN/SCHULDNER in Vegery, Lithuania


Welcome Belarus SIG Member 500 #belarus

David M. Fox <fox@...>
 

Dear Belarus SIG Members,

I am please to announce that Irene Kudish has become the 500th member of
the Belarus SIG. In a little over six months this SIG has grown >from an
idea to a very viable group. Thanks to all the volunteers and
contributors who have made this possible. I hope that more people will
come forward to head up research projects for their areas of interest.
You are starting to see the results of some of the earlier research
efforts that are now appearing on on website. There are some others
that are close to being finished. The wheels are rolling to establish
the All Belarus Database where you will be able to search an a name once
to find where it appears on all the databases. For our new members, I
urge you to visit the Belarus SIG website
<http://www.jewishgen.org/belarus/>; and explore the various links.
Don't forget the first two issues of our online newsletter.

David Fox
fox@erols.com
Belarus SIG Coordinator
Arnold, MD, USA


Belarus SIG #Belarus Welcome Belarus SIG Member 500 #belarus

David M. Fox <fox@...>
 

Dear Belarus SIG Members,

I am please to announce that Irene Kudish has become the 500th member of
the Belarus SIG. In a little over six months this SIG has grown >from an
idea to a very viable group. Thanks to all the volunteers and
contributors who have made this possible. I hope that more people will
come forward to head up research projects for their areas of interest.
You are starting to see the results of some of the earlier research
efforts that are now appearing on on website. There are some others
that are close to being finished. The wheels are rolling to establish
the All Belarus Database where you will be able to search an a name once
to find where it appears on all the databases. For our new members, I
urge you to visit the Belarus SIG website
<http://www.jewishgen.org/belarus/>; and explore the various links.
Don't forget the first two issues of our online newsletter.

David Fox
fox@erols.com
Belarus SIG Coordinator
Arnold, MD, USA


Social Security Records #belarus

LOGAN M LOCKABEY <LOGANISJUDD@...>
 

Maybe I am mis-informed, but I thought I read somewhere that the Social
Security Death Records Index is available on-line. Could someone please tell
me where to find the Social Security Death Index Records on-line.

Logan M. Lockabey
loganisjudd@prodigy.net


Belarus SIG #Belarus Social Security Records #belarus

LOGAN M LOCKABEY <LOGANISJUDD@...>
 

Maybe I am mis-informed, but I thought I read somewhere that the Social
Security Death Records Index is available on-line. Could someone please tell
me where to find the Social Security Death Index Records on-line.

Logan M. Lockabey
loganisjudd@prodigy.net


Monthly update #yizkorbooks

JoyceField <jfield@...>
 

It seems that some of our subscribers did not receive the body of this
announcement. Therefore, it is being resent.


This is the February 1999 update >from the JewishGen Yizkor Book Project
listing all the new files that came online during the month of February.
Again, we are pleased that this was a very busy month. Our translations
are available at <http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/translations.html>;.

A list of AUSTRIAN JEWS in concentration camps was contributed by Peter Lande.

Robin O'Neil has generously provided us advance chapters >from his
dissertation in progress, which has the working title "Emergence of
Genocide in Galicia and Resettlement Transports to Belzec Extermination
Camps." We currently have two chapters, describing the districts of
KOLOMYYA and STRYY, both now in Ukraine. Additional chapters of this
dissertation will be forthcoming.

Extensive sections >from NESVIZH, Belarus were contributed by the
NesvizhStudy Group. This is a significant expansion of material previously
available on their Shtetlinks page.

The necrology >from OPOTAW (APT), Poland has been contributed by Steven Weiss.

SANOK, Poland was expanded by the Table of Contents contributed by Leslie
Reich and the index of surnames contributed by Suzan Wynne.

Four lists >from SOKOLKA, Poland were contributed by Marilyn Cohon and Ellen
Sadove Renck.

STASZOW, Poland has English sections and photographs contributed by Leslie
Winston and the necrology donated by Steven Weiss.

For STRYY, Ukraine, the "Sefer Stryy" material has been expanded with the
addition of lists >from the Hebrew section of "Sefer Stryy," contributed by
Israel Pickholtz.

The Table of Contents >from TARNOBRZEG, Poland was contributed by
GayleSchlissel Riley.

The necrology >from TLUMACZ, Ukraine was contributed by Harold Sandler.

Translation of the entire text, including pictures and the creation of an
index of names and places >from ZABOLOTOV, Ukraine has been contributed by
Ron Schechter.

In addition, we have added three new fundraising projects through
JewishGen-erosity for the translation of the yizkor books >from GONIADZ,
Poland; GRODNO, Belarus; and RZESZOW, Poland.
Our JewishGen-erosity page is at
<http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/yizkortrans.html>;, where you can find all
our special fundraising projects listed.

On March 21, Martin Kessel, project manager for the Yizkor Book
Project,will do a program for the Jewish Genealogical Society of Greater
Boston. For details, see
<http://www.jewishgen.org/boston/jgsgb-upcoming.html>;. In August, Martin
and I are scheduled to present a session at the 19th Annual Conference on
Jewish Genealogy in New York. See
<http://members.aol.com/nyc99conf/index.htm>;.

Joyce will be group leader of the Shtetschleppers August trip to Lviv,
Ukraine, with trips planned to what was Eastern Galicia and is now Western
Ukraine.


Yizkor Books #YizkorBooks Monthly update #yizkorbooks

JoyceField <jfield@...>
 

It seems that some of our subscribers did not receive the body of this
announcement. Therefore, it is being resent.


This is the February 1999 update >from the JewishGen Yizkor Book Project
listing all the new files that came online during the month of February.
Again, we are pleased that this was a very busy month. Our translations
are available at <http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/translations.html>;.

A list of AUSTRIAN JEWS in concentration camps was contributed by Peter Lande.

Robin O'Neil has generously provided us advance chapters >from his
dissertation in progress, which has the working title "Emergence of
Genocide in Galicia and Resettlement Transports to Belzec Extermination
Camps." We currently have two chapters, describing the districts of
KOLOMYYA and STRYY, both now in Ukraine. Additional chapters of this
dissertation will be forthcoming.

Extensive sections >from NESVIZH, Belarus were contributed by the
NesvizhStudy Group. This is a significant expansion of material previously
available on their Shtetlinks page.

The necrology >from OPOTAW (APT), Poland has been contributed by Steven Weiss.

SANOK, Poland was expanded by the Table of Contents contributed by Leslie
Reich and the index of surnames contributed by Suzan Wynne.

Four lists >from SOKOLKA, Poland were contributed by Marilyn Cohon and Ellen
Sadove Renck.

STASZOW, Poland has English sections and photographs contributed by Leslie
Winston and the necrology donated by Steven Weiss.

For STRYY, Ukraine, the "Sefer Stryy" material has been expanded with the
addition of lists >from the Hebrew section of "Sefer Stryy," contributed by
Israel Pickholtz.

The Table of Contents >from TARNOBRZEG, Poland was contributed by
GayleSchlissel Riley.

The necrology >from TLUMACZ, Ukraine was contributed by Harold Sandler.

Translation of the entire text, including pictures and the creation of an
index of names and places >from ZABOLOTOV, Ukraine has been contributed by
Ron Schechter.

In addition, we have added three new fundraising projects through
JewishGen-erosity for the translation of the yizkor books >from GONIADZ,
Poland; GRODNO, Belarus; and RZESZOW, Poland.
Our JewishGen-erosity page is at
<http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/yizkortrans.html>;, where you can find all
our special fundraising projects listed.

On March 21, Martin Kessel, project manager for the Yizkor Book
Project,will do a program for the Jewish Genealogical Society of Greater
Boston. For details, see
<http://www.jewishgen.org/boston/jgsgb-upcoming.html>;. In August, Martin
and I are scheduled to present a session at the 19th Annual Conference on
Jewish Genealogy in New York. See
<http://members.aol.com/nyc99conf/index.htm>;.

Joyce will be group leader of the Shtetschleppers August trip to Lviv,
Ukraine, with trips planned to what was Eastern Galicia and is now Western
Ukraine.


Math in Texas? #general

ZL <ZL@...>
 

Someone >from this Newsgroup emailed me the address of Marvin Math in
Texas. Unfortunately I lost the email and would appreciate it if someone
could look up the address and email it again.
Zelda Landau


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Math in Texas? #general

ZL <ZL@...>
 

Someone >from this Newsgroup emailed me the address of Marvin Math in
Texas. Unfortunately I lost the email and would appreciate it if someone
could look up the address and email it again.
Zelda Landau


Immigration patterns #lithuania

Amy Levinson <arl@...>
 

Not to be neglected is the brief history of immigration given at the front
of each volume of Migration >from the Russ. Empire..

Amy Levinson
Portland OR

Treasurer, Grodno en. Group Inc.


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Immigration patterns #lithuania

Amy Levinson <arl@...>
 

Not to be neglected is the brief history of immigration given at the front
of each volume of Migration >from the Russ. Empire..

Amy Levinson
Portland OR

Treasurer, Grodno en. Group Inc.


Information re: KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS (Lithuania); formerly NEUSTADT, East - Prussia #lithuania

Matt Singer <msinger@...>
 

In response to my earlier posting re: NEUSTADT, a kind cousin forwarded the
name and location of the town. It is now called KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS, and is
located 54 46/22 53, between KOVNO and KALININGRAD (formerly Konigsberg). I'm
wondering if anyone else in litvaksig has roots in this town or region, and/or
information to share about them.

Thank you for your attention!

Matt Singer
Philadelphia
msinger@philamuseum.org


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Information re: KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS (Lithuania); formerly NEUSTADT, East - Prussia #lithuania

Matt Singer <msinger@...>
 

In response to my earlier posting re: NEUSTADT, a kind cousin forwarded the
name and location of the town. It is now called KUDIRKOS NAUMIESTIS, and is
located 54 46/22 53, between KOVNO and KALININGRAD (formerly Konigsberg). I'm
wondering if anyone else in litvaksig has roots in this town or region, and/or
information to share about them.

Thank you for your attention!

Matt Singer
Philadelphia
msinger@philamuseum.org