Date   

Origins of the name Etil #general

Ellie Weld <ellieweld@...>
 

I have just discovered, >from a marriage authorisation, that my grandmother's
Hebrew name was Etil. Her English name was Matilda, so I can see some
connection, but I should like to know more about the Hebrew name. Charles
Tucker, who sent me the authorisation, translated the Hebrew bit referring
to the name as The Virgin Etil; I don't know whether that is what the name
means, or whether it just describes my grandmother's status on the eve of
her marriage. At any rate, Etil is a name I've never heard of before and I
would welcome some explanation of it >from someone.

Ellie Weld
Twickenham, Mddx
England


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Origins of the name Etil #general

Ellie Weld <ellieweld@...>
 

I have just discovered, >from a marriage authorisation, that my grandmother's
Hebrew name was Etil. Her English name was Matilda, so I can see some
connection, but I should like to know more about the Hebrew name. Charles
Tucker, who sent me the authorisation, translated the Hebrew bit referring
to the name as The Virgin Etil; I don't know whether that is what the name
means, or whether it just describes my grandmother's status on the eve of
her marriage. At any rate, Etil is a name I've never heard of before and I
would welcome some explanation of it >from someone.

Ellie Weld
Twickenham, Mddx
England


Address in Prague #hungary

Stephen SCHMIDEG <stephen@...>
 

If there is a H-SIG member living in Prague I need help to locate an address and telephone number for a cousin called Peter Benesch. I found the Czech phone book on the Internet, but because of the
language problem I didn't get far.

Stephen Schmideg
Melbourne, Australia


Hungary SIG #Hungary Address in Prague #hungary

Stephen SCHMIDEG <stephen@...>
 

If there is a H-SIG member living in Prague I need help to locate an address and telephone number for a cousin called Peter Benesch. I found the Czech phone book on the Internet, but because of the
language problem I didn't get far.

Stephen Schmideg
Melbourne, Australia


1848 census of Gemzse #hungary

Peter S. Spiro <peter.spiro@...>
 

I have entered the names for the village of Gemzse in Szabolcs County in
a spreadsheet, whose URL is
http://webhome.idirect.com/~spirop/gemcensu.wk1


(If you are using Netscape, hold down the shift key while you click on
this URL, and it will save it rather than trying to open it. You can
then view the file later using your spreadsheet program.)

Gemzse is a tiny village near Kisvarda. Jews lived there since the
1700s, and in 1848 20 percent of its population was Jewish. As
opportunities opened elsewhere, Jews moved away, and its Jewish
population declined. I have never met anybody else who claims to be
descended >from there (apart >from my known cousins), but no doubt some
H-SIGers do have ancestors there, whom they no longer recall.
--

| Peter Spiro ----- Toronto, Canada |
| Visit my homepage at: |
| http://webhome.idirect.com/~spirop/ |


Hungary SIG #Hungary 1848 census of Gemzse #hungary

Peter S. Spiro <peter.spiro@...>
 

I have entered the names for the village of Gemzse in Szabolcs County in
a spreadsheet, whose URL is
http://webhome.idirect.com/~spirop/gemcensu.wk1


(If you are using Netscape, hold down the shift key while you click on
this URL, and it will save it rather than trying to open it. You can
then view the file later using your spreadsheet program.)

Gemzse is a tiny village near Kisvarda. Jews lived there since the
1700s, and in 1848 20 percent of its population was Jewish. As
opportunities opened elsewhere, Jews moved away, and its Jewish
population declined. I have never met anybody else who claims to be
descended >from there (apart >from my known cousins), but no doubt some
H-SIGers do have ancestors there, whom they no longer recall.
--

| Peter Spiro ----- Toronto, Canada |
| Visit my homepage at: |
| http://webhome.idirect.com/~spirop/ |


CZENSTOCHOV #lithuania

Hal Maggied PhD <drmaggoo@...>
 

Litvak members



Shalom Khaverim: <italic>CZENSTOCHOV: Our Legacy </italic>is available
from the Judaica Collections at the Florida Atlantic University
Library. We have numerous brand new copies of this Yizkor Bukh which
was edited, translated to English, and published in 1993, by Harry
Klein. This Yizkor Bukh contains a 360 page English section and a 117
page Yiddush section. Co-Editor was Ruth Klein Tatner and Consulting
Editor was Prof.: Menachem Rotstein.


"Czenstochova is located approximately 125 miles southwest of Warsaw;
the shrine of Jasna Gora Madonna in Czenstochova was celebrated as a
center of Catholic pilgrimage. Seventy-five Jewish residents were
recorded in Czenstochova in 1765 and 495 in 1808, when an organized
community was established. Although Jewish residence was prohibited in
certain districts, the Jewish population grew.... and in 1863, with the
abolition of the Jewish quarter, to 3,360 [37.3%]. By 1900, it numbered
11, 764....and in 1939,

28,486."


" The German Army entered the city on 3 September 1939. The next day,
later called 'Bloody Monday", a pogrom was organized in which a few
hundred Jews were murdered." ".... When a greater number of Jews from
other parts of western Poland came in 1940-41, the city's population
grew by several thousands. On 9 April 1941, a ghetto was
established.... On 23 September a large-scale 'aktion' began. By 5
October, about 39,000 people had been deported to Treblinka and
exterminated [sic], while 2,000 were executed on the spot."


This Yizkor Bukh is bound in hard-cover and printed in 12-point type.
It contains several photos and maps. If you are interested in barter,
exchange, or trade, please contact:


Judaica Librarian Elliot Gertel <<egertel@...> or 561/297-3990.



<bigger>

VITEBSK Guberniya: Usvyaty=Uzhvit, Velizh=Veliz, Surazh=Suraz, Borisov,
Velikiye-Luki, Nevel, Kopreva, Vitebsk shtodt, Berezhukha;

VOLHYN Guberniya: Portisk=Poryck=Pavlovka, Lutzk=Luck,
Gorokhov=Horochow=Horchiv, Lokatchi=Lokache, Ludmir=Vladimir,
Swiniuchii=Sviynokh, Shklin, Brody, Torchin, Tur'ysk=Trisk,
Rovno=Riwni, Kovel=Kovla, Kupichov, Ozeriany;

Hal MAGGIED, PhD AICP Ohio State Alumnus <<drmaggoo@...>


</bigger>


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania CZENSTOCHOV #lithuania

Hal Maggied PhD <drmaggoo@...>
 

Litvak members



Shalom Khaverim: <italic>CZENSTOCHOV: Our Legacy </italic>is available
from the Judaica Collections at the Florida Atlantic University
Library. We have numerous brand new copies of this Yizkor Bukh which
was edited, translated to English, and published in 1993, by Harry
Klein. This Yizkor Bukh contains a 360 page English section and a 117
page Yiddush section. Co-Editor was Ruth Klein Tatner and Consulting
Editor was Prof.: Menachem Rotstein.


"Czenstochova is located approximately 125 miles southwest of Warsaw;
the shrine of Jasna Gora Madonna in Czenstochova was celebrated as a
center of Catholic pilgrimage. Seventy-five Jewish residents were
recorded in Czenstochova in 1765 and 495 in 1808, when an organized
community was established. Although Jewish residence was prohibited in
certain districts, the Jewish population grew.... and in 1863, with the
abolition of the Jewish quarter, to 3,360 [37.3%]. By 1900, it numbered
11, 764....and in 1939,

28,486."


" The German Army entered the city on 3 September 1939. The next day,
later called 'Bloody Monday", a pogrom was organized in which a few
hundred Jews were murdered." ".... When a greater number of Jews from
other parts of western Poland came in 1940-41, the city's population
grew by several thousands. On 9 April 1941, a ghetto was
established.... On 23 September a large-scale 'aktion' began. By 5
October, about 39,000 people had been deported to Treblinka and
exterminated [sic], while 2,000 were executed on the spot."


This Yizkor Bukh is bound in hard-cover and printed in 12-point type.
It contains several photos and maps. If you are interested in barter,
exchange, or trade, please contact:


Judaica Librarian Elliot Gertel <<egertel@...> or 561/297-3990.



<bigger>

VITEBSK Guberniya: Usvyaty=Uzhvit, Velizh=Veliz, Surazh=Suraz, Borisov,
Velikiye-Luki, Nevel, Kopreva, Vitebsk shtodt, Berezhukha;

VOLHYN Guberniya: Portisk=Poryck=Pavlovka, Lutzk=Luck,
Gorokhov=Horochow=Horchiv, Lokatchi=Lokache, Ludmir=Vladimir,
Swiniuchii=Sviynokh, Shklin, Brody, Torchin, Tur'ysk=Trisk,
Rovno=Riwni, Kovel=Kovla, Kupichov, Ozeriany;

Hal MAGGIED, PhD AICP Ohio State Alumnus <<drmaggoo@...>


</bigger>


Re: Treblinka and Hrubieszonsic #poland

jennifer dropkin <jdropkin@...>
 

Nancy--could "Hrubieszonsic" possibly be "Hrubieszow"? It is a Polish town
close to the Bug river southeast of Warsaw. It is in serveral maps in Martin
Gilbert's *Atlas of the Holocaust*.

Good luck!
Jennifer

My father's brother, Sevek (Shyja Chaim) Grynberg was scheduled to
arrive in the U.S. in October 1939, but never was able to meet his
quota. In the first letter received by my father's sister, Sevek had
gone to a "work camp" in Hrubieszonsic, which was early 1940. Where or
what is this? I've not been able to find any information on this place.
Also, what happened to those who went to this "work camp"? Are there
any records?

Have you talked to anyone at the U.S. Holocaust Museum? I would think that
they would know about the status and location of Treblinka records, if they
still exist (and I understand that not all German records survived the war).

Secondly, my question pertains to a list of deporations or names of
those exterminated in Treblinka. I am well aware that the Nazis razed
Treblinka upon advance of the Russian army, but what did the Nazis do
with their records? I have consistently been told that no lists exist
for Treblinka, and I cannot understand this as records do exist for
other death camps.


Re: SIMON #lithuania

Irwin S. <irwins@...>
 

Irwin S. wrote:

I am looking in South Africa for descendants of Nachum Meier SIMON.
One of Nachum Meier SIMON's sons, Jacob, age 11, emigrated through
Hamburg, Germany in 1884 to the United States. Other sons, names
unknown, supposedly emigrated to South Africa on or about that same
time.

Jacob SIMON's passenger list >from Hamburg lists his home as Mariampole.
This could be Mariampole, Lithuania or Mariupol, on the sea of Azov,
Ukraine.

If anybody has any information on this family, you can email me
privately.

Irwin Sagenkahn
1009 Wyoming Avenue
Forty Fort, Pa. l8704
The above message never went through so I am sending it as an
attachment.


Kybartai yizkor book #lithuania

JoyceField <jfield@...>
 

The translation by Joseph Rosin of his 1988 book , Kybart Yizkor Book: a
Book of Remembrance of the Jewish Community of Kybart, Lithuania,
originally written in Hebrew, is now available on the Yizkor Book site.
We are grateful to Joel Alpert for his assistance in facilitating this.

The Yizkor Book Project translations can be read at
http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/translations.html




JOYCE FIELD
Translations Manager
JewishGen Yizkor Book Project

625 Avondale St., W. Lafayette, IN 47906-1101
phone: 765-463-1746 fax: 765-463-7194


JRI Poland #Poland Re: Treblinka and Hrubieszonsic #poland

jennifer dropkin <jdropkin@...>
 

Nancy--could "Hrubieszonsic" possibly be "Hrubieszow"? It is a Polish town
close to the Bug river southeast of Warsaw. It is in serveral maps in Martin
Gilbert's *Atlas of the Holocaust*.

Good luck!
Jennifer

My father's brother, Sevek (Shyja Chaim) Grynberg was scheduled to
arrive in the U.S. in October 1939, but never was able to meet his
quota. In the first letter received by my father's sister, Sevek had
gone to a "work camp" in Hrubieszonsic, which was early 1940. Where or
what is this? I've not been able to find any information on this place.
Also, what happened to those who went to this "work camp"? Are there
any records?

Have you talked to anyone at the U.S. Holocaust Museum? I would think that
they would know about the status and location of Treblinka records, if they
still exist (and I understand that not all German records survived the war).

Secondly, my question pertains to a list of deporations or names of
those exterminated in Treblinka. I am well aware that the Nazis razed
Treblinka upon advance of the Russian army, but what did the Nazis do
with their records? I have consistently been told that no lists exist
for Treblinka, and I cannot understand this as records do exist for
other death camps.


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Re: SIMON #lithuania

Irwin S. <irwins@...>
 

Irwin S. wrote:

I am looking in South Africa for descendants of Nachum Meier SIMON.
One of Nachum Meier SIMON's sons, Jacob, age 11, emigrated through
Hamburg, Germany in 1884 to the United States. Other sons, names
unknown, supposedly emigrated to South Africa on or about that same
time.

Jacob SIMON's passenger list >from Hamburg lists his home as Mariampole.
This could be Mariampole, Lithuania or Mariupol, on the sea of Azov,
Ukraine.

If anybody has any information on this family, you can email me
privately.

Irwin Sagenkahn
1009 Wyoming Avenue
Forty Fort, Pa. l8704
The above message never went through so I am sending it as an
attachment.


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Kybartai yizkor book #lithuania

JoyceField <jfield@...>
 

The translation by Joseph Rosin of his 1988 book , Kybart Yizkor Book: a
Book of Remembrance of the Jewish Community of Kybart, Lithuania,
originally written in Hebrew, is now available on the Yizkor Book site.
We are grateful to Joel Alpert for his assistance in facilitating this.

The Yizkor Book Project translations can be read at
http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/translations.html




JOYCE FIELD
Translations Manager
JewishGen Yizkor Book Project

625 Avondale St., W. Lafayette, IN 47906-1101
phone: 765-463-1746 fax: 765-463-7194


Re: Orsha Records -where to write? #belarus

Argoff@...
 

I am another one looking for Orsha records. My family is >from what is now
known as Smolyany--at that time it was "Shmilyan," some 20 km >from Orsha. My
father, was born in 1902 in Shmilyan. However, on his citizenship papers, he
lists his last place of residence outside of the USA as Mogilev, which is not
too close to Orsha. Nonetheless, it does seem that Orsha was the commercial
center they looked to and spoke of. We have a few professional portraits of
him and his sister that were taken by a photographer in Orsha. The only
other family of ARGOFFs we know of claim to be >from Gomel', but their Russian
ancestors were married in Mogilev. However coincidental all that may be, we
can't determine a relationship.

Researching ARGOFF, CHAIFETZ, BORKIN. The ARGOFFs and the Shmilyan CHAIFETZs
came to the US between 1908 and 1913 and settled in Ansonia, Connecticut and
Worcester, Mass. Incidentally, some of the family history is chronicled in
the one-woman Off-Broadway and Emmy-winning PBS show "Bubbe Meyses" written
and performed by Ellen Gould, the granddaughter of Gittel (Argoff) Chaifetz.

David Argoff
Falls Church VA


Belarus SIG #Belarus Re: Orsha Records -where to write? #belarus

Argoff@...
 

I am another one looking for Orsha records. My family is >from what is now
known as Smolyany--at that time it was "Shmilyan," some 20 km >from Orsha. My
father, was born in 1902 in Shmilyan. However, on his citizenship papers, he
lists his last place of residence outside of the USA as Mogilev, which is not
too close to Orsha. Nonetheless, it does seem that Orsha was the commercial
center they looked to and spoke of. We have a few professional portraits of
him and his sister that were taken by a photographer in Orsha. The only
other family of ARGOFFs we know of claim to be >from Gomel', but their Russian
ancestors were married in Mogilev. However coincidental all that may be, we
can't determine a relationship.

Researching ARGOFF, CHAIFETZ, BORKIN. The ARGOFFs and the Shmilyan CHAIFETZs
came to the US between 1908 and 1913 and settled in Ansonia, Connecticut and
Worcester, Mass. Incidentally, some of the family history is chronicled in
the one-woman Off-Broadway and Emmy-winning PBS show "Bubbe Meyses" written
and performed by Ellen Gould, the granddaughter of Gittel (Argoff) Chaifetz.

David Argoff
Falls Church VA


Re: Research Town Name Koneche? #belarus

Terri Mathisen <TerriM@...>
 

On the current map of Belarus, about 15-20 km WSW of Pinsk there is a
town named Koneycy. Could this be the town you are looking for?

Terri Mathisen
Tmathis@u.washington.edu
<mailto:Tmathis@u.washington.edu>


Bernard M. Kessler Wrote:
Has anyone heard of a town called Koneche,or Koniche, or Koninchy. Actual
spelling really unknown. May have been somewhere near Pinsk.


Belarus SIG #Belarus RE: Research Town Name Koneche? #belarus

Terri Mathisen <TerriM@...>
 

On the current map of Belarus, about 15-20 km WSW of Pinsk there is a
town named Koneycy. Could this be the town you are looking for?

Terri Mathisen
Tmathis@u.washington.edu
<mailto:Tmathis@u.washington.edu>


Bernard M. Kessler Wrote:
Has anyone heard of a town called Koneche,or Koniche, or Koninchy. Actual
spelling really unknown. May have been somewhere near Pinsk.


Litvaks and Galitzianers #lithuania

Len Yodaiken <shoshly@...>
 

I read with interest, Gene and Ellen Sucovs version of the history and
culture of the religious split in Eastern Europe. Although I have no
wish to become involved in an extended debate on the subject as much of
it is open to nuances of interpretation, I nevertheless feel I must try
and correct a number of Historical errors. Eastern European Askenazi
Jewry were a loosely homogeneous until the cataclysmic event which was
to presage the Holocaust of our century, namely the massacres of Bogdan
Chmielnicki and his Cossacks between 1648 and 1656. The Cossacks who
lived in the Ukraine, then part of the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom burst
into Poland and for whatever injustice incurred, vented their wrath on
the Polish Kingdom aided by their Tartar allies >from Crimea. They
defeated a large Polish army and set out to find the king and his great
Magnates. But there was no king to deal with, for as so often happened
in Polish History, there was an Interregum between the death of one king
and the election of a successor, and the Great Magnates had holed
themselves up in their castles. So what else was there to do but for the
Cossacks to vent their ire and frustration on the Jews, some of whom had
been Factors and Tax-farmers for the Polish nobility in Ukraine. They
slaughtered and decimated the Jews in great numbers, indulging in
cruelty, rapine and torture only matched in this century. It even came
to the point that the Jews preferred to surrender to the Tartars who
sold them into slavery in the Ottoman empire, rather than be tortured
and murdered by the Cossacks.
Although this invasion also hit Lithuania, it was not felt with the
same intensity, ferocity and horrendous proportions as it was in Poland.
When it was all over, the Jews who managed to survive had been reduced
to penury and destitutuon. Their homes were destroyed and their
synagogues burnt to the ground, their leaders, teachers, torah scrolls
and religious books all gone. On to this scene came the Baal Shem Tov
and tried to restore their faith and religion through song and dance
and spiritual awakening, because he had no other means as the knowledge
of their religion had more or less vanished in the long period of
turmoil which had preceded him. Eventually some other Rabbis came to
participate in the work and adopted the Baal Shem's system, but as the
people were so impoverished they themselves could not afford or did not
have the means to study, and so the Rabbis taught their own sons who
became their successors. This was the beginning of the of the Hassidic
courts and their hereditary Rabbis, for the system started by the Baal
Shem Tov became known as Hassidism. As the sons were not always the
right people to take on the mantles of their fathers, and as yet their
was no system of balances, a certain amount of superstition crept in to
some courts with magical powers being attributed to the Rebbes and even
manifestations of immorality. It was these displays as well as several
other factors which brought the Gaon of Vilna to oppose vehemently and
with all his might the spread of Hassidism into Lithuania, and this
opposition (Hitnagdut in Hebrew) gave the followers of the Gaon their
nickname of Misnagdim. Although there were a few Hassidic courts which
eventually penetrated Lithuania and there were some Polaks who became
misnagdim, it turned largely into a contention of Polaks (NOT
GALITZIANERS) and Litvaks. This eventually gave rise to all sorts of
prejorative names in Yiddish for the opposition, the Litvaks calling the
Poles such names as "Pailishe dripkes" (smarmy Poles) and the Poles
calling the Litvaks "Tzelim Kops" (crossed heads). The arrival of the
Galitzianers on the scene was a later development arising >from the
dividing up of the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom between Russia, Austria and
Prussia at the end of the 18th century. Austria sequestered the province
of Galicia and the Jews of Galicia developed a mentality of their own,
presumably influenced by the less arduous administration of the
Austro-Hungarian empire, which allowed them a certain measure of
assimilation. Nevertheless they also developed a reputation with their
fellow Jews and the term Galitzianer became synonomous with gentlemen of
slippery morality. They were not all Hassidim and their hassidut became
watered down with their ability to assimilate. Another area of Hassidut
was Hungary and particularly Transylvania >from whence came such courts
as the Satmar Hassidim who are one of the big controllers of
Williamsburg in New York.
In time the Hassidic movement stabilized itself and some of the basis
for the contentions of the Misnagdim receded but to this day their
conceptions of Judaism is very different. The novels of Isaac Balshevis
Singer give a very good picture of the sort of Hassidism, with its
superstition, magic and immorality that was anathema to the Misnagdim in
the 18th century and was one of the factors for the development of the
Mussar (Morality) movement amongst the Lithuanian Jews in the 19th
century. If the truth be told, the contact between the Litvaks and
Galitzianers, because of their geographic distance apart was only
superficial in those times

Len Yodaiken Kibbutz Kfar Hanasai

Researching: Gavronsky >from Klykoliai and Kurland
Zaks >from Akmene becoming Jackson in Dublin and Cork
Elion and Illion >from Kraziai and all the Baltic
Ailion >from England and Holland
Aelion >from Salonica
Judeikin and 25 variations >from Zagare and all the Baltic


Lithuania SIG #Lithuania Litvaks and Galitzianers #lithuania

Len Yodaiken <shoshly@...>
 

I read with interest, Gene and Ellen Sucovs version of the history and
culture of the religious split in Eastern Europe. Although I have no
wish to become involved in an extended debate on the subject as much of
it is open to nuances of interpretation, I nevertheless feel I must try
and correct a number of Historical errors. Eastern European Askenazi
Jewry were a loosely homogeneous until the cataclysmic event which was
to presage the Holocaust of our century, namely the massacres of Bogdan
Chmielnicki and his Cossacks between 1648 and 1656. The Cossacks who
lived in the Ukraine, then part of the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom burst
into Poland and for whatever injustice incurred, vented their wrath on
the Polish Kingdom aided by their Tartar allies >from Crimea. They
defeated a large Polish army and set out to find the king and his great
Magnates. But there was no king to deal with, for as so often happened
in Polish History, there was an Interregum between the death of one king
and the election of a successor, and the Great Magnates had holed
themselves up in their castles. So what else was there to do but for the
Cossacks to vent their ire and frustration on the Jews, some of whom had
been Factors and Tax-farmers for the Polish nobility in Ukraine. They
slaughtered and decimated the Jews in great numbers, indulging in
cruelty, rapine and torture only matched in this century. It even came
to the point that the Jews preferred to surrender to the Tartars who
sold them into slavery in the Ottoman empire, rather than be tortured
and murdered by the Cossacks.
Although this invasion also hit Lithuania, it was not felt with the
same intensity, ferocity and horrendous proportions as it was in Poland.
When it was all over, the Jews who managed to survive had been reduced
to penury and destitutuon. Their homes were destroyed and their
synagogues burnt to the ground, their leaders, teachers, torah scrolls
and religious books all gone. On to this scene came the Baal Shem Tov
and tried to restore their faith and religion through song and dance
and spiritual awakening, because he had no other means as the knowledge
of their religion had more or less vanished in the long period of
turmoil which had preceded him. Eventually some other Rabbis came to
participate in the work and adopted the Baal Shem's system, but as the
people were so impoverished they themselves could not afford or did not
have the means to study, and so the Rabbis taught their own sons who
became their successors. This was the beginning of the of the Hassidic
courts and their hereditary Rabbis, for the system started by the Baal
Shem Tov became known as Hassidism. As the sons were not always the
right people to take on the mantles of their fathers, and as yet their
was no system of balances, a certain amount of superstition crept in to
some courts with magical powers being attributed to the Rebbes and even
manifestations of immorality. It was these displays as well as several
other factors which brought the Gaon of Vilna to oppose vehemently and
with all his might the spread of Hassidism into Lithuania, and this
opposition (Hitnagdut in Hebrew) gave the followers of the Gaon their
nickname of Misnagdim. Although there were a few Hassidic courts which
eventually penetrated Lithuania and there were some Polaks who became
misnagdim, it turned largely into a contention of Polaks (NOT
GALITZIANERS) and Litvaks. This eventually gave rise to all sorts of
prejorative names in Yiddish for the opposition, the Litvaks calling the
Poles such names as "Pailishe dripkes" (smarmy Poles) and the Poles
calling the Litvaks "Tzelim Kops" (crossed heads). The arrival of the
Galitzianers on the scene was a later development arising >from the
dividing up of the Polish-Lithuanian Kingdom between Russia, Austria and
Prussia at the end of the 18th century. Austria sequestered the province
of Galicia and the Jews of Galicia developed a mentality of their own,
presumably influenced by the less arduous administration of the
Austro-Hungarian empire, which allowed them a certain measure of
assimilation. Nevertheless they also developed a reputation with their
fellow Jews and the term Galitzianer became synonomous with gentlemen of
slippery morality. They were not all Hassidim and their hassidut became
watered down with their ability to assimilate. Another area of Hassidut
was Hungary and particularly Transylvania >from whence came such courts
as the Satmar Hassidim who are one of the big controllers of
Williamsburg in New York.
In time the Hassidic movement stabilized itself and some of the basis
for the contentions of the Misnagdim receded but to this day their
conceptions of Judaism is very different. The novels of Isaac Balshevis
Singer give a very good picture of the sort of Hassidism, with its
superstition, magic and immorality that was anathema to the Misnagdim in
the 18th century and was one of the factors for the development of the
Mussar (Morality) movement amongst the Lithuanian Jews in the 19th
century. If the truth be told, the contact between the Litvaks and
Galitzianers, because of their geographic distance apart was only
superficial in those times

Len Yodaiken Kibbutz Kfar Hanasai

Researching: Gavronsky >from Klykoliai and Kurland
Zaks >from Akmene becoming Jackson in Dublin and Cork
Elion and Illion >from Kraziai and all the Baltic
Ailion >from England and Holland
Aelion >from Salonica
Judeikin and 25 variations >from Zagare and all the Baltic